How to Work with Yoga Students Who’ve Experienced Trauma

How to Work with Yoga Students Who’ve Experienced Trauma

What you can do as a teacher to create a safe and open space for all of your students.

Touch can be particularly challenging. In fact, it can be so triggering that most experts recommend yoga teachers assume all of their students have experienced trauma—to avoid setting off unpleasant memories, feelings, and more.

“Sometimes you can recognize signs of trauma, like if a student looks shaky or disoriented, but in most cases it’s not going to be obvious,” says Hala Khouri, cofounder of Off the Mat, Into the World and a leader in trauma-informed yoga teacher trainings. Plus, trauma is so complicated that what works for one trauma survivor doesn’t necessarily work for another, says Alexis Marbach, a yoga teacher and a member of the Breathe Network, an organization that connects survivors of sexual violence with trauma-informed, holistic healing-arts practitioners. “It would be so much easier to say always do this or always do that, but we have to be more nimble in the way we approach recommendations for working with trauma survivors.”

See also Research Shows Trauma-Informed Yoga Helps Girls in the Juvenile Justice System Heal

How to Create a Safe and Open Space

So what can you do as a teacher?

“It’s the responsibility of the teacher and studio owner to create a safe and open space and empower students to opt out of touch during a class,” says Khouri. “It can often be difficult for a student, particularly one with trauma, to tell a teacher they don’t want to be touched," she explains. “They may worry about hurting the teacher’s feelings. Or they may feel they need to share personal details about their trauma.” And new students often don’t know that they don’t have to be touched, and so they allow the teacher to touch them, thinking that’s just the way yoga is, adds Khouri. “If we say to students ‘Just tell me if you don’t want to be assisted’ and then people struggle to speak up for any reason and then feel triggered, upset, or get a bad assist, the response from the teacher is usually ‘You should have said no,’” says Marbach. “Which is one of the classic responses that sexual assault survivors hear from abusers. If we really want to create trauma-informed environments, we can’t perpetuate the cycle of victim blaming or reinforce the message that the victim is responsible.”

A potential solution: “Studios should have signs on the door to remind students that they don’t have to be touched, similar to how there are signs reminding students not to interrupt Savasana,” says Khouri. In addition, “the teacher should make it clear that there is no obligation to explain why you don’t want touch in class.”

Being nimble in your approach, so that you can adjust to the needs of individual students, also includes reflecting on your assisting approach, adds Marbach. Ask yourself: Why do I assist? What do I gain from it? What does the student gain from it? How do I make decisions about when to assist? How do I know if a student has benefited from an assist? She generally advocates for a hands-off approach, for several reasons. “By creating a class without physical assists, we model for students that there is no one way, no one path for befriending and moving the body,” she says. “Many teachers feel the need to ‘fix’ their students with assists, but when we release attachment to the need or desire to physically correct and adjust, we are able to stay in the present moment with the whole class, not just the one student we are touching. We are able to let go of our ego and how it colors our view of our role in the class. We are there to provide a healing framework, not to impose a standard of what an asana practice should look like.”

Marbach adds: “Yoga is a way for us to get back into ourselves, to listen in and not only acknowledge, but respond to the needs of the physical and emotional bodies. Physical assists can send a signal that we need an external person to help us figure out our own bodies. There are already too many messages that we need to go outside to find our way in.”

See also What All Yoga Teachers Need to Know About Teaching Trauma Survivors


Metal and wood house extension in Nantes designed by Mabire Reich Architects

Metal and wood house extension in Nantes designed by Mabire Reich Architects

Architects: Mabire Reich Architects
Location: NantesFrance
Year: 2015
Area: 984 ft²/ 91 m²
Photo courtesy: Guillaume Satre

“Extending a house means reducing the exterior space of a plot. The theme of the project that we developed for the “landscape house” is the restitution of an exterior space.


The site of the project is located in Nantes (France), in an area established on a ridge of the Armorican Massif. The 300m² (984ft²) plot hosts at its bottom a small house as a testimony to the past worker of the neighborhood.


We designed a path created from a play with successive terraces connected by ramps, forming an itinerary which opens successively to a patio, to the landscape of the heart of block’s small urban gardens and the great scenery on the southern shores of the Loire.



The development of this path defines a surface. The volume situated bellow this surface forms the extension of the house, a series of living spaces (living room, kitchen, workshop) connected by oblique views, put in relation through a play with the levels, without any interior door.


The relationship with the landscape is twofold: the house is not only a potential of various links with the exterior, but the work with the material is the creation of an interior landscape. The graining of the plywood, the motifs drawn by the rain on the metallic structure during construction, the moiré effect of the resin or the repetitive pattern of the cement tiles create a separate universe, the same way as the clouds draw unexpected landscapes inviting to contemplation.”


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#五四 #台大中文 #系主任被殺 #70年後才出聲









而且,台灣的五四運動左翼傳統,更早就在1948年之後就幾乎斷絕。以台大中文係為例,起先,台大中文系原本是繼承五四以降,左翼思想的基地。台大中文系創立初期,由許壽裳先生擔任第一屆系主任,他是魯迅的至交、同情左翼的學者。然而,許壽裳先生在1948年2月於宿舍遭「竊賊」殺害,兇手行竊殺人的動機十分薄弱,留下一宗懸案。(詳參駱以軍文章(link is external)








The Truth About Yoga and Eating Disorders

The Truth About Yoga and Eating Disorders

The practice we love has a hidden paradox: Sometimes yoga helps us accept and celebrate our bodies, and sometimes it fuels body hatred and extreme—even dangerous—behaviors.
silhouette of body image

Kelly Parisi was only 21 years old when her heart stopped. Her mother, Barbara, walked into her bedroom around 9 p.m. on a Saturday evening in September 2012, nail polish and cuticle sticks in hand, ready for pedicure night. Instead, she found Kelly slumped, breathless and unconscious, in Supta Virasana (Fallen Hero Pose).

Finding no pulse in her daughter, Barbara, a nurse, grabbed her phone, dialed 911, and started CPR. “I didn’t realize how frail Kelly was until I flipped up her shirt,” she says. “I went to count her ribs to start compressions, and I didn’t have to feel for them—I could see them. Her chest was like a 10-year-old’s.”

A straight-A college student, Kelly had moved back to her parent’s home in a suburb of Boston about eight months before, after experiencing a sexual assault on campus. She was grappling with anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress, and yoga had become her “safe place,” says Barbara. It was a practice that helped her relax, a community that made her feel secure, and an exercise that helped her feel strong and in control of her body again.

See also Yoga for Eating Disorders

But Kelly had also become “compulsive” about yoga, Barbara recalls, spending hours at The Yoga Loft in nearby Wilmington where she’d started a yoga teacher training, and declining food because she didn’t want to upset her stomach during practice. In addition to her twice-daily yoga practice (typically at vigorous and hot classes), she was regularly running on the treadmill, restricting her diet, and doing occasional juice cleanses. She had lost weight since returning home and hadn’t had her period in months, something she’d experienced as a competitive figure skater in her teens. “That wasn’t out of the norm for her; I didn’t think it was as serious as it was,” says Barbara.

The ambulance arrived at the Parisis’ house at about 9:30 p.m. Shortly after, Kelly was pronounced dead. The official cause of death: accidental amphetamine intoxication. Kelly had been taking prescription stimulants for her ADHD for years, but there were no signs she’d taken more than the prescribed dose. However, her body mass index bordered on underweight, and Barbara recalls the EMT saying that her daughter’s blood sugar was extremely low. Both are known indicators of prolonged undernourishment and anorexia, says Urszula Kelley, MD, an eating-disorder specialist at Children’s Medical Center of Dallas. And other behaviors and side effects associated with eating disorders—undernourishment, sweating, vomiting, laxative use and resulting dehydration—can lead to dangerous irregular heart rhythms and electrolyte imbalances that, when exacerbated by stimulants or aerobic exercise, can result in sudden cardiac death. In fact, cardiac complications are one of the most common causes of death among anorexia and bulimia patients.

“My heart aches every second of every hour of every day,” says Barbara, whose memory of her daughter and the pain of losing her is as vivid today as it was that night two years ago. “I see her friends graduating and getting jobs, getting engaged, and I wonder what she would be doing now. But, I do not regret one millisecond I had her in my life, as I am a better person for the time she was in my life.”

See also 6 Women Tackle Body Image in the Practice of Leadership Series

Unhealthy Fuel for Disordered Eating

As a healing practice, yoga has helped countless people recover from physical and emotional ailments as varied as migraines, sciatica, and PTSD. But for people with disordered eating habits, or those with poor body image—which includes some 80 percent of American women, according to research—counting on yoga’s promise of emotional and spiritual healing can be perilous: Drawn to yoga as a means of self-care, they instead may find reinforcement for dangerous weight-control behaviors in a studio culture that increasingly celebrates thinness, flexibility, and perfection of form.

And while a practice that encourages a mind-body connection and self-awareness might seem like the last place to find fuel for disordered eating, a study in the International Journal of Eating Disorders found yoga students to be at equal or greater risk than the general population. “We can’t say whether yoga hurts or helps, but I think that some people who are dealing with disordered eating and body dissatisfaction are attracted to yoga because they’re looking for an answer,” says study author Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, PhD, who researches body image and eating disorders at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health.

Anecdotally, yoga teachers are reporting seeing more cause for concern, including noting students who are underweight taking multiple classes a day, fainting in class, or practicing while on a low-calorie juice cleanse. “Many yoga practitioners struggle with disordered eating and negative body image,” says Bo Forbes, a yoga teacher and clinical psychologist who specializes in the therapeutic application of yoga for psychological disorders. “It’s not enough to be thin; female yogis often feel the pressure to be thin, strong, and flexible. They’re critiquing their bodies with unattainable ideals.”

See also A Practice to Help You Break Up with Your Bad Body Image Once and for All

From a clinical perspective, some eating-disorder treatment experts worry that patients turn to yoga to burn calories, suppress hunger, or numb emotional pain, but under the guise of a devoted practice and clean eating, their illness goes unnoticed. That was true for Kelly Parisi. She was a star student at The Yoga Loft, and her teacher trainers and fellow students never suspected she was struggling. “She looked healthy. Just really in shape,” says Jen Ryan, the studio owner and leader of Kelly’s yoga teacher training. Instead, her hours of practice and volunteering at the studio were seen as a sign of dedication and vibrancy. She was nicknamed “the rubber band” for her flexibility.

“As a community, it’s important we start looking for the signs of eating disorders—students who are excessively thin, compulsive about their practice, obsessing about achieving the pose and doing more, more, more—they are missing the fact that yoga is really about being kind and taking care of yourself,” says Maty Ezraty, founder of YogaWorks, a teacher and teacher trainer for 35 years. “Today, a lot of people use yoga as an exercise program. The public puts pressure on yoga teachers to give them a workout. And teachers, especially young ones, buckle to the pressure because they want to attract more students.”

Yet the same practice that can exacerbate body-image issues and eating disorders may also help heal and prevent them. Research is finding positive effects from yoga in treatment, including a recent study at Seattle Children’s Hospital, which showed that therapeutically-informed yoga significantly reduced eating-disorder symptoms, anxiety, and depression among adolescents. Clinicians are taking note—over half of inpatient treatment centers in the United States incorporate yoga as an adjunct therapy, the Journal of Eating Disorders reports. “Individuals with eating disorders often work so hard to disconnect from their bodies,” says Robyn Caruso, executive director at A New Journey Eating Disorder Treatment Center in Santa Monica, California. “Yoga helps many of our clients reconnect to their body in a nurturing way.”

If yoga can both help and hurt vulnerable students, the question remains: What aspects are positive and which are harmful, and how can the yoga community protect students from the risks?

See also Why Negative Body Speak Is Ruining Your Life (+ 3 Ways to Stop It Now)

The Self-Destructive Side of Dedication

A few days after Kelly’s death, one of her college classmates visited Barbara and told her that Kelly had once confessed to struggling with an eating disorder. The following night, Barbara went into her daughter’s room to search for clues, and discovered notebooks filled with calorie counts and exercise logs tracking Kelly’s yoga practices to the minute. There were categories for “vigorous” practices and “easy” practices, and some days Kelly did more than three hours of yoga in total, all while subsisting on little more than snacks, sugar-free Red Bull, kombucha, laxatives, and the occasional chai latte.

Kelly’s obsessive relationship with yoga isn’t atypical for people with eating disorders, says Caruso, who uses caution when suggesting yoga to patients. Asana practice can play into compulsive or excessive exercise, a hallmark symptom among anorexia and bulimia sufferers who want to burn unwanted calories, ease the guilt of consuming “too much” food, or numb their emotions. Forbes calls the yoga version of this “yogarexia,” which she defines as practicing in excess to avoid uncomfortable feelings, including going to multiple yoga classes per day (often heated or fast paced), avoiding social engagements, and becoming rigid about the length and intensity of one’s daily practice. Feeding into this is the common notion—often taught in classes—of yoga as a path to self-betterment, which can drive vulnerable students to feel they are never good enough. “I’m seeing more and more people use the physical practice to shape and perfect their bodies rather than develop more self-compassion,” Forbes says.

Lauren Medeiros, 31, fell into this self-critical mindset during her struggles with anorexia. After developing the illness in college and trying to get well at two different inpatient treatment centers without success, she turned to yoga, hoping the gentle practice she’d first discovered back in high school would help. Instead, it drove her deeper into the illness.

See also What Yoga Taught Me about Healthy Eating

“As I got ‘better’ at yoga and began to identify myself as a yogi, I became harder on myself and my performance,” she says. The image of an ideal yogini as thin, toned, and spiritual—represented in media images and often personified in her classmates—became a yardstick she used to criticize and berate herself. She no longer experienced the practice as a way to feel comfortable in her body, as she had as a teen. “My focus became less of an inward journey and more focused on fitting in,” she says.

What’s more, fellow students often unintentionally reinforced her distorted body image. “I remember at one of my lowest weights, they’d be like, ‘I bet if I was as skinny as you, I could get into that pose!’”

Some of the philosophical teachings Lauren heard in class, including Patanjali’s moral precepts of brahmacharya (control of the senses) and saucha (bodily cleanliness), also fueled her feelings of inadequacy. “I felt I wasn’t pure or spiritual enough,” she says. “Sometimes I used the philosophies as justification for criticizing and starving myself. I felt I wasn’t supposed to have desire or want pleasure.”

The principle of saucha, when taught out of context or oversimplified, can sound like another reason to see your body as dirty or imperfect, says Forbes, reinforcing the negative self-belief that underlies eating disorders. And such teaching may motivate some individuals to go on one of the radical, low-calorie cleanses popular in the yoga community. (A Google search turns up dozens of cleanse and detox programs and juice products marketed with the term “saucha.”)

But despite their reputation, prolonged juice fasts are ineffective: Weight loss is likely temporary, and according to Michael Strober, PhD, director of the University of California Los Angeles Eating Disorder Treatment Center, your body doesn’t need any help with detoxification—our physiological systems naturally shed toxins and waste products. “Juice fasts for ‘detox’ lack any sensible rationale,” he says. Worse, reduced-calorie dieting can also trigger full-blown eating disorders in vulnerable people, says Neumark-Sztainer. And it can be downright dangerous, possibly leading to cardiac irregularities, hypoglycemia, nutrient deficiencies, and even death.

See also 14 Ways to Practice Mindful Eating

The Path to Healing

After almost 12 years of struggling with her illness, Lauren weighed just 68 pounds. She knew she needed help. Seeking emotional healing and spiritual growth, she tried a yoga retreat at the Omega Institute in Rhinebeck, New York, in 2013. But even in the retreat’s nurturing environment, her illness persisted and she couldn’t get back to a healthy weight. After her parents pleaded with her to go back into treatment, she checked into another inpatient eating disorder clinic in April, but felt disheartened at the sudden loss of control and privacy (she couldn’t even go to the bathroom without supervision). She also missed her yoga practice, which her treatment team didn’t allow to prevent her from exertion and burning calories. The hardest part, however, was the extreme discomfort of her prescribed re-feeding program. Though often medically necessary to help get patients back to a life-sustaining weight, this type of protocol can require patients to eat between 3,000 and 8,000 calories each day over the course of five or six meals. In some cases, patients have to finish eating within a limited time, or they’ll be force-fed with a naso-gastral feeding tube. For Lauren, refeeding was a physically and emotionally traumatic process that further disconnected her from her body. “I spent years training myself to ignore hunger with my eating disorder,” says Lauren. “Treatment trained me to ignore my fullness signals as well.”

Three weeks into her treatment and still hovering below 80 pounds, she abandoned the program, returning home to Austin, Texas, to try to recover on her own. She’s now seeing a therapist and nutritionist and has stopped attending public yoga classes, instead practicing gentle yoga at her own pace at home.

See also 10 Ways to Love Yourself (More) in the Modern World

But her recovery remains an uphill battle. Traditional eating-disorder treatment programs have a low success rate—dropout rates at inpatient programs for anorexia are as high as 46 percent, according to a 2008 study, and among patients who do stick it out, about half relapse. Some experts and clinicians think the missing key to long-term recovery may be rebuilding body awareness. A growing area of research suggests these patients may experience a deficit of what neuroscientists call interoceptive awareness: the ability to sense internal bodily states including hunger and fullness cues, emotions, pain, thirst, and heart rate, according to Neumark-Sztainer. Yoga, taught therapeutically, may be well suited to help patients revive interoceptive awareness, she says.

Research is still in its infancy, but it’s promising. For instance, one University of California, Berkeley study showed that yoga practitioners had greater body awareness and responsiveness to body sensations than nonpractitioners. And because yoga has documented success in helping with other mental-health conditions that are often comorbid with eating disorders, such as PTSD, anxiety, and depression, some clinicians are trying it with patients, with good results.

Nora Groeschel, 31, was introduced to yoga by her treatment team and credits it with helping her fully recover from the anorexia she battled for nearly 10 years. A pharmacist from Madison, Wisconsin, Nora first struggled with disordered eating in college. By her third year in pharmacy school, she says, she felt trapped in an addictive cycle of starving, purging, and compulsive exercise and had isolated herself from friends. The pattern continued when she got married—she’d spend at least two hours a day at the gym and limited her food intake—and at age 28, her weight hit a new low. One evening, Nora’s husband sat her down and read off a list of names. “Do you know what all these people have in common?” he asked her. “They are all concerned about your weight, and your life.”

See also 5 Ways to Infuse Your Self-Talk with Self-Love

Inspired and determined to recover, Nora began seeing a therapist and nutritionist. But improvement was slow; she continued to hate her body, felt numb to her emotions, and couldn’t let go of her five-day-a-week vigorous exercise routine. When her treatment team suggested yoga, she was reluctant to replace a gym workout with a gentler activity. But once she tried it, she says it became “the single-most helpful modality” in her recovery, encouraging a more compassionate relationship with her body. She credits the introspective elements of yoga—meditations focused on tuning in to sensation, teachings on self-love, moving and breathing in unison in a group—with helping her rediscover a feeling of being at home in her body. “I was amazed at the comfort my classmates had in their bodies, especially the women with soft, supple bodies or curves greater than my own,” she says. “They had some of the most graceful practices I’d ever seen.”

Melody Moore, PhD, a Dallas-based clinical psychologist who uses yoga in her work with eating-disorder patients, says yoga taught with breath awareness and mindfulness can help patients learn how to regulate and calm difficult emotions rather than repress them through compulsive behaviors, and also to rediscover a sense of joy in their body and self-acceptance.

“In yoga, the connection to breath can nurture a connection to one’s real feelings and needs,” says Moore. “The practice allows someone who has been either restricting or overeating an opportunity to tune in to their body and respond with compassion and kindness.” She considers yoga such a valuable tool for her patients that she co-founded the Embody Love Center, a treatment center incorporating yoga and holistic nutrition, and the Embody Love Movement, an outreach program in schools and college campuses that includes yoga to help people gain body awareness and prevent eating disorders.

See also How One Yoga Teacher Reclaimed Her Healthy Body Image in the Face of Shaming

Creating Safe Spaces

As yoga continues to grow more popular by the day, so do both the risks for students who struggle with body image and food issues and the opportunity for prevention. Teachers have a growing sense of urgency to determine how to keep vulnerable students safe, and to make their studios havens for positive attitudes and behavior.

Looking back on yoga’s role in her recovery, Nora says dosage was key to using the practice healthily. “Had I found yoga at the height of my disorder, I would have gone to the hottest studios, the hardest practices,” she says. Instead, her treatment team had her begin with only one class a week, a moderate approach clinicians say is key for students with these illnesses. If a student is at a dangerously low weight, or engaging in purging behaviors, Moore suggests they refrain from asana altogether.

Tara Stiles, founder of the popular Strala Yoga based in New York City, herself suffered from an eating disorder in her late teens and says her personal experience makes her feel responsible for helping protect students. When she suspects a student is struggling, she reaches out and sets firm boundaries when necessary. “I don’t want someone who weighs 80 pounds being in a yoga class,” she says. “They’re welcome to hang around the studio, maybe go to the gentle classes. But I can’t keep them safe when we’re doing pushups or Handstands. If they fall, they’re going to break bones.” Stiles also emphasizes it’s important that students know they’re cared for, and that her studio is a welcoming space. “I invite them out to lunch, and if they say they’ve already eaten I say, ‘Well, how ‘bout dinner?’ If you care about them, you can’t pretend nothing is wrong.”

See also 6 Excerpts on Yoga and Body Image

But because it’s often hard to recognize a student who may be struggling with an eating disorder or at risk for one, it’s critical that teachers think in terms of prevention, says Forbes, and choose language that promotes self-acceptance, not self-criticism. “Yoga teachers know they’re supposed to send this message of ‘love your body,’ but may actually mistakenly send a message of ‘your body needs to be fixed,’” she says. “Instead of emphasizing the shape or form of a pose or practice, we should emphasize the quality of awareness in the pose and the ability to feel into and awaken parts of our bodies and awareness that are not awake.”

Neumark-Sztainer agrees: “If I hear a teacher talk about six-packs or detoxes, I won’t go back to that class. Being cognizant about the language they’re using is something every teacher can do.”

A key factor that can make yoga supportive for those who struggle is finding the right community. Nora says the most important component of her healing came when she joined a yoga-based support group in Madison facilitated by yoga teachers Amanda Ginther and Sarah Higgins, both of whom have healed from disordered eating. (Their program is part of Eat Breathe Thrive, a nonprofit run by this writer.) There, she bonded with other students who were working with a range of body-image and eating disorders. “I’ve never felt so supported, un-alone, and empowered,” she says. “The connection and safety I felt with the group was amazing—I was vulnerable, but supported.”

Now at a healthy weight, Nora wants to give others the gift that changed her life, and is doing a 200-hour yoga teacher training. “For 10 years I tried to recover by myself,” she says. “The practice of yoga pretty much saved my life. I feel alive, I feel connected to others, I feel in union with my body and breath. I want others to have that—I have to share it.”

See also Unf’withable: A Two-Hour Yoga Playlist to Empower Yourself

Chelsea Roff is the founder of Eat Breathe Thrive, a nonprofit supported by the Give Back Yoga Foundationthat helps people fully recover from disordered eating and negative body image through yoga and community support programs. After recovering from anorexia in her late teens, Roff has worked as an author, speaker, and advocate to offer yoga in the treatment of mental-health issues. Learn more about her work at

To donate to the Kelly Parisi Memorial Fund, which supports eating-disorder education and awareness in the yoga community, visit


IQOSA designed a dark and modern interior design for this apartment located in Kiev

IQOSA designed a dark and modern interior design for this apartment located in Kiev

Architects: IQOSA
Location: KievUkraine
Year: 2017
Photo courtesy: IQOSA

Thank you for reading this article!


《 Miriam Stockley – Domini (04:55) 》

《 Miriam Stockley – Domini (04:55) 》



#五四 #越南新文化運動 #台灣白話文 #越南白話文





越南的知識份子早於1907年就在河內創辦了推廣新文化運動的團體「東京義塾」(Đông Kinh Nghĩa Thục)。「東京義塾」的主要成員是一些留學日本的越南知識份子。他們有感於日本慶應義塾對日本新文化運動的影響,故設立東京義塾來傳授西方思想以及科學新知等。他們認定若要達成啟發民智的目的,就須從教導羅馬字、普及國民教育開始。所以「東京義塾」的第一要務就是普及以越南羅馬字書寫的白話文。他們要透過羅馬字來教育民眾、讓大眾有知識能對抗法國殖民統治。「東京義塾」雖然成立不到一年就被法國殖民者強迫關門,但他們的主張卻在知識份子之中普遍得到認同及支持。


東京義塾成員主張推廣的越南羅馬字就是源自17世紀西方傳教士傳入越南的羅馬字。在彙整眾多傳教士的成果下,法國籍傳教士「得路」(法文名是Alexandre de Rhodes)在1651年出版了第一本越南羅馬字辭典《越南、葡萄牙、拉丁語3語對照辭典》(Dictionarium Annamaticum, Lusitanum et Latinum)。經過多年發展後,越南於1865年發行第一份的羅馬字報紙《嘉定報》(Gia Định Báo 1865-1910)。嘉定報就如同台灣於1885年出版的第一份羅馬字報紙《Tâi-oân-hú-siân Kàu-hoē-pò》(台灣府城教會報)一樣,有帶頭普及羅馬字白話文之貢獻。


《嘉定報》的主編為「張永記」(Trương Vĩnh Ký 1837-1898)。張永記也稱為「Pétrus Ký」,他出生在越南南部「永隆省」一個天主教家庭。他很有語言天份,不但懂得越南羅馬字和法文,也曉得漢文、字喃、拉丁文、希臘文、英文、日文和印度文等共計27種語言。他不僅做過《嘉定報》主編,又出版超過一百本的書。由於張永記學識淵博,故於公元1874年榮獲法國推薦入選為世界十八文豪當中的第十七位(唯一入選的亞洲人)。之後,張永記於1883年又榮獲法國科學院院士頭銜。張永記的成就不僅在越南國內獲肯定,也獲得當代國際上的認可,譬如大英百科全書(Encyclopaedia Britannica)就有介紹張永記。


台灣的白話文運動和越南一樣,源自傳教士,且遠早於中國五四運動之前。英國長老教會的醫療宣教師「馬雅各」(James L. Maxwell 1836-1921)來到台灣並於1865年正式在台南設教堂傳教。在一次偶然的機會裡「馬雅各」發現西拉雅族曾使用羅馬字書寫新港文書的歷史。他因而啟發靈感,深信羅馬字對於推動信徒閱讀聖經有極大的幫助。因此他將羅馬字引進到台灣並開始翻譯羅馬字聖經。繼馬雅各之後,馬偕牧師(Rev. George Leslie Mackay 1844-1901)、甘為霖牧師(Rev. William Campbell 1841-1921)及巴克禮牧師(Rev. Thomas Barclay 1849-1935)等相繼投入羅馬字白話文(俗稱「白話字」Pe̍h-ōe-jī)的推動,終於使得白話字在台灣落地生根並逐漸壯大。

馬偕將其學習台語的筆記整理成《中西字典》(Chinese Romanized Dictionary of the Formosan Vernacular),該字典於1874年完成編輯,1891年委由上海美華書館印刷出版。這是第一部傳教士以台灣話為標準所出版的字典。甘為霖在台南本地人林錦生、陳大鑼的協助下編撰白話字工具書《廈門音新字典》(簡稱「甘字典」)。該字典於1913年出版,是台灣教會公報社第一本發行的白話字字典,也是台灣目前最普遍流傳使用的白話字字典。該字典於2009年時重新編印並正名為《甘為霖台語字典》。




我們如果翻開《台灣府城教會報》,就會發現在五四運動以前已經有很多以台語白話字書寫的現代小說。譬如,1886年1月《台灣府城教會報》第7期有一篇小說名為〈Ji̍t-pún ê koài-sū〉(日本的怪事),內容主要是講一個貪心的旅館老闆被一個佯裝作老狐仙的客人騙錢的故事。這篇小說比魯迅的白話小說〈狂人日記〉或胡適的〈文學改良芻議〉早了三十多年!


除了傳教士的貢獻之外,當然也有台灣人後繼的推動,譬如林茂生、蔡培火、鄭溪泮、賴仁聲、王育德等。為了感念這些前人的貢獻,鄭兒玉牧師於生前號召台灣羅馬字協會、台灣教會公報社、長榮中學、台南神學院等單位於2013年5月共同辦理第一屆台灣羅馬字文化節,之後每年5月份都在台南舉行。今年的羅馬字文化節依然在5月份展開,計有文史導覽、白話字文史比賽、查台語詞典比賽三種免費活動,現場還可體驗操作全台第一台印刷機。有興趣的讀者可上台灣羅馬字協會官網查詢與報名(link is external)


《 Miriam Stockley – Homeland (04:46) 》

《 Miriam Stockley – Homeland (04:46) 》

窮鄉僻壤裝不起清淨機 中國室內PM2.5治理出現城鄉差距

窮鄉僻壤裝不起清淨機 中國室內PM2.5治理出現城鄉差距

發表日期 2018年05月02日




根據歐睿國際市調公司的數據顯示, 2013年霧霾期間中國只有310萬台空氣清淨機;分析師預測到今年底,這一數字將會增加一倍,達到750萬台,市場價值約771億台幣。

政府已經著力改善城市户外空氣品量,但室内空氣品質問題則留給市場和消費者。圖片來源:Philips Communications (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)


在中國工作的建築師雷弗·沃利斯看到人們對建築材料和健康環境的要求不斷提高,他根據這一需求推出了綠色建築標準RESET。經RESET標準認證的室內空間, 其PM2.5、二氧化碳和揮發性有機物等污染物質的水平必須連續三個月在健康限值以內,且每年都需接受重新評估。



中國在室內空氣討論中走在前端的另一標誌在於,一家大型研究所今年將在北京成立。這家研究中心由中國開發商遠洋集團、美國房地產公司德羅斯(Delos)、梅奧醫學中心(Mayo Clinic)和優思建築事務所(SuperImpose Architecture)共同成立,其目的是研究如何創造更健康的室內人居環境和辦公環境。




健康的室內空氣也有利於雇主。 2017年,哈佛大學健康與全球環境中心一項具有劃時代意義的研究發現,高性能綠色建築中居住者的認知功能更高、疾病症狀更少、睡眠質量也更好。另一項2016年的研究得出結論,稱空氣污染的比例提高降低了工人的生產力。








「和許多環境健康威脅一樣,室內空氣品質受到的關注遠遠不夠,因為很難將特定的健康問題歸因於某種特定的環境污染物,」環境諮詢公司倫理與環境(Ethics & Environment )創始人西倫·恩斯特說。









※ 本文轉載自中外對話〈清潔室內空氣,城市甩開農村



《 Miriam Stockley – Mercy Street (06:20) 》

《 Miriam Stockley – Mercy Street (06:20) 》

經部擬5月完成觀塘案環差 農委會月中將開藻礁專家會議

經部擬5月完成觀塘案環差 農委會月中將開藻礁專家會議

發表日期 2018年05月02日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導











立委拋異地建站於台北港 經濟部:重新評估來不及








《 Miriam Stockley – Wishing On A Star (05:20) 》

《 Miriam Stockley – Wishing On A Star (05:20) 》

Dutch rewilding experiment sparks backlash as thousands of animals starve

Dutch rewilding experiment sparks backlash as thousands of animals starve

A scheme to rewild marshland east of Amsterdam has been savaged by an official report and sparked public protest after deer, horses and cattle died over the winter

Animal carcasses and dead trees litter the landscape of Oostvaardersplassen
 Animal carcasses and dead trees litter the landscape of Oostvaardersplassen. Photograph: Utrecht Robin/Action Press/Rex Shutterstock

It is known as the Dutch Serengeti, a bold project to rewild a vast tract of land east of Amsterdam. But a unique nature reserve where red deer, horses and cattle roam free on low-lying marsh reclaimed from the sea has been savaged by an official report after thousands of animals starved.

In a blow to the rewilding vision of renowned ecologists, a special committee has criticised the authorities for allowing populations of large herbivores to rise unchecked at Oostvaardersplassen, causing trees to die and wild bird populations to decline.

It follows growing anger in the Netherlands over the slaughter of more than half Oostvaardersplassen’s red deer, Konik horses and Heck cattle because they were starving. After a run of mild winters, the three species numbered 5,230 on the fenced 5,000-hectare reserve. Following a harsher winter, the population is now just 1,850. Around 90% of the dead animals were shot by the Dutch state forestry organisation, which manages the reserve, before they could die of starvation.

Quick guide

What is rewilding


For two months, protesters have tossed bales of hay over fences to feed surviving animals as the Dutch Olympic gold medal-winning equestrian Anky van Grunsven joined celebrity illusionist Hans Klok in condemning the “animal abuse” on the reserve. Ecologists and rangers received death threats from the rising clamour on social media. Protesters compared “OVP” to Auschwitz.

An emaciated horse.
 An emaciated horse. Photograph: Utrecht Robin/Action Press/REX Shutterstock

Oostvaardersplassen was only created in 1968 when an inland sea was drained for two new cities. An industrial zone turned into a marshy haven as it lay undeveloped during the 1970s. Dutch ecologist Frans Vera devised the innovative use of wild-living cattle and horses to mimic the grazing of extinct herbivores such as aurochs, and Oostvaardersplassen became an internationally renowned rewilding reserve, celebrated in a 2013 Dutch film called The New Wilderness.

But in a drastic “reset”, a special committee convened by the provincial government this week called for a halt to the rewilding principle of allowing “natural processes” to determine herbivore populations. Instead, large herbivore numbers should be capped at 1,500 to stop winter fatalities, the committee said, with new forest and marsh areas created for additional “shelter” for the animals.

“This experiment has absolutely failed,” said Patrick van Veen, an animal biologist whose petition to stop animal cruelty at Oostvaardersplassen has been signed by 125,000 people. “You’d expect 20 or 30% to die of natural causes including starvation each year but the population grows in summertime and there is no control mechanism – normally you’d have predators such as wolves but it’s too small an area to have predators.”

People protesting against policy towards animals in the Oostvaardersplassen.
 People protesting against the policy towards animals in Oostvaardersplassen reserve. Photograph: Joris van Gennip / Hollandse Hoogte/Eyevine

As the report was delivered, a small group of women stood outside the provincial government building wearing purple ribbons. A watching policeman joked with them that they were “the hooligans”.

For protesters, Oostvaardersplassen is a secretive experiment devised by distrusted elites – public access is restricted to much of the reserve because the wild Heck cattle are considered dangerous. Jamie Wiebes said OVP made her “ashamed” to be Dutch.


Alongside a band of 50 people, she’s risked €400 fines – and high-speed trains – to lug bales of hay across a railway line and feed the animals over the fence. The group said they delivered 410 bales on one night. “It’s not only the hunger, it’s neglect,” said Wiebes. “The horses have open wounds, their hooves are broken, their teeth are broken, they have white mites on their backs. If you put up a fence, you have to take care of what’s behind the fence – you do in zoos, and even in prisons you have to provide child molesters with food and water. You cannot do a ‘project’ with animals. They are living things.”

From public lookouts, and from trains that skirt its southern border, Oostvaardersplassen in late April looks a bleak and denuded landscape: dead trees collapsed across tightly grazed grass and visibly thin horses and deer. Rangers now move animal carcasses – deliberately left to provide food for everything from beetles to ravens – away from the railway line because of public distress.

Animal activists feed the horses, deer and cattle by throwing hay over the fences of the Oostvaardersplassen nature reserve.
 Animal activists feed the horses, deer and cattle by throwing hay over the fences of the Oostvaardersplassen nature reserve. Photograph: Pierre Crom/Getty Images

But a tour of the full 5,000 hectares with Han Olff, professor of ecology at the University of Groningen , reveals a different picture. Half the area is marshland into which the grazing animals don’t go, creating a sanctuary for rare birds from bearded tits to sea eagles.

“Some people say the ecosystem is dying. Some people, like me, say the ecosystem is just coming alive,” said Olff, pointing out that the dead trees are a source of food for hundreds of beetle species and shelter for small mammals.

Olff admitted the committee’s report had been “a bit of a setback for what’s called rewilding – trusting natural processes, putting in large grazers, letting go of the traditional management of cultural landscapes”. But he rejected the idea that this version of rewilding was abusive towards the grazing animals whose populations are regulated by the natural availability of grass.


“A small group of people have made a tremendous noise, especially horse owners,” he said. “They withhold a free life from their horses and justify that by feeding them too much food. Here the horses can choose its own mates, form social groups and sometimes die because in the herd they are the weakest link.”

About 3,000 red deer, wild horses and cattle did not survive the last winter.
 About 3,000 red deer, wild horses and cattle did not survive the last winter. Photograph: Utrecht Robin/Action Press/REX Shutterstock

Ecologists hope that if more of the reserve is opened up to the public, visitors will better understand that the challenging sights – dead carcasses, dead trees and thinner-than-livestock animals – “are part of the cycle of life, to use a Disney term,” said Olff. “People say it’s a desert, it’s been overgrazed but they don’t see the landscape variability, so we need to much better allow access to the grazing and marsh areas to tell the story of this young, developing ecosystem.”

According to Olff, the biodiversity of Oostvaardersplassen is still burgeoning. Bird declines are not because of “overgrazing” by the large herbivores but due to a loss of reedbed because it’s grazed by geese. And while bird species such as reed warbler have disappeared from the heavily grazed areas, they are still present in the marshes, and new species – lapwing, avocet, shellduck – have arrived because the grass is tightly grazed. The trees that have died are species that can’t adapt to grazing but those that can, such as blackthorn, are very slowly replacing them.

“There isn’t another Oostvaardersplassen in western Europe. People tend to focus on what you lose and ignore what you gain. It’s just changing, it’s not better or worse, it’s just something different. Traditional conservation managers make a plan saying ‘This is what we want to keep – period’. This dynamic way of managing nature is new, it’s different but it’s not an experiment.”


保留區樹木枯死 數千動物挨餓 荷蘭知名野化實驗惹議

保留區樹木枯死 數千動物挨餓 荷蘭知名野化實驗惹議

發表日期 2018年05月03日
環境資訊中心綜合外電;姜唯 編譯;林大利 審校

蘭塞倫蓋蒂」(Dutch Serengeti)是一項大膽的實驗計畫,目的是野化阿姆斯特丹東邊的一大片海埔新生地。然而據英國衛報報導,一份官方報告指出,計畫實施後,這個紅鹿、牛、馬自在漫步的特殊自然保留區竟有數千隻動物挨餓,引發強烈抨擊。

Bart Jekel(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
荷蘭「Oostvaardersplassen」有越來越多動物挨餓死亡。圖片來源:Bart Jekel(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)



荷蘭知名魔術師Hans Klok和奧運金牌馬術運動員Anky van Grunsven接連批評該保留區「虐待動物」。兩個月來,抗議民眾持續往園區圍欄內扔乾草堆給倖存的動物吃。生態學家和保留區巡守員在社群媒體上收到死亡威脅。抗議者甚至將「Oostvaardersplassen」計畫比做納粹集中營。

「Oostvaardersplassen」建立於1968年,當時抽乾一座內海的海水,以開發兩座城市。1970年代,一座沒發展起來的工業區被改闢為沼澤避風港。荷蘭生態學家Frans Vera發想出讓野外自由活動的牛和馬模仿滅絕草食動物(如原牛)行為的創新野化計畫,「Oostvaardersplassen」因此成為國際知名的野化保留區,2013年還拍成電影「新荒野」(The New Wilderness)。


「這個實驗絕對失敗了,」動物學家維恩(Patrick van Veen)說。他發起連署要求停止「Oostvaardersplassen」的虐待動物行為,已經有12萬5000人簽署。「你預計每年有20%或30%的個體死於飢餓等天然因素,但在夏季個體數量增加時卻沒有控制機制——一般來說會是狼之類的掠食者,但園區的面積太小,沒有掠食者。」維恩表示。


但衛報與格羅寧根大學生態學教授Han Olff一起完整參觀了5000公頃的園區,發現一幅不同的景象。有一半的地區是放牧動物不會去的沼澤地,成為文須雀和海鵰等珍稀鳥類的庇護所。












《 Miriam Stockley – Se La Luna Fosse Donna (06:57) 》

《 Miriam Stockley – Se La Luna Fosse Donna (06:57) 》

改善西螺果菜市場空污 雲林力推電動蔬果運輸車汰換柴油拼裝車

改善西螺果菜市場空污 雲林力推電動蔬果運輸車汰換柴油拼裝車

發表日期 2018年05月03日


























《 Miriam Stockley – Forever My Heart (06:47) 》

《 Miriam Stockley – Forever My Heart (06:47) 》

邀您在都市裡悠遊里山 金山南路「保育小站」特展開幕

邀您在都市裡悠遊里山 金山南路「保育小站」特展開幕

發表日期 2018年05月03日
環境資訊中心特約記者 廖靜蕙報導










從都市連結到里山  以綠色消費、生態旅遊支持里山倡議








特展期間林務局以「創-手作體驗坊」、「閱-講座分享會」及「行-里山地景之旅」等三大面向,安排10場次系列演講與手作活動。19日首場講座邀請台灣大學教授郭城孟分享「古台北的里山life style想像」,以植物學的角度帶領民眾探索台北與古台灣的植物風貌,思考里山倡議精神在日常生活實踐的可能性與重要性。活動採網路預約報名,詳細活動內容請至「林務局-森活情報站」臉書專頁查詢。







《 Miriam Stockley – Alla Notte (05:34) 》

《 Miriam Stockley – Alla Notte (05:34) 》

用台灣杉造「鳥居」 向陽工坊結合國產材 創部落永續產業

用台灣杉造「鳥居」 向陽工坊結合國產材 創部落永續產業

發表日期 2018年05月03日
環境資訊中心特約記者 廖靜蕙台東報導




產業重生 結合國產材生根永續












以猛禽象徵森林永續 將手藝融入大自然創作








手機音箱都是手工製造,紋路各有特色;手做鳥居如果捨不得分給鳥用,典藏收集也是不錯的建議!目前因取材不易 很難拿到足夠尺寸的木材,所以這批賣完之後,必須等有適合的木材才會再製做,民眾可得把握難得的機會!


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