How to Work with Yoga Students Who’ve Experienced Trauma


https://www.yogajournal.com/teach/how-to-work-with-yoga-students-whove-experienced-trauma

How to Work with Yoga Students Who’ve Experienced Trauma

What you can do as a teacher to create a safe and open space for all of your students.
Meditation

Touch can be particularly challenging. In fact, it can be so triggering that most experts recommend yoga teachers assume all of their students have experienced trauma—to avoid setting off unpleasant memories, feelings, and more.

“Sometimes you can recognize signs of trauma, like if a student looks shaky or disoriented, but in most cases it’s not going to be obvious,” says Hala Khouri, cofounder of Off the Mat, Into the World and a leader in trauma-informed yoga teacher trainings. Plus, trauma is so complicated that what works for one trauma survivor doesn’t necessarily work for another, says Alexis Marbach, a yoga teacher and a member of the Breathe Network, an organization that connects survivors of sexual violence with trauma-informed, holistic healing-arts practitioners. “It would be so much easier to say always do this or always do that, but we have to be more nimble in the way we approach recommendations for working with trauma survivors.”

See also Research Shows Trauma-Informed Yoga Helps Girls in the Juvenile Justice System Heal

How to Create a Safe and Open Space

So what can you do as a teacher?

“It’s the responsibility of the teacher and studio owner to create a safe and open space and empower students to opt out of touch during a class,” says Khouri. “It can often be difficult for a student, particularly one with trauma, to tell a teacher they don’t want to be touched," she explains. “They may worry about hurting the teacher’s feelings. Or they may feel they need to share personal details about their trauma.” And new students often don’t know that they don’t have to be touched, and so they allow the teacher to touch them, thinking that’s just the way yoga is, adds Khouri. “If we say to students ‘Just tell me if you don’t want to be assisted’ and then people struggle to speak up for any reason and then feel triggered, upset, or get a bad assist, the response from the teacher is usually ‘You should have said no,’” says Marbach. “Which is one of the classic responses that sexual assault survivors hear from abusers. If we really want to create trauma-informed environments, we can’t perpetuate the cycle of victim blaming or reinforce the message that the victim is responsible.”

A potential solution: “Studios should have signs on the door to remind students that they don’t have to be touched, similar to how there are signs reminding students not to interrupt Savasana,” says Khouri. In addition, “the teacher should make it clear that there is no obligation to explain why you don’t want touch in class.”

Being nimble in your approach, so that you can adjust to the needs of individual students, also includes reflecting on your assisting approach, adds Marbach. Ask yourself: Why do I assist? What do I gain from it? What does the student gain from it? How do I make decisions about when to assist? How do I know if a student has benefited from an assist? She generally advocates for a hands-off approach, for several reasons. “By creating a class without physical assists, we model for students that there is no one way, no one path for befriending and moving the body,” she says. “Many teachers feel the need to ‘fix’ their students with assists, but when we release attachment to the need or desire to physically correct and adjust, we are able to stay in the present moment with the whole class, not just the one student we are touching. We are able to let go of our ego and how it colors our view of our role in the class. We are there to provide a healing framework, not to impose a standard of what an asana practice should look like.”

Marbach adds: “Yoga is a way for us to get back into ourselves, to listen in and not only acknowledge, but respond to the needs of the physical and emotional bodies. Physical assists can send a signal that we need an external person to help us figure out our own bodies. There are already too many messages that we need to go outside to find our way in.”

See also What All Yoga Teachers Need to Know About Teaching Trauma Survivors

 

Metal and wood house extension in Nantes designed by Mabire Reich Architects


https://www.caandesign.com/metal-wood-house-extension-nantes-designed-mabire-reich-architects/

Metal and wood house extension in Nantes designed by Mabire Reich Architects

Architects: Mabire Reich Architects
Location: NantesFrance
Year: 2015
Area: 984 ft²/ 91 m²
Photo courtesy: Guillaume Satre
Description:

“Extending a house means reducing the exterior space of a plot. The theme of the project that we developed for the “landscape house” is the restitution of an exterior space.

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The site of the project is located in Nantes (France), in an area established on a ridge of the Armorican Massif. The 300m² (984ft²) plot hosts at its bottom a small house as a testimony to the past worker of the neighborhood.

metal-wood-house-extension-nantes-designed-mabire-reich-architects-02

We designed a path created from a play with successive terraces connected by ramps, forming an itinerary which opens successively to a patio, to the landscape of the heart of block’s small urban gardens and the great scenery on the southern shores of the Loire.

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The development of this path defines a surface. The volume situated bellow this surface forms the extension of the house, a series of living spaces (living room, kitchen, workshop) connected by oblique views, put in relation through a play with the levels, without any interior door.

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The relationship with the landscape is twofold: the house is not only a potential of various links with the exterior, but the work with the material is the creation of an interior landscape. The graining of the plywood, the motifs drawn by the rain on the metallic structure during construction, the moiré effect of the resin or the repetitive pattern of the cement tiles create a separate universe, the same way as the clouds draw unexpected landscapes inviting to contemplation.”

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Thank you for reading this article!

 

【時事想想】台大中文談五四精神?遲到了七十年!


台大中文系發表聲明以五四精神挺管中閔,台大中文原本就是繼承五四以來的左翼思想基地,魯迅至交許壽裳擔任系主任被殺之後,五四精神就消失了。台大中文系面對《自由中國》、台大哲學系、自由之愛都沒發聲,70年後,台大中文醒了,要五四。

#五四 #台大中文 #系主任被殺 #70年後才出聲

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6918

【時事想想】台大中文談五四精神?遲到了七十年!

友善列印版本

台大校長遴選爭議延燒,台大挺管陣營的主張陸續出爐,時序接近五四,中國近代的五四運動也成為挺管中閔的主張。台大中文系發表聲明,以追求五四運動精神為由,主張弘揚傅斯年校長精神、堅守學術獨立、大學自治、拒絕政治力、捍衛校園自治、鞏固自由民主精神等等,表達台大中文系以五四精神支持管中閔的主張。

本文並不想探討挺管或反管的議題,而是想談台大中文系在五四運動精神的傳承議題。

事實上,台大中文系的五四傳承是斷裂的。提到五四運動,我們就想起五四三人組:許壽裳、喬大壯、臺靜農。

1919年在中國的五四運動,除了口號「外爭國權、內除國賊」之外,也有許多左翼的思想在裡面,只是當時中共還沒成立(中共成立於1921年),所以一開始只有很多同情社會主義的菁英混雜在其中。著名的左翼人士當然就是我們所熟知的陳獨秀、瞿秋白等人。

台灣戰後的五四運動史觀,大多只能就跟著國民政府來的傅斯年、羅家倫脈絡來談,但其實他們都不是影響當時青年最深的人物,影響力遠不如魯迅與陳獨秀等人。

因為冷戰的關係,台灣身處反共陣營台灣自然而然跳過五四運動後的左翼思想,只能將五四運動銜接在胡適身上。但可惜的是,胡適在台灣扛著自由主義大旗也扛得十分艱辛,胡適在1959年《自由中國》事件爆發之際,發表〈容忍與自由〉,這只能算是給國民黨最後的諍言,再來他就無能為力了。

而且,台灣的五四運動左翼傳統,更早就在1948年之後就幾乎斷絕。以台大中文係為例,起先,台大中文系原本是繼承五四以降,左翼思想的基地。台大中文系創立初期,由許壽裳先生擔任第一屆系主任,他是魯迅的至交、同情左翼的學者。然而,許壽裳先生在1948年2月於宿舍遭「竊賊」殺害,兇手行竊殺人的動機十分薄弱,留下一宗懸案。(詳參駱以軍文章(link is external)

許壽裳先生

許壽裳的好友,也是魯迅的好友喬大壯先生,原本要接任中文系系主任。但喬大壯因為許壽裳之死,身心俱疲,在11948年返回中國之後,自殺身亡。許壽裳與喬大壯的共同好友臺靜農,接棒出任中文系系主任。臺靜農曾經因左派思想,在中國入獄三次,他也寫過很多精彩的現實主義小說例如《地之子》等等,當然,但台大中文系不會教授學生《地之子》。

喬大壯先生(圖片來源:維基共享資源,公有領域)

或許,因為在內戰期間看見太多悲劇,臺靜農就任系主任後就寄情金石書畫,不再談論時事,安安穩穩地做了二十年的系主任。但或許只有臺靜農內心知道,有些故人早做了骨灰,有些故事也只能深藏在心底了。

臺靜農不談魯迅,台大中文系也再沒有聲音,只談六藝詩酒、只做文壇祭囧。台大中文系在《自由中國》時期沒有聲音,在台大哲學系事件中沒有聲音,在台大自由之愛運動中沒有聲音,在清大獨台會案當然也寂靜無聲。

當然,或許台大中文系師生發現歷史的遲到,要挖掘這一段深埋七十年的悲傷歷史,重新接續斷裂已久的五四精神,這一切都來得及的。我想,真的要訴求五四運動精神,遲到七十年,但都來得及。

 

The Truth About Yoga and Eating Disorders


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/truth-yoga-eating-disorders

The Truth About Yoga and Eating Disorders

The practice we love has a hidden paradox: Sometimes yoga helps us accept and celebrate our bodies, and sometimes it fuels body hatred and extreme—even dangerous—behaviors.
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Kelly Parisi was only 21 years old when her heart stopped. Her mother, Barbara, walked into her bedroom around 9 p.m. on a Saturday evening in September 2012, nail polish and cuticle sticks in hand, ready for pedicure night. Instead, she found Kelly slumped, breathless and unconscious, in Supta Virasana (Fallen Hero Pose).

Finding no pulse in her daughter, Barbara, a nurse, grabbed her phone, dialed 911, and started CPR. “I didn’t realize how frail Kelly was until I flipped up her shirt,” she says. “I went to count her ribs to start compressions, and I didn’t have to feel for them—I could see them. Her chest was like a 10-year-old’s.”

A straight-A college student, Kelly had moved back to her parent’s home in a suburb of Boston about eight months before, after experiencing a sexual assault on campus. She was grappling with anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress, and yoga had become her “safe place,” says Barbara. It was a practice that helped her relax, a community that made her feel secure, and an exercise that helped her feel strong and in control of her body again.

See also Yoga for Eating Disorders

But Kelly had also become “compulsive” about yoga, Barbara recalls, spending hours at The Yoga Loft in nearby Wilmington where she’d started a yoga teacher training, and declining food because she didn’t want to upset her stomach during practice. In addition to her twice-daily yoga practice (typically at vigorous and hot classes), she was regularly running on the treadmill, restricting her diet, and doing occasional juice cleanses. She had lost weight since returning home and hadn’t had her period in months, something she’d experienced as a competitive figure skater in her teens. “That wasn’t out of the norm for her; I didn’t think it was as serious as it was,” says Barbara.

The ambulance arrived at the Parisis’ house at about 9:30 p.m. Shortly after, Kelly was pronounced dead. The official cause of death: accidental amphetamine intoxication. Kelly had been taking prescription stimulants for her ADHD for years, but there were no signs she’d taken more than the prescribed dose. However, her body mass index bordered on underweight, and Barbara recalls the EMT saying that her daughter’s blood sugar was extremely low. Both are known indicators of prolonged undernourishment and anorexia, says Urszula Kelley, MD, an eating-disorder specialist at Children’s Medical Center of Dallas. And other behaviors and side effects associated with eating disorders—undernourishment, sweating, vomiting, laxative use and resulting dehydration—can lead to dangerous irregular heart rhythms and electrolyte imbalances that, when exacerbated by stimulants or aerobic exercise, can result in sudden cardiac death. In fact, cardiac complications are one of the most common causes of death among anorexia and bulimia patients.

“My heart aches every second of every hour of every day,” says Barbara, whose memory of her daughter and the pain of losing her is as vivid today as it was that night two years ago. “I see her friends graduating and getting jobs, getting engaged, and I wonder what she would be doing now. But, I do not regret one millisecond I had her in my life, as I am a better person for the time she was in my life.”

See also 6 Women Tackle Body Image in the Practice of Leadership Series

Unhealthy Fuel for Disordered Eating

As a healing practice, yoga has helped countless people recover from physical and emotional ailments as varied as migraines, sciatica, and PTSD. But for people with disordered eating habits, or those with poor body image—which includes some 80 percent of American women, according to research—counting on yoga’s promise of emotional and spiritual healing can be perilous: Drawn to yoga as a means of self-care, they instead may find reinforcement for dangerous weight-control behaviors in a studio culture that increasingly celebrates thinness, flexibility, and perfection of form.

And while a practice that encourages a mind-body connection and self-awareness might seem like the last place to find fuel for disordered eating, a study in the International Journal of Eating Disorders found yoga students to be at equal or greater risk than the general population. “We can’t say whether yoga hurts or helps, but I think that some people who are dealing with disordered eating and body dissatisfaction are attracted to yoga because they’re looking for an answer,” says study author Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, PhD, who researches body image and eating disorders at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health.

Anecdotally, yoga teachers are reporting seeing more cause for concern, including noting students who are underweight taking multiple classes a day, fainting in class, or practicing while on a low-calorie juice cleanse. “Many yoga practitioners struggle with disordered eating and negative body image,” says Bo Forbes, a yoga teacher and clinical psychologist who specializes in the therapeutic application of yoga for psychological disorders. “It’s not enough to be thin; female yogis often feel the pressure to be thin, strong, and flexible. They’re critiquing their bodies with unattainable ideals.”

See also A Practice to Help You Break Up with Your Bad Body Image Once and for All

From a clinical perspective, some eating-disorder treatment experts worry that patients turn to yoga to burn calories, suppress hunger, or numb emotional pain, but under the guise of a devoted practice and clean eating, their illness goes unnoticed. That was true for Kelly Parisi. She was a star student at The Yoga Loft, and her teacher trainers and fellow students never suspected she was struggling. “She looked healthy. Just really in shape,” says Jen Ryan, the studio owner and leader of Kelly’s yoga teacher training. Instead, her hours of practice and volunteering at the studio were seen as a sign of dedication and vibrancy. She was nicknamed “the rubber band” for her flexibility.

“As a community, it’s important we start looking for the signs of eating disorders—students who are excessively thin, compulsive about their practice, obsessing about achieving the pose and doing more, more, more—they are missing the fact that yoga is really about being kind and taking care of yourself,” says Maty Ezraty, founder of YogaWorks, a teacher and teacher trainer for 35 years. “Today, a lot of people use yoga as an exercise program. The public puts pressure on yoga teachers to give them a workout. And teachers, especially young ones, buckle to the pressure because they want to attract more students.”

Yet the same practice that can exacerbate body-image issues and eating disorders may also help heal and prevent them. Research is finding positive effects from yoga in treatment, including a recent study at Seattle Children’s Hospital, which showed that therapeutically-informed yoga significantly reduced eating-disorder symptoms, anxiety, and depression among adolescents. Clinicians are taking note—over half of inpatient treatment centers in the United States incorporate yoga as an adjunct therapy, the Journal of Eating Disorders reports. “Individuals with eating disorders often work so hard to disconnect from their bodies,” says Robyn Caruso, executive director at A New Journey Eating Disorder Treatment Center in Santa Monica, California. “Yoga helps many of our clients reconnect to their body in a nurturing way.”

If yoga can both help and hurt vulnerable students, the question remains: What aspects are positive and which are harmful, and how can the yoga community protect students from the risks?

See also Why Negative Body Speak Is Ruining Your Life (+ 3 Ways to Stop It Now)

The Self-Destructive Side of Dedication

A few days after Kelly’s death, one of her college classmates visited Barbara and told her that Kelly had once confessed to struggling with an eating disorder. The following night, Barbara went into her daughter’s room to search for clues, and discovered notebooks filled with calorie counts and exercise logs tracking Kelly’s yoga practices to the minute. There were categories for “vigorous” practices and “easy” practices, and some days Kelly did more than three hours of yoga in total, all while subsisting on little more than snacks, sugar-free Red Bull, kombucha, laxatives, and the occasional chai latte.

Kelly’s obsessive relationship with yoga isn’t atypical for people with eating disorders, says Caruso, who uses caution when suggesting yoga to patients. Asana practice can play into compulsive or excessive exercise, a hallmark symptom among anorexia and bulimia sufferers who want to burn unwanted calories, ease the guilt of consuming “too much” food, or numb their emotions. Forbes calls the yoga version of this “yogarexia,” which she defines as practicing in excess to avoid uncomfortable feelings, including going to multiple yoga classes per day (often heated or fast paced), avoiding social engagements, and becoming rigid about the length and intensity of one’s daily practice. Feeding into this is the common notion—often taught in classes—of yoga as a path to self-betterment, which can drive vulnerable students to feel they are never good enough. “I’m seeing more and more people use the physical practice to shape and perfect their bodies rather than develop more self-compassion,” Forbes says.

Lauren Medeiros, 31, fell into this self-critical mindset during her struggles with anorexia. After developing the illness in college and trying to get well at two different inpatient treatment centers without success, she turned to yoga, hoping the gentle practice she’d first discovered back in high school would help. Instead, it drove her deeper into the illness.

See also What Yoga Taught Me about Healthy Eating

“As I got ‘better’ at yoga and began to identify myself as a yogi, I became harder on myself and my performance,” she says. The image of an ideal yogini as thin, toned, and spiritual—represented in media images and often personified in her classmates—became a yardstick she used to criticize and berate herself. She no longer experienced the practice as a way to feel comfortable in her body, as she had as a teen. “My focus became less of an inward journey and more focused on fitting in,” she says.

What’s more, fellow students often unintentionally reinforced her distorted body image. “I remember at one of my lowest weights, they’d be like, ‘I bet if I was as skinny as you, I could get into that pose!’”

Some of the philosophical teachings Lauren heard in class, including Patanjali’s moral precepts of brahmacharya (control of the senses) and saucha (bodily cleanliness), also fueled her feelings of inadequacy. “I felt I wasn’t pure or spiritual enough,” she says. “Sometimes I used the philosophies as justification for criticizing and starving myself. I felt I wasn’t supposed to have desire or want pleasure.”

The principle of saucha, when taught out of context or oversimplified, can sound like another reason to see your body as dirty or imperfect, says Forbes, reinforcing the negative self-belief that underlies eating disorders. And such teaching may motivate some individuals to go on one of the radical, low-calorie cleanses popular in the yoga community. (A Google search turns up dozens of cleanse and detox programs and juice products marketed with the term “saucha.”)

But despite their reputation, prolonged juice fasts are ineffective: Weight loss is likely temporary, and according to Michael Strober, PhD, director of the University of California Los Angeles Eating Disorder Treatment Center, your body doesn’t need any help with detoxification—our physiological systems naturally shed toxins and waste products. “Juice fasts for ‘detox’ lack any sensible rationale,” he says. Worse, reduced-calorie dieting can also trigger full-blown eating disorders in vulnerable people, says Neumark-Sztainer. And it can be downright dangerous, possibly leading to cardiac irregularities, hypoglycemia, nutrient deficiencies, and even death.

See also 14 Ways to Practice Mindful Eating

The Path to Healing

After almost 12 years of struggling with her illness, Lauren weighed just 68 pounds. She knew she needed help. Seeking emotional healing and spiritual growth, she tried a yoga retreat at the Omega Institute in Rhinebeck, New York, in 2013. But even in the retreat’s nurturing environment, her illness persisted and she couldn’t get back to a healthy weight. After her parents pleaded with her to go back into treatment, she checked into another inpatient eating disorder clinic in April, but felt disheartened at the sudden loss of control and privacy (she couldn’t even go to the bathroom without supervision). She also missed her yoga practice, which her treatment team didn’t allow to prevent her from exertion and burning calories. The hardest part, however, was the extreme discomfort of her prescribed re-feeding program. Though often medically necessary to help get patients back to a life-sustaining weight, this type of protocol can require patients to eat between 3,000 and 8,000 calories each day over the course of five or six meals. In some cases, patients have to finish eating within a limited time, or they’ll be force-fed with a naso-gastral feeding tube. For Lauren, refeeding was a physically and emotionally traumatic process that further disconnected her from her body. “I spent years training myself to ignore hunger with my eating disorder,” says Lauren. “Treatment trained me to ignore my fullness signals as well.”

Three weeks into her treatment and still hovering below 80 pounds, she abandoned the program, returning home to Austin, Texas, to try to recover on her own. She’s now seeing a therapist and nutritionist and has stopped attending public yoga classes, instead practicing gentle yoga at her own pace at home.

See also 10 Ways to Love Yourself (More) in the Modern World

But her recovery remains an uphill battle. Traditional eating-disorder treatment programs have a low success rate—dropout rates at inpatient programs for anorexia are as high as 46 percent, according to a 2008 study, and among patients who do stick it out, about half relapse. Some experts and clinicians think the missing key to long-term recovery may be rebuilding body awareness. A growing area of research suggests these patients may experience a deficit of what neuroscientists call interoceptive awareness: the ability to sense internal bodily states including hunger and fullness cues, emotions, pain, thirst, and heart rate, according to Neumark-Sztainer. Yoga, taught therapeutically, may be well suited to help patients revive interoceptive awareness, she says.

Research is still in its infancy, but it’s promising. For instance, one University of California, Berkeley study showed that yoga practitioners had greater body awareness and responsiveness to body sensations than nonpractitioners. And because yoga has documented success in helping with other mental-health conditions that are often comorbid with eating disorders, such as PTSD, anxiety, and depression, some clinicians are trying it with patients, with good results.

Nora Groeschel, 31, was introduced to yoga by her treatment team and credits it with helping her fully recover from the anorexia she battled for nearly 10 years. A pharmacist from Madison, Wisconsin, Nora first struggled with disordered eating in college. By her third year in pharmacy school, she says, she felt trapped in an addictive cycle of starving, purging, and compulsive exercise and had isolated herself from friends. The pattern continued when she got married—she’d spend at least two hours a day at the gym and limited her food intake—and at age 28, her weight hit a new low. One evening, Nora’s husband sat her down and read off a list of names. “Do you know what all these people have in common?” he asked her. “They are all concerned about your weight, and your life.”

See also 5 Ways to Infuse Your Self-Talk with Self-Love

Inspired and determined to recover, Nora began seeing a therapist and nutritionist. But improvement was slow; she continued to hate her body, felt numb to her emotions, and couldn’t let go of her five-day-a-week vigorous exercise routine. When her treatment team suggested yoga, she was reluctant to replace a gym workout with a gentler activity. But once she tried it, she says it became “the single-most helpful modality” in her recovery, encouraging a more compassionate relationship with her body. She credits the introspective elements of yoga—meditations focused on tuning in to sensation, teachings on self-love, moving and breathing in unison in a group—with helping her rediscover a feeling of being at home in her body. “I was amazed at the comfort my classmates had in their bodies, especially the women with soft, supple bodies or curves greater than my own,” she says. “They had some of the most graceful practices I’d ever seen.”

Melody Moore, PhD, a Dallas-based clinical psychologist who uses yoga in her work with eating-disorder patients, says yoga taught with breath awareness and mindfulness can help patients learn how to regulate and calm difficult emotions rather than repress them through compulsive behaviors, and also to rediscover a sense of joy in their body and self-acceptance.

“In yoga, the connection to breath can nurture a connection to one’s real feelings and needs,” says Moore. “The practice allows someone who has been either restricting or overeating an opportunity to tune in to their body and respond with compassion and kindness.” She considers yoga such a valuable tool for her patients that she co-founded the Embody Love Center, a treatment center incorporating yoga and holistic nutrition, and the Embody Love Movement, an outreach program in schools and college campuses that includes yoga to help people gain body awareness and prevent eating disorders.

See also How One Yoga Teacher Reclaimed Her Healthy Body Image in the Face of Shaming

Creating Safe Spaces

As yoga continues to grow more popular by the day, so do both the risks for students who struggle with body image and food issues and the opportunity for prevention. Teachers have a growing sense of urgency to determine how to keep vulnerable students safe, and to make their studios havens for positive attitudes and behavior.

Looking back on yoga’s role in her recovery, Nora says dosage was key to using the practice healthily. “Had I found yoga at the height of my disorder, I would have gone to the hottest studios, the hardest practices,” she says. Instead, her treatment team had her begin with only one class a week, a moderate approach clinicians say is key for students with these illnesses. If a student is at a dangerously low weight, or engaging in purging behaviors, Moore suggests they refrain from asana altogether.

Tara Stiles, founder of the popular Strala Yoga based in New York City, herself suffered from an eating disorder in her late teens and says her personal experience makes her feel responsible for helping protect students. When she suspects a student is struggling, she reaches out and sets firm boundaries when necessary. “I don’t want someone who weighs 80 pounds being in a yoga class,” she says. “They’re welcome to hang around the studio, maybe go to the gentle classes. But I can’t keep them safe when we’re doing pushups or Handstands. If they fall, they’re going to break bones.” Stiles also emphasizes it’s important that students know they’re cared for, and that her studio is a welcoming space. “I invite them out to lunch, and if they say they’ve already eaten I say, ‘Well, how ‘bout dinner?’ If you care about them, you can’t pretend nothing is wrong.”

See also 6 Excerpts on Yoga and Body Image

But because it’s often hard to recognize a student who may be struggling with an eating disorder or at risk for one, it’s critical that teachers think in terms of prevention, says Forbes, and choose language that promotes self-acceptance, not self-criticism. “Yoga teachers know they’re supposed to send this message of ‘love your body,’ but may actually mistakenly send a message of ‘your body needs to be fixed,’” she says. “Instead of emphasizing the shape or form of a pose or practice, we should emphasize the quality of awareness in the pose and the ability to feel into and awaken parts of our bodies and awareness that are not awake.”

Neumark-Sztainer agrees: “If I hear a teacher talk about six-packs or detoxes, I won’t go back to that class. Being cognizant about the language they’re using is something every teacher can do.”

A key factor that can make yoga supportive for those who struggle is finding the right community. Nora says the most important component of her healing came when she joined a yoga-based support group in Madison facilitated by yoga teachers Amanda Ginther and Sarah Higgins, both of whom have healed from disordered eating. (Their program is part of Eat Breathe Thrive, a nonprofit run by this writer.) There, she bonded with other students who were working with a range of body-image and eating disorders. “I’ve never felt so supported, un-alone, and empowered,” she says. “The connection and safety I felt with the group was amazing—I was vulnerable, but supported.”

Now at a healthy weight, Nora wants to give others the gift that changed her life, and is doing a 200-hour yoga teacher training. “For 10 years I tried to recover by myself,” she says. “The practice of yoga pretty much saved my life. I feel alive, I feel connected to others, I feel in union with my body and breath. I want others to have that—I have to share it.”

See also Unf’withable: A Two-Hour Yoga Playlist to Empower Yourself

Chelsea Roff is the founder of Eat Breathe Thrive, a nonprofit supported by the Give Back Yoga Foundationthat helps people fully recover from disordered eating and negative body image through yoga and community support programs. After recovering from anorexia in her late teens, Roff has worked as an author, speaker, and advocate to offer yoga in the treatment of mental-health issues. Learn more about her work at eatbreathethrive.org.

To donate to the Kelly Parisi Memorial Fund, which supports eating-disorder education and awareness in the yoga community, visit kellyparisimemorialfund.com.

 

IQOSA designed a dark and modern interior design for this apartment located in Kiev


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IQOSA designed a dark and modern interior design for this apartment located in Kiev

Architects: IQOSA
Location: KievUkraine
Year: 2017
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《 Miriam Stockley – Domini (04:55) 》


《 Miriam Stockley – Domini (04:55) 》

【越南想想】蛤?!五四運動是受越南及台灣啟發


什麼?越南與台灣的白話文運動早於中國五四運動中的白話文運動。原本也用漢字文言文的越南,在1907年推動新文化運動普及越南白話文。台灣的白話文書寫歷史也很早就開始,例如1886的台灣話白話文小說《日本的怪事》就比魯迅的《狂人日記》與胡適的《文學改良芻議》早了三十多年。

#五四 #越南新文化運動 #台灣白話文 #越南白話文

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6917

【越南想想】蛤?!五四運動是受越南及台灣啟發

友善列印版本

中國於1919年5月4日爆發了「外抗強權、內除國賊」的五四運動。五四運動包含了政治和文化二層次議題。有人主張五四運動源自陳獨秀、魯迅或胡適等人的新文化運動主張。事實上,就時間點來看,中國的五四運動遠遠落後於越南及台灣的新文化運動。或許我們可以說,中國的五四運動其實是受越南及台灣的間接影響才得到啟發。

有不少歷史學者把新文化運動起源標記在1915年陳獨秀創辦《青年雜誌》。也有人歸功於胡適的〈文學改良芻議〉(1917)或魯迅的白話小說〈狂人日記〉(1918)。事實上,不論誰先點起新文化運動的一把火,在時間點上都比越南或台灣還晚。

越南的知識份子早於1907年就在河內創辦了推廣新文化運動的團體「東京義塾」(Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục)。「東京義塾」的主要成員是一些留學日本的越南知識份子。他們有感於日本慶應義塾對日本新文化運動的影響,故設立東京義塾來傳授西方思想以及科學新知等。他們認定若要達成啟發民智的目的,就須從教導羅馬字、普及國民教育開始。所以「東京義塾」的第一要務就是普及以越南羅馬字書寫的白話文。他們要透過羅馬字來教育民眾、讓大眾有知識能對抗法國殖民統治。「東京義塾」雖然成立不到一年就被法國殖民者強迫關門,但他們的主張卻在知識份子之中普遍得到認同及支持。

越南東京義塾的羅馬字教科書。(圖片來源:作者提供)

東京義塾成員主張推廣的越南羅馬字就是源自17世紀西方傳教士傳入越南的羅馬字。在彙整眾多傳教士的成果下,法國籍傳教士「得路」(法文名是Alexandre de Rhodes)在1651年出版了第一本越南羅馬字辭典《越南、葡萄牙、拉丁語3語對照辭典》(Dictionarium Annamaticum, Lusitanum et Latinum)。經過多年發展後,越南於1865年發行第一份的羅馬字報紙《嘉定報》(Gia Định Báo 1865-1910)。嘉定報就如同台灣於1885年出版的第一份羅馬字報紙《Tâi-oân-hú-siân Kàu-hoē-pò》(台灣府城教會報)一樣,有帶頭普及羅馬字白話文之貢獻。

越南東京義塾的原址已改為服裝店。(圖片來源:作者提供)

《嘉定報》的主編為「張永記」(Trương Vĩnh Ký 1837-1898)。張永記也稱為「Pétrus Ký」,他出生在越南南部「永隆省」一個天主教家庭。他很有語言天份,不但懂得越南羅馬字和法文,也曉得漢文、字喃、拉丁文、希臘文、英文、日文和印度文等共計27種語言。他不僅做過《嘉定報》主編,又出版超過一百本的書。由於張永記學識淵博,故於公元1874年榮獲法國推薦入選為世界十八文豪當中的第十七位(唯一入選的亞洲人)。之後,張永記於1883年又榮獲法國科學院院士頭銜。張永記的成就不僅在越南國內獲肯定,也獲得當代國際上的認可,譬如大英百科全書(Encyclopaedia Britannica)就有介紹張永記。

越南《嘉定報》的封面。(圖片來源:作者提供)

台灣的白話文運動和越南一樣,源自傳教士,且遠早於中國五四運動之前。英國長老教會的醫療宣教師「馬雅各」(James L. Maxwell 1836-1921)來到台灣並於1865年正式在台南設教堂傳教。在一次偶然的機會裡「馬雅各」發現西拉雅族曾使用羅馬字書寫新港文書的歷史。他因而啟發靈感,深信羅馬字對於推動信徒閱讀聖經有極大的幫助。因此他將羅馬字引進到台灣並開始翻譯羅馬字聖經。繼馬雅各之後,馬偕牧師(Rev. George Leslie Mackay 1844-1901)、甘為霖牧師(Rev. William Campbell 1841-1921)及巴克禮牧師(Rev. Thomas Barclay 1849-1935)等相繼投入羅馬字白話文(俗稱「白話字」Pe̍h-ōe-jī)的推動,終於使得白話字在台灣落地生根並逐漸壯大。

馬偕將其學習台語的筆記整理成《中西字典》(Chinese Romanized Dictionary of the Formosan Vernacular),該字典於1874年完成編輯,1891年委由上海美華書館印刷出版。這是第一部傳教士以台灣話為標準所出版的字典。甘為霖在台南本地人林錦生、陳大鑼的協助下編撰白話字工具書《廈門音新字典》(簡稱「甘字典」)。該字典於1913年出版,是台灣教會公報社第一本發行的白話字字典,也是台灣目前最普遍流傳使用的白話字字典。該字典於2009年時重新編印並正名為《甘為霖台語字典》。

白話字之所以能在台灣被普遍使用並對台灣白話文學及新文化運動造成巨大的影響,其中的大功臣之一就是巴克禮牧師。他於1875來到台灣傳教,1935年在台南逝世,總共在台灣貢獻了60年歲月。巴克禮牧師引進印刷術、印刷機,創立印刷所「聚珍堂」(1884年創立」),開辦第一份白話字報紙《台灣府城教會報》,設立教育機構「台南神學院」,重新翻譯新、舊約聖經,編印《廈英大辭典增補》等。

全台第一家出版社及印刷所「聚珍堂」原貌。(圖片來源:台灣教會公報社提供)

《台灣府城教會報》(1885年)第一期封面。(圖片來源:作者提供)

我們如果翻開《台灣府城教會報》,就會發現在五四運動以前已經有很多以台語白話字書寫的現代小說。譬如,1886年1月《台灣府城教會報》第7期有一篇小說名為〈Ji̍t-pún ê koài-sū〉(日本的怪事),內容主要是講一個貪心的旅館老闆被一個佯裝作老狐仙的客人騙錢的故事。這篇小說比魯迅的白話小說〈狂人日記〉或胡適的〈文學改良芻議〉早了三十多年!

台語白話字小說〈日本的怪事〉(1886年)。(圖片來源:作者提供)

除了傳教士的貢獻之外,當然也有台灣人後繼的推動,譬如林茂生、蔡培火、鄭溪泮、賴仁聲、王育德等。為了感念這些前人的貢獻,鄭兒玉牧師於生前號召台灣羅馬字協會、台灣教會公報社、長榮中學、台南神學院等單位於2013年5月共同辦理第一屆台灣羅馬字文化節,之後每年5月份都在台南舉行。今年的羅馬字文化節依然在5月份展開,計有文史導覽、白話字文史比賽、查台語詞典比賽三種免費活動,現場還可體驗操作全台第一台印刷機。有興趣的讀者可上台灣羅馬字協會官網查詢與報名(link is external)

 

《 Miriam Stockley – Homeland (04:46) 》


《 Miriam Stockley – Homeland (04:46) 》

窮鄉僻壤裝不起清淨機 中國室內PM2.5治理出現城鄉差距


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211361?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=0c3456a92d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-0c3456a92d-84956681

窮鄉僻壤裝不起清淨機 中國室內PM2.5治理出現城鄉差距

發表日期 2018年05月02日
文:羅海倫

隨著中國「向污染宣戰」,煤炭消費量的減少,綠色技術、能源和建築受到了重視,城區內的工廠不是遷出就是關閉。自2014年這一政策宣布以來,中國的空氣質量有了顯著改善。芝加哥大學新的分析發現,2013年以來中國城市空氣PM2.5(細顆粒物)濃度平均減少了32%。

然而室內空氣品質還是比室外糟糕得多,儘管如此,民眾尚未提升這方面的意識。除了開窗或建築物密閉性差PM2.5因此進入室內之外,劣質建築材料、油漆和粘合劑散發出來的甲醛、二氧化碳和揮發性有機化合物(VOC)等化學物質也令人擔憂。

消費者對空氣清淨機的需求增加

根據歐睿國際市調公司的數據顯示, 2013年霧霾期間中國只有310萬台空氣清淨機;分析師預測到今年底,這一數字將會增加一倍,達到750萬台,市場價值約771億台幣。

政府已經著力改善城市户外空氣品量,但室内空氣品質問題則留給市場和消費者。圖片來源:Philips Communications (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

大城市裡的公司渴望吸引頂級人才,紛紛為辦公室加裝高品質的空氣過濾系統;酒店則以客房內的空氣品質為賣點。房地產諮詢業者仲量聯行按WELL健康建築國際標準建造的上海辦公室被認為是亞太地區第一、全球第三健康的辦公室。鐵獅門等房地產開發商也為自己在中國的物業安裝了高端的空氣過濾系統。

在中國工作的建築師雷弗·沃利斯看到人們對建築材料和健康環境的要求不斷提高,他根據這一需求推出了綠色建築標準RESET。經RESET標準認證的室內空間, 其PM2.5、二氧化碳和揮發性有機物等污染物質的水平必須連續三個月在健康限值以內,且每年都需接受重新評估。

「客戶說他們不關心你蓋房子時用什麼標準,他們更想知道這個房子日常使用時的表現怎麼樣。」沃利斯接著說:「市場正在轉向關注性能,因此可靠數據的用處很大,以前沒有人關注數據。」

現在世界各地的公司都在使用RESET標準,這是首個在中國設立並走向國際的建築標準。

中國在室內空氣討論中走在前端的另一標誌在於,一家大型研究所今年將在北京成立。這家研究中心由中國開發商遠洋集團、美國房地產公司德羅斯(Delos)、梅奧醫學中心(Mayo Clinic)和優思建築事務所(SuperImpose Architecture)共同成立,其目的是研究如何創造更健康的室內人居環境和辦公環境。

「相比幾年前,我們發現本地客戶的興趣越來越大,以前主要是國外客戶。」環境顧問公司境純環境工程總監湯姆·沃森解釋說。

在污染問題上,富裕的城市消費者已經表現出「用腳投票」的傾向,考慮移居國外。一系列研究表明,北京受污染街區的房地產價格比其他街區平均低4%。

「人們希望有一種被公司照顧的感覺——不僅是在錢上,還有公司為了改善員工福祉做的事情」仲量聯行的大中華區再生能源發展總監吳旭超說。

健康的室內空氣也有利於雇主。 2017年,哈佛大學健康與全球環境中心一項具有劃時代意義的研究發現,高性能綠色建築中居住者的認知功能更高、疾病症狀更少、睡眠質量也更好。另一項2016年的研究得出結論,稱空氣污染的比例提高降低了工人的生產力。

城市比農村享有更乾淨的居家空氣品質

然而,推動室內空氣健康市場快速增長的主要是城市居民,有證據表明,在室內空品質問題上城鄉差距在擴大。

「中央已經表示要淨化空氣、水和土壤,所以就給地方官員施壓。通常,地方官員這方面的意識會隨著時間的推移而提高,」麻省理工大學中國未來城市實驗室項目主任鄭思齊教授說。

「但中國有幾百座城市,貧困地區仍舊把經濟成長作為首要任務,所以在環保方面會落後。」

綠色和平的分析發現,2017年第四季度北京、天津等28座城市的PM2.5水平同比下降了33.1%。但從全年來看,全國PM2.5水平僅下降4.5%,是2013年至今來最低的一年。在黑龍江、安徽、江西、廣東等較貧困的農村省份,污染水平反而上升了。

城鄉之間這一差距的可能會產生顯著的長期影響。與此同時,2004年一項研究顯示,社會經濟地位低下的兒童受污染的影響更大。鄭教授的研究結論則是空氣污染導致學校缺勤率高,學生考試成績降低。頂級學校和富裕居民正在安裝室內空氣器,他們的孩子因此獲得額外的學業優勢;高品質的空氣淨化器成本高昂,許多農村居民都無力承擔,而且貧困地區還在使用燃煤的土暖氣。

雖然中國政府已經在著力改善城市戶外空氣質量,但室內空氣質量很大程度上仍是一個自下而上的問題。

「和許多環境健康威脅一樣,室內空氣品質受到的關注遠遠不夠,因為很難將特定的健康問題歸因於某種特定的環境污染物,」環境諮詢公司倫理與環境(Ethics & Environment )創始人西倫·恩斯特說。

「把健康問題歸因於單個或多個室內有毒污染物所需的研究經費很高,而且我們也不清楚這項研究誰負責進行。」她說。

「眾所周知,能夠釋放有毒氣體的材料所帶來的問題是長期的,而且可能影響到世界上大部分地區的室內空氣品質。但這些問題的管理往往需要規範行業內眾多有影響力的參與者,從而控制私人空間中存在的風險。」

相比室外的PM2.5,惡劣的室內空氣品質更不易被察覺,也更加複雜。這在很大程度上導致了政府監管的盲點。目前在中國,消費者的意願似乎將繼續驅動市場。

「室內污染領域仍以需求為導向,人們知道有健康風險,然後開始了解更多,所以他們正在推動市場和政府監管,要求更多的綠色產品,」鄭教授總結道。

「如果綠色產品的需求增加,供應也會隨之增加,相應的監管也會加強。」

 

 

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※ 本文轉載自中外對話〈清潔室內空氣,城市甩開農村

 

 

《 Miriam Stockley – Mercy Street (06:20) 》


《 Miriam Stockley – Mercy Street (06:20) 》

經部擬5月完成觀塘案環差 農委會月中將開藻礁專家會議


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211345?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=0c3456a92d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-0c3456a92d-84956681

經部擬5月完成觀塘案環差 農委會月中將開藻礁專家會議

發表日期 2018年05月02日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導

中油天然氣第三接收站有意落腳大潭,引發藻礁生態搶救戰,農委會副主委陳吉仲表示,除了與中研院合作在今年3月啟動為期一年研究計畫,也打算在5月中邀全國學者專家開會討論。不過,並沒有要等前者的研究調查結果出爐,讓環團質疑基於不實資料的討論,恐怕仍是演一場戲。

而經濟部提出新的計畫期程,預估在今年5月通過環評大會,大潭三接站將在2022年10月初期供氣50萬噸、2024年全量營運供氣300萬噸,顯示仍不願放手大潭,更讓立委王育敏擔憂環保署又要當經濟部的「細仔」、深澳案又要重演。環保署長李應元連忙澄清,觀塘案的審查環保署並沒有時間表。

DSC04356
2日立法院衛環委員會討論觀塘中油三接站與大潭藻礁的爭議。賴品瑀攝。

2日立法院社會福利及衛生環境委員會邀請環保署、經濟部、農委會等部會,報告「觀塘工業區開發對大潭藻礁生態系統可能影響與因應、能源開發與天然環境如何共榮共存及如何有效降低電廠空污」。

農委會副主委陳吉仲在口頭報告中,提出將在5月中邀請全國學者約20人討論三接站興建計畫對藻礁生態的衝擊。「這不是要跟環評程序怎麼樣。」陳吉仲解釋,農委會的專家會議,討論將據先前中央大學替桃園市府的自然地景劃設評估所做調查,與這些學者過去的研究成果來做學術討論,「環評程序照走」而討論結果可供環署在審查時參考。

立委王育敏、許淑華以臨時提案要求暫停環評程序,直到中研院調查結果出爐,但環保署綜計處處長劉宗勇表示,環評制度上,環評只能就開發單位送審的資料來審查,李應元表示,若是為此停下來,是違背了環評制度的設計。陳宜民、蔣萬安則提出上月27日環署專家會議的結論中,學者要求補充生態調查,柴山多杯孔珊瑚、殼狀珊瑚藻與其他物種都還有必要增加調查,顯示目前的中油提出的資料實在不足以環評的判斷,為何不等中研院的調查?不過在爭論之後,仍是兩案都遭投票否決。

陳吉仲表示,若是5月專家會議中,學者討論的結果認為,觀塘案對藻礁生態的衝擊無法調整迴避,農委會即表達不建議開發的立場,供環署在審查時參考。這樣的態度,讓環團搶救藻礁行動聯盟召集人潘忠政抨擊沒有盡全力保護,台灣健康空氣行動聯盟理事長葉光芃也批,中央大學的調查根本獨缺大潭這一段。

雖然陳吉仲直言過去的爭議就是由於資料不足,因此學者各說各話,不過在中研院一年調查的結果尚未出爐,農委會就要邀學者討論三接站工程可能對藻礁的衝擊,潘忠政則批評,以既有的不實資料來討論,無助於釐清問題,只是大家配合演場戲,反而造成學術間的鬥爭。潘忠政強調,棲地本來就應該要保留,若現況的生態不夠好,那更要保留等待復原。

中研院、台北大學、東海大學等海洋生物學者組成研究團隊進行調查藻礁生態,計畫已在今年3月啟動,由農委會林務局編列1076萬元。陳吉仲表示,這是對桃園海岸線全長27公里的調查,如果調查結果是有保育必要,農委會將研議延伸並擴大既有野生動物重要棲息環境公告範圍,促請桃園市政府依法及範圍進行相關保護及復育工作。

先前環保署在觀塘案環現差初審過程中,特別把藻礁生態拉出來舉行專家會議,不料遭環團批評學者組成不公,甚至提出多項程序問題阻擋,一再流會,最後環署使出殺手鐧,將民眾發言與學者討論分場舉行,並且拒絕民間進場旁聽學者討論場,只可在場外看直播。

立委拋異地建站於台北港 經濟部:重新評估來不及

經濟部次長曾文生今拋出大潭三接站今年5月通過環評大會,2022年10月初期供氣50萬噸、2024年全量營運供氣300萬噸的新期程。

面對潘忠政與陳曼麗、陳宜民、王育敏等立委接連提異地建站改在「台北港」的替代方案,曾文生表示,台北港原本的規劃是商港,重新評估需要時間,時程上恐怕會來不及,當初選擇觀塘,時間問題就是重要的考量點,除了造地時程搭配,台北港還有腹地有限、LNG管線布設問題等。曾文生指出,天然氣接收站設置要有一定距離限制、面積、運輸路線是否能符合電廠需求等都是要考量的要素。

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作者

賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 Miriam Stockley – Wishing On A Star (05:20) 》


《 Miriam Stockley – Wishing On A Star (05:20) 》

Dutch rewilding experiment sparks backlash as thousands of animals starve


https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/apr/27/dutch-rewilding-experiment-backfires-as-thousands-of-animals-starve

Dutch rewilding experiment sparks backlash as thousands of animals starve

A scheme to rewild marshland east of Amsterdam has been savaged by an official report and sparked public protest after deer, horses and cattle died over the winter

Animal carcasses and dead trees litter the landscape of Oostvaardersplassen
 Animal carcasses and dead trees litter the landscape of Oostvaardersplassen. Photograph: Utrecht Robin/Action Press/Rex Shutterstock

It is known as the Dutch Serengeti, a bold project to rewild a vast tract of land east of Amsterdam. But a unique nature reserve where red deer, horses and cattle roam free on low-lying marsh reclaimed from the sea has been savaged by an official report after thousands of animals starved.

In a blow to the rewilding vision of renowned ecologists, a special committee has criticised the authorities for allowing populations of large herbivores to rise unchecked at Oostvaardersplassen, causing trees to die and wild bird populations to decline.

It follows growing anger in the Netherlands over the slaughter of more than half Oostvaardersplassen’s red deer, Konik horses and Heck cattle because they were starving. After a run of mild winters, the three species numbered 5,230 on the fenced 5,000-hectare reserve. Following a harsher winter, the population is now just 1,850. Around 90% of the dead animals were shot by the Dutch state forestry organisation, which manages the reserve, before they could die of starvation.

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For two months, protesters have tossed bales of hay over fences to feed surviving animals as the Dutch Olympic gold medal-winning equestrian Anky van Grunsven joined celebrity illusionist Hans Klok in condemning the “animal abuse” on the reserve. Ecologists and rangers received death threats from the rising clamour on social media. Protesters compared “OVP” to Auschwitz.

An emaciated horse.
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 An emaciated horse. Photograph: Utrecht Robin/Action Press/REX Shutterstock
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Oostvaardersplassen was only created in 1968 when an inland sea was drained for two new cities. An industrial zone turned into a marshy haven as it lay undeveloped during the 1970s. Dutch ecologist Frans Vera devised the innovative use of wild-living cattle and horses to mimic the grazing of extinct herbivores such as aurochs, and Oostvaardersplassen became an internationally renowned rewilding reserve, celebrated in a 2013 Dutch film called The New Wilderness.

But in a drastic “reset”, a special committee convened by the provincial government this week called for a halt to the rewilding principle of allowing “natural processes” to determine herbivore populations. Instead, large herbivore numbers should be capped at 1,500 to stop winter fatalities, the committee said, with new forest and marsh areas created for additional “shelter” for the animals.

https://interactive.guim.co.uk/uploader/embed/2018/04/netherlands_rewilding/giv-3902LkCHTwHJtBNC/

“This experiment has absolutely failed,” said Patrick van Veen, an animal biologist whose petition to stop animal cruelty at Oostvaardersplassen has been signed by 125,000 people. “You’d expect 20 or 30% to die of natural causes including starvation each year but the population grows in summertime and there is no control mechanism – normally you’d have predators such as wolves but it’s too small an area to have predators.”

People protesting against policy towards animals in the Oostvaardersplassen.
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 People protesting against the policy towards animals in Oostvaardersplassen reserve. Photograph: Joris van Gennip / Hollandse Hoogte/Eyevine

As the report was delivered, a small group of women stood outside the provincial government building wearing purple ribbons. A watching policeman joked with them that they were “the hooligans”.

For protesters, Oostvaardersplassen is a secretive experiment devised by distrusted elites – public access is restricted to much of the reserve because the wild Heck cattle are considered dangerous. Jamie Wiebes said OVP made her “ashamed” to be Dutch.

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Alongside a band of 50 people, she’s risked €400 fines – and high-speed trains – to lug bales of hay across a railway line and feed the animals over the fence. The group said they delivered 410 bales on one night. “It’s not only the hunger, it’s neglect,” said Wiebes. “The horses have open wounds, their hooves are broken, their teeth are broken, they have white mites on their backs. If you put up a fence, you have to take care of what’s behind the fence – you do in zoos, and even in prisons you have to provide child molesters with food and water. You cannot do a ‘project’ with animals. They are living things.”

From public lookouts, and from trains that skirt its southern border, Oostvaardersplassen in late April looks a bleak and denuded landscape: dead trees collapsed across tightly grazed grass and visibly thin horses and deer. Rangers now move animal carcasses – deliberately left to provide food for everything from beetles to ravens – away from the railway line because of public distress.

Animal activists feed the horses, deer and cattle by throwing hay over the fences of the Oostvaardersplassen nature reserve.
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 Animal activists feed the horses, deer and cattle by throwing hay over the fences of the Oostvaardersplassen nature reserve. Photograph: Pierre Crom/Getty Images

But a tour of the full 5,000 hectares with Han Olff, professor of ecology at the University of Groningen , reveals a different picture. Half the area is marshland into which the grazing animals don’t go, creating a sanctuary for rare birds from bearded tits to sea eagles.

“Some people say the ecosystem is dying. Some people, like me, say the ecosystem is just coming alive,” said Olff, pointing out that the dead trees are a source of food for hundreds of beetle species and shelter for small mammals.

Olff admitted the committee’s report had been “a bit of a setback for what’s called rewilding – trusting natural processes, putting in large grazers, letting go of the traditional management of cultural landscapes”. But he rejected the idea that this version of rewilding was abusive towards the grazing animals whose populations are regulated by the natural availability of grass.

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“A small group of people have made a tremendous noise, especially horse owners,” he said. “They withhold a free life from their horses and justify that by feeding them too much food. Here the horses can choose its own mates, form social groups and sometimes die because in the herd they are the weakest link.”

About 3,000 red deer, wild horses and cattle did not survive the last winter.
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 About 3,000 red deer, wild horses and cattle did not survive the last winter. Photograph: Utrecht Robin/Action Press/REX Shutterstock

Ecologists hope that if more of the reserve is opened up to the public, visitors will better understand that the challenging sights – dead carcasses, dead trees and thinner-than-livestock animals – “are part of the cycle of life, to use a Disney term,” said Olff. “People say it’s a desert, it’s been overgrazed but they don’t see the landscape variability, so we need to much better allow access to the grazing and marsh areas to tell the story of this young, developing ecosystem.”

According to Olff, the biodiversity of Oostvaardersplassen is still burgeoning. Bird declines are not because of “overgrazing” by the large herbivores but due to a loss of reedbed because it’s grazed by geese. And while bird species such as reed warbler have disappeared from the heavily grazed areas, they are still present in the marshes, and new species – lapwing, avocet, shellduck – have arrived because the grass is tightly grazed. The trees that have died are species that can’t adapt to grazing but those that can, such as blackthorn, are very slowly replacing them.

“There isn’t another Oostvaardersplassen in western Europe. People tend to focus on what you lose and ignore what you gain. It’s just changing, it’s not better or worse, it’s just something different. Traditional conservation managers make a plan saying ‘This is what we want to keep – period’. This dynamic way of managing nature is new, it’s different but it’s not an experiment.”

 

保留區樹木枯死 數千動物挨餓 荷蘭知名野化實驗惹議


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211342?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=0c3456a92d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-0c3456a92d-84956681

保留區樹木枯死 數千動物挨餓 荷蘭知名野化實驗惹議

發表日期 2018年05月03日
環境資訊中心綜合外電;姜唯 編譯;林大利 審校

蘭塞倫蓋蒂」(Dutch Serengeti)是一項大膽的實驗計畫,目的是野化阿姆斯特丹東邊的一大片海埔新生地。然而據英國衛報報導,一份官方報告指出,計畫實施後,這個紅鹿、牛、馬自在漫步的特殊自然保留區竟有數千隻動物挨餓,引發強烈抨擊。

Bart Jekel(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
荷蘭「Oostvaardersplassen」有越來越多動物挨餓死亡。圖片來源:Bart Jekel(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

省府本週召集的專案小組批評,當局未妥善控制當地大型草食動物的族群量,導致樹木死亡、野生鳥類數量下降,知名生態學家的野化願景亦因此受到嚴重打擊。

「Oostvaardersplassen」保留區內越來越多的紅鹿、柯尼克馬和赫克牛因為挨餓而遭到射殺後,引發民眾怒火。經歷連續幾個暖冬,這三個物種在5000公頃的保留區內有5230頭。一次嚴冬後,只剩1850頭。大約90%的動物是被管理園區的荷蘭國家林業組織所射殺,以免動物餓死。

荷蘭知名魔術師Hans Klok和奧運金牌馬術運動員Anky van Grunsven接連批評該保留區「虐待動物」。兩個月來,抗議民眾持續往園區圍欄內扔乾草堆給倖存的動物吃。生態學家和保留區巡守員在社群媒體上收到死亡威脅。抗議者甚至將「Oostvaardersplassen」計畫比做納粹集中營。

「Oostvaardersplassen」建立於1968年,當時抽乾一座內海的海水,以開發兩座城市。1970年代,一座沒發展起來的工業區被改闢為沼澤避風港。荷蘭生態學家Frans Vera發想出讓野外自由活動的牛和馬模仿滅絕草食動物(如原牛)行為的創新野化計畫,「Oostvaardersplassen」因此成為國際知名的野化保留區,2013年還拍成電影「新荒野」(The New Wilderness)。

這個「自然重新設定」過程之劇烈,省府專案小組緊急呼籲,應停止讓自然決定草食動物數量、限制大型草食動物數量在1500頭以免再度於冬季喪命,並用新的森林和沼澤地提供動物額外的「棲身之所」。

「這個實驗絕對失敗了,」動物學家維恩(Patrick van Veen)說。他發起連署要求停止「Oostvaardersplassen」的虐待動物行為,已經有12萬5000人簽署。「你預計每年有20%或30%的個體死於飢餓等天然因素,但在夏季個體數量增加時卻沒有控制機制——一般來說會是狼之類的掠食者,但園區的面積太小,沒有掠食者。」維恩表示。

從公共瞭望台和從南部邊界穿過的火車上看,4月下旬的「Oostvaardersplassen」的景觀一片淒涼——草地被啃得光禿禿,到處都是死樹,馬和鹿看起來明顯消瘦。現在巡守員刻意將動物屍體搬離鐵路沿線以減民怨——這些屍體也是刻意留下來當甲蟲和烏鴉等動物的食物。

但衛報與格羅寧根大學生態學教授Han Olff一起完整參觀了5000公頃的園區,發現一幅不同的景象。有一半的地區是放牧動物不會去的沼澤地,成為文須雀和海鵰等珍稀鳥類的庇護所。

「有些人說這裡生態系統正在死去。有些人和我一樣,認為生態系統剛剛起步。」Olff指出,死樹是數百種甲蟲的食物來源,也是小型哺乳動物的棲身之所。

Olff坦言該專案小組的報告「對所謂的野化——即相信自然過程、投入大型草食動物、放棄傳統的文化景觀管理——造成某種程度的打擊」。他不同意這樣野化是虐待草食動物,草食動物的數量應由禾草在自然狀態下的生物量來決定。

生態學家希望,如果開放更多的保留區給民眾參觀,遊客將更能了解這些挑戰一般認知的景象——死屍、死樹和比家畜瘦得多的動物——「是生命週期的一部分。」Olff說,「人們說這是一片荒漠、過度放牧,但他們沒有看到景觀的變化性,所以我們必須多多進入放牧和沼澤地區,好好介紹這個年輕的、發展中的生態系統。

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參考資料

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。

 

《 Miriam Stockley – Se La Luna Fosse Donna (06:57) 》


《 Miriam Stockley – Se La Luna Fosse Donna (06:57) 》

改善西螺果菜市場空污 雲林力推電動蔬果運輸車汰換柴油拼裝車


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211367?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=0c3456a92d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-0c3456a92d-84956681

改善西螺果菜市場空污 雲林力推電動蔬果運輸車汰換柴油拼裝車

發表日期 2018年05月03日
轉載自農傳媒;文、攝影:洪嘉鎂

西螺果菜市場位於全台最大葉菜類產區雲林縣附近,是全國最大果菜批發市場,每天平均有1000公噸蔬果在此交易,供應台灣三分之一蔬果需求。由於市場內空氣污染問題嚴重,雲林縣政府去年9月制定《雲林縣西螺果菜市場進出車輛管理自治條例》,並推行電動蔬果運輸車上路,期望替換掉市場內大宗且老舊的三輪柴油拼裝車,降低場內空氣污染。

距離條例上路只剩8個月,西螺果菜市場內800多輛三輪柴油拼裝車,仍有200多輛拼裝車尚未汰換,其餘近600輛拼裝車多數換成汽柴油車,真正換成電動蔬果運輸車僅約一成,雲林縣環保局每周都前往西螺果菜市場,呼籲要盡速汰換,環保局表示,現階段空氣品質已經改善不少,縣府也研議將在果菜市場內建置充電站,希望能提升使用電動蔬果運輸車的意願。

剩8個月上路,仍有200多輛三輪柴油拼裝車未汰換

西螺果菜市場進出的車輛約4000台左右,過去擔任重要場內運輸的角色的三輪柴油拼裝車就有800多輛,由於三輪柴油拼裝車沒有防汙設備,是場內空氣品質不佳的原因之一,加上二行程機車、柴油車穿梭其中,這些車輛排出的廢氣讓果菜市場內的氣味非常難聞。而且三輪柴油拼裝車屬於拼裝性質,無法取得通過車輛安全規定及掛牌合法上路,只能在果菜市場內行駛,開上馬路屬違法行為。

為改善西螺果菜市場的空污問題,及長年來違法三輪柴油拼裝車在路上行駛的狀況,雲林縣政府去年9月29日制定《雲林縣西螺果菜市場進出車輛管理自治條例》,該條例言明,明年1月1日市場內不能出現三輪柴油拼裝車、二行程機車及未經排煙檢測合格的柴油車。

除制定條例外,雲林縣政府在民國103年加碼補助汰換電動蔬果運輸車,希望替代老舊且違法的三輪柴油拼裝車。

目前西螺果菜市場的三輪柴油拼裝車正逐步汰換為汽柴油車,及電動蔬果運輸車。
目前西螺果菜市場的三輪柴油拼裝車正逐步汰換為汽柴油車,及電動蔬果運輸車。

現在改裝一輛電動蔬果運輸車費用需要28萬5000元,政府約補助12.5萬元(環保署補助10萬元,縣政府補助2.5萬),若報廢三輪拼裝車直接購買電動蔬果運輸車則是補助16.5萬元。

儘管政府祭出補助策略,但西螺果菜市場管理課課長姜福受表示,原有800多輛三輪柴油拼裝車,今年的問卷調查得知仍有246輛尚未汰換,其中有意願改裝或汰換成電動蔬果運輸車約22台。目前為止場內將拼裝車換成電動蔬果運輸車僅約一成,其他都是換成汽油車或柴油車。

降低空污、車輛納入管理是首要目標

電動蔬果運輸車在西螺果菜市場推動成果不明顯的原因,是載運量及續航力無法和柴油車相比,以及市場內未設置充電站。

目前電動車載運量會依據車體大小及最高承載而定,從1公噸到2公噸不等,雲林縣環保局空氣噪音管理科曾建閔指出,現在的補助車款有經環保署認證,也有考量續航力問題,正常使用情況下,理論上與柴油車差異不大。

南臺科技大學機械工程系副教授許哲嘉曾參與「農用柴油引擎油電混和搬運車研發」計畫,他表示,同等馬力狀況下,柴油車可載運到1.5噸的貨物,電動車約可載運1.2公噸,會有這樣的差異,原因是動力差異。

許哲嘉指出,一般來說電動車在平地行駛都沒有問題,主要在爬坡可能會有困難(扭力不夠),電動車的負重會影響速度(負重越大,速度越慢),若農民或是駕駛電動車的人,希望電動車能維持同樣速度而加速行駛,將會對車體會造成損害。

過去三輪柴油拼裝車能裝比建議載重更多的蔬果,頂多比較耗油,但電動車無法這樣操作,環保局表示,有些農民或駕駛電動車的人,未依車輛負重標準載運貨物,過重貨物再加上超速行駛容易造成車體損害,對電動車業者來說,電動車的電池是採租用,消費者若沒有定時充電、在合理範圍內行駛、載運,電池壽命很快就會消耗殆盡。

至於市場內未建設充電環境的問題,曾建閔說,鎮公所與果菜市場正在協調,進行問卷調查了解充電站需求,再請工研院評估要建置多少座充電站,未來希望能設置在停車場。

雖然電動蔬果運輸車推動成效不明顯,但西螺果菜市場的空氣品質仍有明顯改善,縣府環保局民國105年在市場內設置即時空氣品質監測與顯示系統,106年1月PM2.5月平均值64.9(微克/立方公尺)降至民國107年1月月平均值37.5(微克/立方公尺)。

曾建閔表示,主要是拼裝車沒有防污的設備,就算是換成柴油車,排煙量也會降低不少。今年開始有要求進場的柴油車都必須通過排煙檢測,明年則是拼裝車及二行程機車禁入,目前都有在出入口架設車牌辨識系統,這項措施的推動主要是為了降低空污,其次是管理入場車輛,讓沒有車牌的拼裝車退場。

學術單位曾針對西螺果菜市場設計一輛農用柴油引擎油電混和搬運車,希望能提高使用面向。
學術單位曾針對西螺果菜市場設計一輛農用柴油引擎油電混和搬運車,希望能提高使用面向。

自治條例先行,逐步改善空氣品質

《雲林縣西螺果菜市場進出車輛管理自治條例》將在民國108年元月1日正式上路,但今年4月環保署才通過《空氣污染防制法》修正草案,各級主管機關可視空氣品質需求及污染特性,因地制宜劃設空氣品質維護區,並限制或禁止特定車輛進入(如二行程機車或1、2、3期大型柴油車)。

曾建閔指出,目前在《雲林縣西螺果菜市場進出車輛管理自治條例》並未規定一定要幾期的柴油車才能進入市場,現階段只要通過檢測都能進入。明年環保局將會與交通管理單位做聯合稽查,拼裝車不能上路,違者會直接沒收拼裝車,環保局也會進入市場稽查是否有拼裝車行駛,違者開罰,會持續朝向改善空氣品質目標推動管理。

※本文經授權轉載自農傳媒

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《 Miriam Stockley – Forever My Heart (06:47) 》


《 Miriam Stockley – Forever My Heart (06:47) 》

邀您在都市裡悠遊里山 金山南路「保育小站」特展開幕


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211352?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=0c3456a92d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-0c3456a92d-84956681

邀您在都市裡悠遊里山 金山南路「保育小站」特展開幕

發表日期 2018年05月03日
環境資訊中心特約記者 廖靜蕙報導

農村提供餵飽我們的糧食,也是生活的場域及發揮重要的社會支持功能。國際間近年來更鼓勵在生產過程中,進一步兼顧生物多樣性的「里山倡議」,國內這幾年也積極回應這個趨勢。不過,如果認為里山倡議是農村的事,那麼就錯過與自然和諧共處的盛宴!

林務局「慢活・悠遊・里山趣」特展2日於繁榮的台北市區「保育小站」開展,透過四個里山案例,讓民眾了解里山,拉進都市與里山的距離,最好還能從都市走向里山!

「慢活・悠遊・里山趣」開展儀式。攝影:廖靜蕙。

林務局副局長廖一光表示,保育小站宛如隱身繁華都市巷弄中的珍珠,也是林務局推廣森林生態系服務功能的前哨站,讓都市中的人們,了解森林的生物多樣性以及生態的服務價值。

此次展覽主題為「走向里山」,以「里山意涵」、「台灣里山風土與生產地景」及「都市里山生活實踐」等三大主題,並展示林務局長期推動的貢寮水梯田、雲林成龍濕地、台24霧台大武與阿禮部落及花港口部落等4個里山地景的特色。

保育組長夏榮生說,四個案例無論是所在區位或與自然環境互動的樣態,都相當具有代表性,透過這幾個案例說明台灣里山珍貴之處。

位於淺山的貢寮水梯田把過去台灣農業社會在現代化過程中,失落的傳統知識重新找回來,並找回多種瀕危生物,讓農田生態系成員一一歸隊;雲林縣湖口鄉成龍村從地層下陷、土地無法耕種的危機,轉化為休耕養地,讓土地恢復自然樣貌、增加生物多樣性的契機,成為另一個賞鳥地點;另外,觀樹基金會多年投入社區營造,讓豐富的自然環境成為藝術創作的元素,舉辦藝術季翻轉當地社區。這幾年更提出不抽地下水生態養殖方案,並興建完成示範性質的高腳屋,要與氣候變遷共生。

莫拉克風災後,台24線沿線的霧台鄉大武部落意識到區域性糧食安全的重要性,重建過程結合當地傳統農業,以及依傍山林資源引入創新技術發展出里山新經濟,展現旺盛的活力。同樣為了恢復過去傳統水田與海浪呼應的榮景,花蓮縣豐濱鄉港口部落從修復水渠開始,逐步建立依靠里山資源的區域微型產業。

來自屏東霧台鄉大武部落的小米、紅藜以及特色產品。攝影:廖靜蕙。

從都市連結到里山  以綠色消費、生態旅遊支持里山倡議

特展選在台北市,具有非凡的意義。夏榮生表示,極度仰賴里山餵養的都市人口,在里山倡議扮演著要角。居住在都市的人們透過綠色消費支持友善環境的生產行為,不但實際支持里山生計,也間接維繫生物多樣性,讓生態系服務功能源源不絕。

另外,除了購買農產品,消費者還可以參加生態旅遊,實際走訪這些維繫了生物多樣性的里山地景,了解、體驗里山生活;而生態旅遊即包括社區回饋的機制。

林務局保育小站是日治時期總督府山林課的員工宿舍,2006年依文化資產保存法公告為市定古蹟,除了建築物本體外,金山南路203巷週邊的老樹群、位在22、24號的保育小站庭院中珍貴稀有的台灣油杉,都顯示其獨特與珍貴保存的價值。

坐落在城市中的保育小站,2017年正式營運,以「展現森林生態服務多元價值」與「推廣里山倡議」為核心,為都市與生活在鄉村、農村或漁村的人們搭起橋樑,定期舉辦自然保育主題展覽活動暨成果推廣。

台北市文化局副局長田瑋表示,修復古蹟活化為保育小站的案例,值得肯定與參考,不只做為社區營造的平台,更是城市與其他縣市交流的場域,「在台北市很少有這樣的機會。」

現場除了可看到四處里山地景以及農產品,還有策展單位依據成龍濕地國際環境藝術節「連結」作品作成的小模型,讓民眾貼近台灣的自然環境與傳統文化蘊涵。另展示設計也保留「保育小站」古蹟建築原有的空間特色,讓民眾貼近古蹟修復再利用的心意。

有策展單位依據成龍濕地國際環境藝術節「連結」作品作成的小模型。攝影:廖靜蕙。

特展期間林務局以「創-手作體驗坊」、「閱-講座分享會」及「行-里山地景之旅」等三大面向,安排10場次系列演講與手作活動。19日首場講座邀請台灣大學教授郭城孟分享「古台北的里山life style想像」,以植物學的角度帶領民眾探索台北與古台灣的植物風貌,思考里山倡議精神在日常生活實踐的可能性與重要性。活動採網路預約報名,詳細活動內容請至「林務局-森活情報站」臉書專頁查詢。

「慢活・悠遊・里山趣」特展資訊
日期:即日起展出至9月15日止,每周一、二休館。
時間:周三至周日上午9:00-12:00;下午13:30-17:00
地點:林務局保育小站(台北市金山南路2段203巷22、24號)

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作者

廖靜蕙

環境記者/自由撰稿人。從事社工10餘年,認知到畢竟是人的社會,再弱勢的人都可以為自己發言,決定轉投生態保育,為無法以人類語言發聲的生命與土地寫報導。現居台北市,與貓先生、龜小姐,微曦中閱讀,斗室中寫作。個人粉專「小麻通訊」。

 

《 Miriam Stockley – Alla Notte (05:34) 》


《 Miriam Stockley – Alla Notte (05:34) 》

用台灣杉造「鳥居」 向陽工坊結合國產材 創部落永續產業


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211335?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=0c3456a92d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-0c3456a92d-84956681

用台灣杉造「鳥居」 向陽工坊結合國產材 創部落永續產業

發表日期 2018年05月03日
環境資訊中心特約記者 廖靜蕙台東報導

在住家附近為鳥準備一個居所,用什麼材料最好?向陽薪傳木工坊即以疏伐下來的台灣杉,設計製作成鳥居,要讓野鳥被台灣森林的味道吸引來成家。

台東縣太麻里鄉因多良「最美的車站」而吸引眾多遊客駐足。向陽薪傳木工坊就在車站旁邊,不但有木工廠,還有一個福利社,現場展售由木工師傅製作的各類實用器具,從杯墊到各種動物造型的餐具,以及大型的家具,這些木工製品絕多數都使用國產材。

向陽木工坊展售現場。攝影:廖靜蕙。

產業重生 結合國產材生根永續

向陽木工坊的成立與八八風災有關,當時多良、嘉蘭村居民因風災心靈嚴重受創;木工坊經理陳秀如至今都記得八八風災帶來的威力。「村落所受的破壞程度不一,雖未對多良村造成實質的傷害,卻嚇壞老人家,每有溪流暴漲,就怕被孤立,擔心物資進不來,雖未造成人員直接死亡,卻帶來極大的心理創傷。心理上的受創反映到身體,老人家不斷生病而且好像會傳染一樣,只要一人生病,就會接著有人跟著生病。」

這個巨變也為部落帶來轉機。產業重建、讓部落年輕輩得以發展生根產業,在此成為對抗逆境的優選。一場產業復興由此而生。

在清華網路文教基金會、台東原愛工坊協會以及企業支持下,投入產業重建,並於公東高工前校長黃清泰首肯下,引入木工技術,並利用閒置多年的多良國小設立了「向陽薪傳」木工坊。

另一方面,災後沖刷下來的漂流木數量龐大,原本國家需花費相對的龐大資源處理,搖身成了老天送給木工坊的禮物。產業復興由此展開,從生產較為簡單的七巧板、單位積木教具,逐步讓木材變得有用,如今已成可以接訂單客製化的木工坊。

不過,被颱風大雨掃除,從山上一路滾落到平地、河床的漂流木,沿途經過程度不同的撞擊,可能夾雜碎石頭或內部碎裂,施工起來可能造成碎石彈跳的危險;多數木工廠不願意使用漂流木,因為可能損及刀鋸。易碎裂的特質,對小型的木材加工品尤其不利。由於可用率只有3成,利不及費,後來國外積木訂單也不用漂流木,而改用進口木材。

除了漂流木,國產材還有哪些選項呢?木工坊前理事長黃清泰有一次受邀到林務局演講,知道有非常多疏伐木,由於過於脆弱易斷,一般木工坊不喜歡使用而無法去化。他支持使用疏伐木,而且好材、壞材,都要善用。去(2017)年下半年都使用疏伐木。

木材並非砍下來就能用,而須經過乾燥的過程。剛砍下來的木材,稱為「生材」,是潮濕的木材。和自然環境下的溼度相同/平衡,稱為「氣乾」,氣乾後的木材才能加工製造。一般木工坊都要等到氣乾,但生材要達到氣乾,需經歷很長的時間及空間,不符合經濟成本。

黃清泰發展一種方法,在木頭的含水量還有30%以上,即使未完全氣乾,仍可根據紋理做拼材使用,只拋光不封漆,如此即可持續風乾。

現在一些成員深具木工水準,也具備自付盈虧的條件;不過木工坊的目標不是營利,而是產業培訓及部落陪伴,仍須多元就業計畫支持,讓木工坊容納不同需求的人,成為一個產業薪傳的基地。

目前木工坊維持國產材使用比率達80%,這些國產材來自風倒木、林管處人工林經營疏伐木以及漂流木。線鋸木材則以經濟樹種桃花心木為主,不少人工林內的桃花心木都到了伐材期,正好用於線鋸材。

向陽薪傳木工廠一景。攝影:廖靜蕙

以猛禽象徵森林永續 將手藝融入大自然創作

到向陽工坊一遊,勢必要與鐵架打造的老鷹合照、打卡。這個標誌其來由自:向陽木工坊鄰近的查拉密部落,小米單位產量高,陳秀如一開始很疑惑,種在山坡地怎能高產量,直到目睹猛禽呼嘯而過,才讓他恍然大悟。小米怕麻雀,鳥害是最嚴重的問題,1/3的小米都是麻雀吃掉,但是麻雀怕老鷹。

「我們(部落)離森林很近,就在老鷹有效飛行距離,加上海邊的氣流非常適合。」一開始他以為這裡只有大冠鷲。陳秀如具有阿美族血統,他的媽媽告訴他,阿美族稱大冠鷲為最懶惰的鳥,因為翅膀一打開就不想拍了,所以這裡很適合牠。但是林管處的人要他多觀察,大冠鷲基本上不吃麻雀,有可能還有其他種類的猛禽,例如熊鷹林鵰松雀鷹、鳳頭蒼鷹等,冬天甚至有可能有遷徙的猛禽過境。因為猛禽這麼豐富,向陽工坊就以展翅的老鷹為代表!

向陽薪傳木工坊標誌。攝影:廖靜蕙。

目前木工坊具有客製化能力,並紀念商品、桌、椅等家具為主打,一一克服加工製造的難題,接著是把產品推到消費者面前。向陽木工坊福利社並沒有因為多良車站的名氣而增加業績,部落也因假日遊客多,而成了免費停車場,遊客為了停車前往部落,偶發擦撞事件,每逢假日,這個傳統部落的生活就多了干擾。

陳秀如分析,多良車站吸引來的都是打卡路過客,把這裡當作休憩站,不在乎也不重視向陽薪傳發展在地產業的精神,將產品與中國製產品做比較,而認為太貴。這與慕名而來的消費者很不同,因為認同也十分踴躍訂購。

今年林務局再度舉辦森林市集,向陽工坊也參與展售國產材商品,現場主打台灣杉手機音箱、桃花心木咖啡座,以及僅剩5座台灣杉鳥居。

陳秀如特別推薦桃花心木咖啡座,這是以線鋸處理,每個紋路、線條都處理得極美。原來木工坊有一位線鋸專家,暱稱為「線鋸王子」。由於先天聽障,使得王子不怕線鋸的吵雜聲,鋸的分毫不差。但因使用未經乾燥處理的國產材,每一片木頭紋理的差異性非常大。王子根據經驗,在線鋸的時候手動微調,將每片木材發揮到極致。看似相同的外觀看,其實經過一片一片微調而成,讓品質劃一。

手機音箱都是手工製造,紋路各有特色;手做鳥居如果捨不得分給鳥用,典藏收集也是不錯的建議!目前因取材不易 很難拿到足夠尺寸的木材,所以這批賣完之後,必須等有適合的木材才會再製做,民眾可得把握難得的機會!

各國將林木視為戰備資源,立法院這幾年也關注台灣林木自給率,農委會林務局也提出永續林業計畫,讓台灣林業重新起步,而向陽工坊早於災後重建就納入這個概念,讓產業植基於台灣經濟林。

以桃花心木線鋸而成的咖啡座,將現身林務局主辦的森林市集。
市集期間:5月18~20日 10:00~16:00
市集地點:華山中央藝文公園(北平東路、杭州南路口)
照片提供:向陽木工坊

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作者

廖靜蕙

環境記者/自由撰稿人。從事社工10餘年,認知到畢竟是人的社會,再弱勢的人都可以為自己發言,決定轉投生態保育,為無法以人類語言發聲的生命與土地寫報導。現居台北市,與貓先生、龜小姐,微曦中閱讀,斗室中寫作。個人粉專「小麻通訊」。

 

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