Hand-Positioning Tips to Prevent Injury in Weight-Bearing Poses


https://www.yogajournal.com/poses/hands-down

Hand-Positioning Tips to Prevent Injury in Weight-Bearing Poses

Learn how to guide your students to bear weight on their hands with mindfulness and hand positioning tips so they avoid injury and gain upper-body strength.
T.K.V. Desikachar, yogis in downward facing dog at a yoga studio

Learn how to guide your students to bear weight on their hands with mindfulness and hand positioning tips so they avoid injury and gain upper-body strength.

Newcomers to yoga are often surprised by how much attention teachers pay to their feet during class. After all, our feet are our connection to the Earth, and the foundation from which our standing poses grow. But what about hands? They, too, form a foundation for poses like Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward Facing Dog), Adho Mukha Vrksasana (Handstand), and the other arm balances. Just like the feet, the way your students use their hands will affect their balance and set the stage for the pose to grow from its roots in the Earth.

With a little knowledge about the structure of the hands and wrists, teachers could also inform students about how to correctly use their hands. Not only will the pose’s foundation be more stable, but the whole pose will be better aligned. And probably most important, they’ll reduce their chances of acquiring the nagging hand and wrist problems that are increasingly prevalent with more weight bearing on the hands and arms.

Hands vs. Feet

Hands and feet share similar bones and muscles, and the hands, like the feet, even have arches. There are differences, of course, that reflect the specialized functions of each. The structures of the foot, for example, are considerably stronger and thicker in order to bear weight, and the hand has nothing like the big, strong calcaneus (heel bone) that’s designed to absorb the impact of the heel striking the ground when walking. In addition, the phalanges (finger and toe bones) are short in the toes but long in the fingers, allowing humans to perform finely-coordinated activities like playing the piano and drawing.

See alsoHand Mudras: The Importance + Power of Your Fingers

Most of us can’t readily write or paint a picture with our feet, but we know that with special training, humans can learn. Similarly, bearing weight on the hands doesn’t come naturally, and can cause painful problems in the hands and wrists, especially when students suddenly start spending a lot of time on their hands. That explains why complaints about wrist pain are common after a student who’s relatively new to yoga starts practicing many cycles of Sun Salutations every day. As in any new activity, advise your students to start bearing weight on the hands and arms gradually, beginning with a few minutes every other day. That 48-hour interval allows the body to repair and build stronger structures, including muscles, ligaments, and tendons.

Teach Awareness in Weight-Baring Poses

The way you use and position your hands while bearing weight on them makes a difference, too. Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward-Facing Dog Pose) is a good pose in which to work on hand awareness with your students. Begin by asking them to simply notice which part, or parts, of the hand and fingers are bearing most of the weight. Unless they’ve already worked attentively with their hand action, chances are good that they’re bearing more weight on the heels of your hands than the metacarpal heads (base of the fingers where they join the palms). This tendency to lean into the heels of the hands will add more compression, and eventually discomfort, in the wrists.

Then, invite them to come to hands and knees, with the heels of their hands under their shoulders. Prompt them to look down at their hands and spread their fingers so that they have the same amount of space between each finger. Their fingers should be out straight and long from the palm of their hands and be actively pressing down the base of each finger where it joins the palm. (One of the gifts of Downward-Facing Dog is stretching the fingers out of their habitually flexed, or curled, position.) From the base of the little finger to the base of the thumb these knuckle joints form a half-circle of contact points, and inside that arc is the natural arch of the hand, which should be light and lifted off the floor.

See also3 Ways to Make Downward-Facing Dog Feel Better

Instruct your students to keep those contact points pressed down firmly as they lift their knees up and come into Downward-Facing Dog. From the grounded finger bases, remind them to keep stretching each finger out of the palm, and at the same time they should feel that they’re lifting their forearms up out of their wrists. If the bases of the fingers share part of the weight, less weight (and compression) will rest on the heels of the hands and wrists. From the lift of the arch of the hand, it’s possible to lift and lengthen all the way up to the hips, uncompressing your wrists, elbows, shoulders, and spine along the way.

Build upon the Foundation

When your students have learned how to distribute weight more evenly through the hands, they will be able to begin apply that knowledge to more challenging poses like Urdhva Mukha Svanasana (Upward Facing Dog), Adho Mukha Vrksasana (Handstand), and other arm balances. These poses are more challenging than Adho Mukha Svanasana because there is more weight on the hands, and the wrists are at 90 degrees instead of the more open angle of Downward-Facing Dog.

Keeping grounded around the periphery of the palm, and lifting from the arch, can bring a new lightness and better balance to these challenging poses.

See alsoLearn How to Protect the Wrists in Your Practice

Teachers, explore the newly improved TeachersPlus. Protect yourself with liability insurance and build your business with a dozen valuable benefits, including a free teacher profile on our national directory. Plus, find answers to all your questions about teaching.

About Our Expert

Julie Gudmestad is a certified Iyengar Yoga teacher and licensed physical therapist who runs a combined yoga studio and physical therapy practice in Portland, Oregon. She enjoys integrating her Western medical knowledge with the healing powers of yoga to help make the wisdom of yoga accessible to all.

 

4 Mistakes Yoga Teachers Make Describing Anatomy (And How to Avoid Them)


https://www.yogajournal.com/teach/how-to-avoid-misusing-anatomical-language

4 Mistakes Yoga Teachers Make Describing Anatomy (And How to Avoid Them)

Deven Sisler offering a hands-on assist for Pigeon Pose.

It’s with a mixture of amazement, amusement, and sometimes sadness that I listen to yoga teachers and students discuss anatomy in the context of asana practice. Sometimes I’m amazed and impressed by a teacher’s understanding of anatomy and movement, and by his or her ability to describe it in clear and engaging terms that highlight the students’ experience in the pose. Sometimes an anatomical description is enough off course to make a laugh-out-loud image. And sometimes it’s just plain sad that we, as teachers, are squandering a learning opportunity for our students by disseminating erroneous information, when we could be helping them deepen their understanding of not only the yoga poses but also their own bodies.

4 Common Mistakes Yoga Teachers Make Describing Anatomy (And How to Avoid Them)

1. Using Names of Anatomical Terms and Names of Injuries Interchangeably

Often when teachers make an anatomy mistake while describing a yoga pose in class, they’re simply repeating a common misunderstanding. Some of my favorites include body-part names that have become synonymous with injuries. These include using “rotator cuff," which is a group of four muscles that help move and stabilize the ball in the socket of the shoulder joint, to mean a rotator cuff tear. Or “TMJ," which is the temporomandibular (jaw) joint, to mean a TMJ problem or injury. So I may have someone approach me to report that “I have TMJ" or “I have rotator cuff," and I have to stifle the temptation to say, “Oh really? I have two of them."

2. Misusing Anatomical Terminology Describing Movement

Other common mistakes I hear teachers make involve the incorrect use of terms to describe movement. There is actually a fairly simple, straightforward system that anatomists and kinesiologists use to describe human movement and joint positions. However, most people need to invest some time and practice in order to learn it and use the descriptive words correctly. In yoga teaching, the word “extension" seems to cause the most problems, as teachers want to use the word to describe opening, lengthening, and uncompressing a body part. In anatomy, the word describes precise movements and positions. For example, shoulder extension occurs when the arms reach back behind you, as in Sarvangasana (Shoulderstand): the shoulders are flexed when the arms stretch up overhead. Hip extension occurs when the thigh is in line with the torso, as opposed to the thigh angling forward, as happens when we sit in chairs. In a spinal extension the spine arches, as in a backbend. So if you ask me (or other medical professionals) to extend my spine while standing in Tadasana (Mountain Pose), I will lean backward into a backbend, risking compression in my lower back, which is probably the opposite of the intended uncompressing of the spine.

See also3 Tips for Teaching Anatomy to Yoga Students

3. Assuming Your Students Can Identify A Body Part

Another common category of confusion for students is the location of frequently referenced body parts, including muscles, joints, and bones. In general, deeper structures such as the psoas and piriformis muscles and the kidneys tend to be the most mysterious, but students can even be stumped by more superficial structures like the sacroiliac joints, the scapula, and the trapezius muscle. As I mentioned in my last column, 3 Tips for Teaching Anatomy to Yoga Students, it’s always a good idea to have your students find the structures in their own bodies before you give instructions about how to position or move them. Otherwise your students may try hard to comply with your instructions but really have no idea what you’re talking about.

4. Giving Instructions That Are Not Anatomically Possible

Probably my biggest concern has to do with teachers asking students to perform actions that a muscle can’t do, or can’t do in that position. To me, that sets up a disconnect between the verbal, cerebral understanding of the action/position and what is actually happening in the body—in effect, the student learns that they can’t trust their own experience. For example, I’ve heard a teacher ask students to “Relax your neck" in sideways standing poses such as Utthita Trikonasana (Extended Triangle Pose) and Utthita Parsvakonasana (Extended Side Angle Pose). In those poses, practiced to the right, the left neck muscles are actually contracting to hold up the weight of the head against the pull of gravity. If the neck muscles relaxed, the head would hang down. While we do want a long neck (maximum distance between the ears and shoulder blades on both sides), the neck muscles are not truly relaxing. Other interesting but, sadly, not physically possible instructions I’ve heard are: Move the psoas to the right or left; relax your abdominals (but don’t allow the lower back to over arch away from the floor) in Urdhva Prasarita Padasana (Leg Lifts); and release and relax your serratus anterior muscles as you stretch your arms overhead. One of the most unfortunate instructions involves asking tight students, whose fingers don’t touch the floor as they hang down, to relax their hamstrings in Uttanasana (Standing Forward Bend). With no support from the arms, the hamstrings are actually contracting to support the torso and prevent falling to the floor. For these students, who desperately need to learn to relax and lengthen their hams, they are learning from their teacher’s words that “stretching" is actually contracting. Ideally, as yoga teachers, we can use language to help our students deepen the connection between body and mind, ears and muscles, as teachers and students alike grow toward wholeness. Sometimes, that growth requires a bit of study by teachers to improve the clarity and accuracy of our instructions.

See alsoBasic Anatomy for Yoga Teachers

Teachers, explore the newly improved TeachersPlus. Protect yourself with liability insurance and build your business with a dozen valuable benefits, including a free teacher profile on our national directory. Plus, find answers to all your questions about teaching.

ABOUT OUR EXPERT
Julie Gudmestad is a certified Iyengar Yoga teacher and licensed physical therapist who runs a combined yoga studio and physical therapy practice in Portland, Oregon. She enjoys integrating her Western medical knowledge with the healing powers of yoga to help make the wisdom of yoga accessible to all.

 

6 Mistakes Home Yoga Practitioners Make (and How to Fix Them)


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/6-mistakes-home-yoga-practitioners-make-and-how-to-fix-them

6 Mistakes Home Yoga Practitioners Make (and How to Fix Them)

Practice at home on the regular? We do, too! While this is a great option, streaming yoga without a live teacher can lead to common mistakes. Top online teachers share what they think we do wrong and give their tips on improvements we can make.

Online classes make practicing yoga more convenient, accessible, and affordable. You can practice wherever you’d like, whenever you’d like, and choose the length, type, and level of the class. The best part, other than not having to change out of your pajamas? Most streaming yoga services such as YogaGloOMStars, and more cost $20 or less per month.

The downside is that unless there’s a two-way camera involved (Ompractice offers this service), there’s no live teacher to offer suggestions and corrections. So we asked popular online teachers what mistakes home practitioners are making the most—and how to correct them.

See also Tips from Social Media’s Top Yogis on How to Handle Haters and Trolls

6 ‘Mistakes’ Home Yoga Practitioners Make (and How to Fix Them)

 

邊緣地帶論下的中國「睦鄰外交」


海洋安全的不穩定,激化了中國採取積極的「防衛型現實主義」誘因。為了要深化防衛型現實主義,中國正採取「邊緣地帶理論」的戰略手段。

#中國 #外交策略 #睦鄰外交
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6956

邊緣地帶論下的中國「睦鄰外交」

友善列印版本

長期以來,中國和周邊國家的關係,常面臨起起伏伏的狀態。若打開中國的地圖,陸地和鄰國接壤的部分,有時雖有一些小矛盾,但總體局勢平穩。對於中國這個傳統的陸權帝國而言,西半邊的安全大致獲得保障。

然而,東半部的領土與海洋安全卻是中國長期的隱憂。當前的中共領導階層認為,來自外國的軍事入侵可能性小,但與周邊國家的臨海地帶卻可能不時出現小衝突或矛盾。

海洋安全的不穩定,激化了中國採取積極的「防衛型現實主義」誘因。為了要深化防衛型現實主義,中國正採取「邊緣地帶理論」的戰略手段。

美國已故知名學者尼古拉斯·史派克曼曾在1940年代提出「邊緣地帶理論」。該論點繼承了麥金德的「陸權說」,並把世界劃分為心臟地帶、邊緣地帶、離岸島嶼與大陸(麥金德理論之「島嶼大型陸地」,「外新月形地帶」)。

其中,邊緣地帶的特徵是處於心臟與海權的邊緣。夾在海陸強權之間,邊緣地帶必須自衛,因而有根本的自身安全問題。史派克曼認為,「誰控制邊緣地帶,誰就統治歐亞;誰統治歐亞,誰就控制世界的命運」。

史派克曼的論點成為美國於冷戰時期圍堵共產國家的理論根基,而被稱為「圍堵政策之父」。

以此論點觀察當今東亞局勢,中國已明顯感受到美國開始採取圍堵中國的意圖。因此,對中國而言,如何處理邊緣地帶的相關國家,對其國家安全至關重要。

長期以來,中國的外交策略上,總隱含著一種迷思:只要搞定美國總統,就能搞定美國;只要搞定美國,中國就能搞定美國在西太平洋的盟邦。因此,中國花費不少資源和功夫在美國(和高層決策者)身上。

然而,由於地緣政治的結構性矛盾,美中的競爭態勢日益升溫,中國面臨了邊緣地帶論中的圍堵壓力。面對此困境,中國決定反其道而行,開始修補和周邊國家的關係,穩定「邊緣地帶」的安全,也透過美國盟邦,箝制美國在亞洲的圍堵戰略。

故此,盱衡過去半年的局勢,中國接連和原本劍拔弩張的韓國、日本、北韓、越南、印度、澳洲等鄰近國家改善關係;在東南亞地區,更加積極藉由金錢、投資、文化、外交、軍事等綜合力量,和美國分庭抗禮。

在陸權和海權的摻雜下,中國正試圖打破邊緣地帶理論的包圍牢籠,提昇軍事實力,進行(對美國)區域拒止、保衛鄰近國土的海洋邊緣地點,執行防衛型現實主義,避免美國勢力在西太平洋的戰略存在威脅中國的國家安全。同時,確保邊緣地帶的安全保證,也為國家統一提供條件。

中國人民解放軍轟-6K遠程轟炸機(圖片來源:維基共享資源,CC BY 4.0)

特別是,為了抗衡美國的包圍勢力,從習近平上台後,中國即不斷提升海空軍實力,希望通過不對稱戰力和持續增強的綜合國力,想盡辦法將美國在西太平洋的勢力驅逐出去。

同時,中國也寄望能在印度洋取得主導地位。實現此一目標前,中國必須把自身的影響力擴張到東南亞。這些擴張的動作,本質上都在保護其邊緣地帶,也意圖扭轉史派克曼所稱之「夾在海陸強權之間的根本性安全問題」。

總結上述立論,中國深刻了解,美中兩國在地緣政治上的結構性矛盾(在輸贏立判前),只會愈來愈惡化,而不會改善。故此,軍事上,中國會不斷增強對美國的區域拒止能力;外交上,積極改善和周邊國家,尤其是大東亞各國的關係。

這意味著,中國力求扭轉邊緣地帶論中被包圍的宿命。然而,這可能也讓台灣和臨邊國家的關係,在中國深入實行「睦鄰外交」下,會更加嚴峻,我政府不得不預先擬定對策,降低傷害。

 

Yoga Sequence for Change: 5 Steps to Parivrtta Paschimottanasana


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/blueprint-for-change

Yoga Sequence for Change: 5 Steps to Parivrtta Paschimottanasana

Darren Rhodes’ sequence of sidebends and twists asks you to investigate your unhealthy habits and patterns.
man in sidebend twist yoga pose

Darren Rhodes’ sequence of sidebends and twists asks you to investigate your unhealthy habits and patterns.

For Darren Rhodes, yoga teacher and founder of Yoga Oasis in Tucson, Arizona, yoga is more than a means of unwinding; it’s a tool for observing unhealthy patterns and working to transform them. Rhodes has witnessed such transformation in his own body: As a teen, he was diagnosed with scoliosis, or curvature of the spine, that left him in pain most days. He describes the feeling as “an eagle’s talons wrapped around the muscles on the right side of my spine." Years of yoga helped him reduce the curvature from what was once 40 degrees to less than 10 degrees. “I’ve learned that my practice is more potent than my pattern," he says.

See also Yoga for Scoliosis

Rhodes’s message is simple yet powerful: When you become aware of unhealthy patterns in the body, you can awaken to the possibility of change. A skillful, conscious yoga practice provides the opportunity for taking an unhealthy habit and creating a new one that better serves you.

This sequence of sidebends and twists asks you to investigate your unhealthy habits and patterns instead of following them blindly. Rhodes points out that the tendency in these poses is to focus on the end result, such as the depth of the twist or the sexiness of the sidebend. But doing so can move the hips and legs out of alignment, which is destabilizing and puts you at risk for injury.

See also On Your Side: A Sequence for the Side Body

To counteract this tendency, he suggests that you first align the lower body, pause, and then move into the sidebend or twist. By pausing and taking a moment to become conscious of your alignment before you twist, you’ll find the sweet spot in the pose. You may not go as deeply into the poses, but you’re more likely to experience the benefits they have to offer. “These aren’t flashy poses," he says, “but they hold the possibility of yielding deep calm and relaxation. To me this practice isn’t about external accomplishment but about making a shift to a more internal state."
He adds that applying awareness and discipline to your alignment can, at times, feel less gratifying since keeping the lower body stable can limit how far you can twist or bend the upper body. But he insists that the tradeoff is worthwhile because you’ll feel more balance in your nervous system. You might even correct a deeper habit that’s causing you pain or suffering, like yoga did for Rhodes. “If I did twists unconsciously, it would make my back worse. But I consciously bring my scoliosis to the twist, and knowing what pattern I’m working with allows me to stay pain-free," says Rhodes.

See also Alignment Cues Decoded: “Draw Your Shoulder Blades Down"

Before You Begin

To create the heat and flexibility you’ll need in the side body and hamstrings, move through two to three rounds of Surya Namaskar (Sun Salutation) and then take Virabhadrasana I (Warrior Pose I), Utkatasana (Chair Pose), Virabhadrasana II(Warrior Pose II), Trikonasana (Triangle Pose), Utthita Parsvakonasana (Extended Side Angle Pose), and Virabhadrasana III (Warrior Pose III).

Indudalasana (Standing Crescent Pose)

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By practicing Indudalasana (Standing Crescent Pose), you will create openness in both sides of the body. When you press down evenly through your legs, you will create the strength and unity in your lower body that you’ll call upon again in Parivrtta Paschimottanasana (Revolved Seated Forward Bend).

From Tadasana (Mountain Pose), inhale, and reach both arms out to the sides until they are parallel to the floor. On an exhalation, roll your thumbs away from one another so that your biceps and inner forearms rotate up and your palms open to the sky. On an inhalation, bring your arms overhead. Place your palms together and overlap your thumbs.

Reach the arms up and back. Notice if your ribcage has moved forward, bringing an unintentional backbend to the pose. If it has, shift your gaze down and move the tops of your thighs and the base of your sternum in toward your back body.

Exhale and extend your torso to the right and your hips to the left. Notice if you are unconsciously rolling the left shoulder forward and the right shoulder back. Resist this movement by drawing the left hip back. This may mean that you don’t bend as far into the pose, and that’s OK. Squeeze the legs together and press down through the feet. Notice that the left foot naturally wants to get lighter. Put extra awareness into pressing the left foot down with as much effort as the right foot. Scoop the tailbone to bring the low back into a neutral position. Finally, move the left scapula more firmly toward the middle of the back by engaging the muscles along the inner and outer shoulder blade. Hold for one minute on each side and release.

See also This Side Up: Sidebend for Space

Parighasana (Gate Pose)

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Parighasana (Gate Pose) is another powerful sidebend that requires a lot of strength in the abdominals and arms. It opens the backs of the legs and the intercostals, the muscles between the ribs.

Come to kneeling. Extend your right leg out to the side and point your right foot. The tips of the toes might touch the floor, but don’t worry if the four corners of the foot do not. Align the left hip over the left knee and press the top of the left foot down into the mat. Press the right heel down and, without moving the foot, energetically draw it in toward the left knee to firm your foundation. Resist the tendency to roll the inner right knee toward the floor; this action puts uneven pressure on the hamstring and kneecap. Instead, externally spiral the right leg. Draw the middle of the right buttock forward in the direction of your pubic bone.

Once your lower body is aligned, pause for a moment. When you move the upper body into the pose, the tendency is for the right hip to shift back in space and the right toes to angle forward, and this makes the hamstring vulnerable to injury. Instead of giving in to the body’s unconscious pattern here, extend the right toes in line with the right knee and actively draw the middle of the right buttock toward your pubic bone as you pull the inner right thigh back toward the back of your mat. Make a commitment to keep your lower body alignment intact even as you bend and twist the upper body. Don’t allow the movement of the upper body to overtake the lower body in an effort to get deeper into the pose. Make your actions skillful instead of habitually going for the deepest form of the pose.

Next, stretch both arms out away from the shoulders until they are parallel to the floor. Reach your right fingertips and your ribcage to the right. Turn the right palm down and place it flat on the floor to the inside of the right foot. Breathe into your right side body, especially between the bottom rib and the crest of the right hipbone. If your right side feels spacious and the right hamstring invites a deeper stretch, flip the right hand over, bringing the back of the right hand to the floor. Extend your left arm until the left bicep is alongside the left ear. If this is your edge, keep the left arm parallel to the floor. If your right palm is facing up and you’re feeling comfortable, lower the left arm until, eventually, the left palm rests on top of the right palm.

As in Standing Crescent Pose, the challenge here is to resist the urge to collapse the torso toward the floor. Instead, hug the arms and legs toward the midline, which will give you more power to twist, even if you can’t bend as far. Keep the head aligned evenly between the arms. Gaze straight ahead. From the left fingertips, pull the left shoulder blade in toward the thoracic spine (middle of the back). To get the ribs to move the torso into the twist, you need to move the lungs. Inhale, and think about filling the right lung more than the left. Imagine the right lung moving forward. Exhale, and resist the forward momentum by energetically keeping the right shoulder moving back. Think about inhaling your inner body into the twist while resisting with your outer body. Hold for one minute and switch sides.

See also 7 Poses to Firm + Tone the Glutes for a Stronger Practice

Parivrtta Trikonasana (Revolved Triangle Pose)

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Parivrtta Trikonasana (Revolved Triangle Pose) is a deep twist where you’ll create the flexibility in the hips, chest, and shoulders to move closer to the final pose. Take a wide stance. Extend your arms straight out from your shoulders. Bring your ankles under your wrists. Then step your feet closer together by two to three inches. Turn your left foot out at a 90-degree angle. Turn your right foot in at a 60-degree angle. Bring your hands to your hips and pivot your hip points to the left until they are facing your left leg. Press your feet down and apart. Engage your thigh muscles to draw your kneecaps up.

Reach your right arm up alongside your ear. Slide your left thumb into your outer left hip crease so that your fingers touch your outer thigh. With your thumb, deepen the crease as you fold forward. Place the right fingertips on a block or bring them to the floor outside of the left foot. To create strength and stability in the hips and firmly anchor the twist, combine the following three actions: Press through the inner edge of the left foot, draw the outer left hip back, and scoop the tailboneforward.

Take a moment to breathe and consider your next move. Are you in alignment with what matters here, or are you focusing on the end result? If you are focusing on getting a deep twist, you might notice that your left hip has shifted forward and the torso has drifted over the right leg with the crown of the head pointed toward the upper right corner of the mat. Instead, create a straight line from your hips to your head so that the torso is parallel to the long edge of the mat. Take your gaze to the inside of your left foot.

To generate leverage for the twist, push the right fingertips down and toward the front foot. Extend the left arm toward the sky. Notice if the left hand wants to move toward the back edge of the mat. If that happens, the shoulder joint will move out of alignment. To resist that pattern, spread the fingers of the top hand and press the palm forward without moving it, as if pressing against an imaginary wall. As the hand energetically presses forward, feel the top of the shoulder draw back. Hold for up to one minute on each side.

See also A Delicate Balance: Revolved Triangle

Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Bend)

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This final preparation for Parivrtta Paschimottanasana quiets the mind. Paschimottanasana is a great way to create an empowered symmetry. Plus it gives you a deep spine and hamstring stretch that you’re going to need for the final pose.

From Tadasana, sit on your mat with your legs outstretched. Squeeze the legs together. Draw the lower back in and up. Make the inner edges of the feet flush. Extend the big toe and second toe straight up, and keep the outer toes spreading evenly to the sides.

Inhale, and reach your arms overhead. Exhale and take your hands to your feet. If you can’t reach your feet, use a strap. Press down with your hands and lift up through your shoulders. Resist the urge to dive your head and shoulders down toward your shins. Doing so will force you to round your upper back.

This pose provides a great opportunity to practice “not doing." Paschimottanasana builds a natural patience for observing the patterns of tension in the spine. To lengthen the upper back, press down with your hands and lift your shoulders up and apart. Lift the inner and outer edges of your shoulders evenly so that the shoulder blades don’t slope or round off the back.

Press your tailbone down and lift your low belly in and up. Bring your awareness to your ribcage. Notice if you are tempted to jut the ribs forward toward the thighs as a means of bringing your forehead closer to the shins. Instead, actively lift the front of the torso away from the thighs and root the thighbones down into the mat. Remember, if your goal is to get to an image of a “finished pose," then your awareness of what’s happening in the pose right now will go out the door.

Press your feet into your hands and create resistance by pulling your hands against your feet. This pressing and pulling will engage your legs and lengthen your spine, respectively. Actively squeeze your legs together, like you did in Standing Crescent Pose; this action is key to aligning the hips in the final pose. Bend the elbows away from each other. Hold the pose for at least one minute before moving into the next pose.

Parivrtta Paschimottanasana (Revolved Seated Forward Bend)

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Parivrtta Paschimottanasana (Revolved Seated Forward Bend) is unlike most other twists. In asymmetrical seated or standing twists, such as Ardha Matsyendrasana(Half Lord of the Fishes Pose) or Parivrtta Parsvakonasana (Revolved Side Angle Pose), you press into your elbow and knee for leverage. That leverage allows you to go deeper into the twist. In contrast, Parivrtta Paschimottanasana requires you to extend both legs and use only the contact of your forearm against your shin for leverage. You must move the inner and outer bodies in ways that are both subtle and significant.

From Paschimottanasana, straighten your arms and lift your chest. Draw your lower belly in and up. Squeeze your legs together. This action will create a sense of oneness that roots the hips and protects the sacroiliac joint. Before you twist, take a moment to observe how you are approaching the movement. Notice if you’re tempted to muscle your way into the pose. If you force your body past its limit, it will fail at the weakest point. In this pose, the most vulnerable point is typically the lower back.

Bring your fingertips to the floor outside of your shins. Hinge at the hips slightly. Your back stays long. Take the right forearm to the outside of your left shin and hold on to the outer left foot. Firmly press the right elbow into the left outer shin (below the knee). If possible, place the right elbow on the floor.

Here is one place where you can use the body’s natural penchant for misalignment to your advantage. As you move into the twist on the left side, the right leg naturally wants to inch forward. Allow that movement. It will allow the right elbow to sink three inches closer to the floor on the outside of the left shin. Nestle the right elbow and left shin together to form a vice grip that will give you the power to twist your torso. Once you have your elbow in position, draw the right leg back and stretch the left leg forward so that your feet are flush.

Now catch the top of the right foot with your left hand. Shift your head back and extend the crown of your head toward the top of your feet. Twist your abdomen and chest toward the sky. You may not be able to get your head underneath your left bicep, but you can work on this pose by being in the pose.

See also The Truth About Forward Bends

The subtlety of the pose comes from the movement of the lungs. On an inhalation, move the right lung toward the left thigh. Exhale and draw the left lung back toward the back ribs. Resist the urge to twist deeper on the exhalation when the ribs and vertebrae are more compressed. The pose will yield more if you twist on the inhalation and anchor down through the sitting bones on the exhalation. Continue to breathe as if the lungs were rotating up toward the ceiling. As you do, resist the twist with the shoulders. Your left inner shoulder blade presses back toward right thigh, and your right shoulder presses in toward the right chest. Hold a minute or less on each side.

To Finish

Unwind the twist and fold into Paschimottanasana. Move into Purvottanasana(Upward Plank Pose) and end with a 10-minute Savasana (Corpse Pose).

About Our Author
Catherine Gutherie is a writer, editor, and yoga teacher in Boston.

 

Layered views and blurring edges of the Pine Tree Residence by SAOTA


https://www.caandesign.com/layered-views-and-blurring-edges-of-the-pine-tree-residence-by-saota/

Layered views and blurring edges of the Pine Tree Residence by SAOTA

Architects: SAOTA
Location: MiamiFloridaUnited States
Year: 2016
Area: 4,306 ft²/ 400 m²
Photo courtesy: Dan Forer
Description:

“Open plan living and the ability to live in and through your home has inspired this transparent and easy-living family home.  Set between the Indian Creek Canal and Pine Tree Drive in Miami’s historic Collin’s Waterfront district, the SAOTA-designed space is expansive and fluid – opening up to the activity of the canal when desired, or contained when privacy is needed.

Set on a strongly linear proportioned site, the building is porous, bringing the landscape and water bodies into the interior of the house to create a greater sense of space.

Through the introduction of a number of introverted and extroverted courtyards, the house boasts views to the outside in two directions. These views are visible from almost any point in the house, creating a tangible and immediate relationship to the outdoors.

“The design is as much about containment as it is about the views through the many living spaces, towards the Atlantic Ocean and world-renowned Miami Beach,” says SAOTA director, Philip Olmesdahl.  “While the overall contemporary architectural design is a key focus of the SAOTA design team, the use and connectivity of the spaces is the primary driver – how the house lives.”

The approach to living on the water is a unique Miami experience and something SAOTA sought to reinforce, in keeping with the continuous summers in Miami.  In total, the size of the overall body of water on the site, is about half the space of the six-bedroom house.

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On arrival, a multi-purpose basketball court creates a buffer to Pine Tree Drive, offering a suspensive arrival experience as one enters into the grand, serene forecourt. On the opposite side of the property, to the back of the house, a pool pavilion provides a space for people to enjoy the immediacy of the water – both at the pool and at the waterway; an enclosed space offering an outdoor experience, while also allowing for privacy.

A great deal of time and effort went into the design of the pool courtyard,” says Mark Bullivant, SAOTA director. “Time was spent understanding the use of the spaces, including how and when the pool will be used. The outdoor area is animated by a series of events; whether that be the hot tub, BBQ, bar, or a two-storey waterslide. The waterslide forms a focal point at the pool pavilion and makes the space appealing for entertaining.”

Natural lighting plays a strong role in informing the design, with glazed openings to the side of the house flooding the interiors with natural light. The outdoor terrace is also designed to take full advantage of the Western sun, late into the afternoon.

“Raymond Jungles’ relaxed, confident and freehand approach to landscaping resulted in a natural environment that truly reflects Miami. The integration between interior and exterior spaces allows lush greenery to invade the home in a structured way.”

The concept of containment of the various living spaces is best embodied in the screens that cloak the building. Primarily born out of the functional need for privacy and solar control, their application evolved to something far more significant as punched anodised aluminium becomes architectural jewellery. The screens play with the character of light, heightening the experience of enclosure and transparency.

The screens have multiple functions; in some instances they define spaces, as seen with the double volume nature of the entrance, and in others they facilitate the creation of private protected sanctuaries, as seen in the bedroom where the terraces can be screened in to become part of the room. Where the screens are iconic and loud, the finishes are assertive, but restrained. A key intent has been to implement a palette that is controlled and continuous – limiting the materials to a core few wherever possible. This ensured a cohesion between various spaces, creating a home that is refined and comfortable to live in.

The interiors are designed in collaboration with Nils Sanderson. There is a refinement to the interior design of the home that subtly rouses all senses but leaves room for discovery. Serene and harmonious, the fluid finishes creates a sense of respite from the pace of city life. Warm tones are explored throughout the sun-filled spaces by using delicate manipulations of patterns and textures. This is complemented by unique lighting designed by Lux Populi. The designers approach keeps things calm and subdued, creating an effortless design. Singularity and warmth is achieved through various materials including the callacutta and limestone, the wood’s richness, texture and movement.

Working with DVice as the architect of record and Brodson as the construction company, Pine Tree is SAOTA’s first project to be completed in Miami.”

Thank you for reading this article!

 

【聽那些女孩唱歌】以音樂確立人權的聲音──妮娜.西蒙


妮娜.西蒙這位一生從事黑人人權運動不遺餘力的天后級歌手,或許沒想到在她過世15年後,會與Bon Jovi等人並列2018的搖滾名人堂入選名單。

#黑人運動 #歌手 #靈魂教母
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6954

【聽那些女孩唱歌】以音樂確立人權的聲音──妮娜.西蒙

友善列印版本

妮娜.西蒙(Nina Simone, 1933-2003)這位一生從事黑人人權運動不遺餘力的天后級歌手,或許沒想到在她過世15年後,會與Bon Jovi、The Cars、Dire Straits、The Moody Blues以及 Sister Rosetta Tharpe並列2018的搖滾名人堂入選名單。雖說頒獎典禮上,西蒙的哥哥表示她應該會開心,但卻也有許多評論家認為,曾拒絕自己的音樂被貼上「爵士」這個標籤、也不希望音樂由白人來專屬定義的妮娜.西蒙,或許不見得會特別雀躍;她曾經說:「爵士是一個用來定義黑人的白人名詞。我的音樂是黑人古典樂。」在她心目中,如何確立黑人本身應有的傳統、翻轉目前主流社會白人霸權中的文化位階,才是最重要的事。

Ain’t Got No, I Got Life – Nina Simone

本名Eunice Kathleen Waymon的妮娜.西蒙出生於南卡羅萊納州的Tryon鎮一個家有八個孩子的大家庭中;從小,她便跟著媽媽在教會唱詩歌,受到了聲樂家Marian Anderson的賞識,年紀很小就開始一位名為Muriel Mazzanovich的鋼琴家學習古典鋼琴,每天紮實苦練長達八小時,並顯現出卓越的演奏天份。十歲時,她在鎮上舉辦公開演奏會,此時西蒙的父母一反當時種族順位的慣例(非白人者,一律都坐在後排位置),往前坐到了前排的位置,而且拒絕換位到後面,由此可見西蒙對種族平等的概念、以及後來的努力,都和父母的身教大大有關。而她童年時期少有時間結交黑人同儕朋友、又經常出入白人區學鋼琴,也奠定了她深刻感受到黑白種族隔離的眼光。

Nina Simone “To Be Young Gifted And Black”

十七歲時,西蒙先進入紐約市知名的茱莉亞音樂學院(Julliard School),在那裡度過一個夏天,師事Carl Friedberg,作為申請位於費城、同樣著名的蔻蒂斯音樂學院(Curtis Institute)的準備;此時她的父母也已為此事,舉家遷往費城,為她可望成為美國第一位非裔鋼琴演奏家的夢想做準備。然而,因為她的膚色與外表,到面試時,她卻被拒絕了,出於失望,她決定再也不申請這所學校,同時私下師事學院教授Vladimir Sokoloff繼續深造,並靠著擔任伴奏歌手、教鋼琴等維生。

1954年時,她為了補貼家用,前往亞特蘭大市的Midtown Bar & Grill擔任歌手,結果在這熱鬧的酒館裡,西蒙的聲名迅速遠播,這位兼具歌喉與高超琴藝的年輕女子,能輕鬆邊彈邊唱出蓋希文、柯爾.波特等時下最受歡迎的所有曲目,並以令人讚嘆的技巧,將這些流行的歌曲幻化出融合爵士、藍調、古典樂等多重樂風的全新聆聽感受。她那充滿磁性的嗓音,情感豐沛的吶喊,伴隨看似即興實則精巧細密的琮琮鋼琴樂音,為所有聆聽者的生命都注入了奮起的力量。妮娜.西蒙的歌唱才華就此被燃醒,順勢踏上演藝之路,1958年一時興起,和朋友聚會時錄下了蓋希文作曲的"I Loves You, Porgy" ,更為她帶來告示牌排行榜前二十名的榮譽,同年隨即在Bethlehem唱片旗下發行了處女專輯《Little Girl Blue》;然而她卻用三千美金把這張專輯的權利賣掉,因此未曾獲得經濟上的好處,但畢竟妮娜.西蒙的知名度已經打開,1961 年,她與曾經擔任紐約刑警的白人 Andrew Stroud 結婚後,由先生擔任她的經紀人,成立工作室、雇用十多名工作人員,非常有技巧且成功地把西蒙推向世界,在娛樂界大獲成功、不僅帶來巨大的商業利益、進入國際舞台,也讓西蒙成為第一位在卡內基音樂廳舉辦演奏會的黑人女性,相對於小酒館的嘈雜混亂,卡內基廳正襟危坐、心無旁騖的聽眾,為西蒙帶來了她最期盼的音樂尊嚴:聽眾對表演者的全然欣賞與尊重。

妮娜.西蒙一直認為自己是藝術家,而且是古典音樂藝術家。因此,她也不喜歡爵士這個詞,認為是白人強加在黑人音樂頭上的說法,她把自己的音樂稱為是「黑人古典音樂(black classic music)」,後來,歷經丈夫對她的才華幾近壓榨的暴量行程、甚至家暴行為等,她在受到箝制與恐懼、但又擔心自己的演藝事業脫離丈夫後會無法經營下去的矛盾之中,精神變得愈來愈不穩定、愈來愈焦躁易怒。

Nina Simone: Mississippi Goddam

就在這個時候,以1963 年的美國南方發生的兩起3K黨白人恐怖行動為契機,黑人民權運動益發風起雲湧,也點燃了妮娜.西蒙內心的革命之火。這一年,秉持白人優越主義的3K黨不僅接連攻擊手無寸鐵的黑人百姓,還暗殺黑人運動的重要人物,西蒙因此寫下她的第一首黑人政治歌曲:”Mississippi Goddam”(1964),自此積極介入黑人民權運動,在公開場合以音樂高歌黑人主權;而西蒙本身也因為積極參與這些運動,吶喊出內心積壓已久的束縛與桎梏,讓她感受到自己真正的價值,感受到為黑人同胞爭取人權與自由的真實存在。此時,她已從卡內基廳那個在白人娛樂圈中、展現異稟天賦的爵士靈魂女歌手,轉為一個真正擁有自我主張的「黑人女性」。

Nina Simone: Go To Hell (Live, 1968 at The Bitter End in NYC)

儘管政治活動可能會影響西蒙的演藝生涯,但她始終無畏表明政治立場,唱片公司不願錄製她那些充滿政治意味的歌曲,”Mississippi Goddam”也曾發生過被折斷撤回的事件。而馬丁路德金恩博士(Martin Luther King, Jr., 1929-68)與麥爾坎·X(Malcolm X, 1925-65)這兩名黑人運動領袖也在1965 與 68 年被刺殺,因此激起更大的反彈,妮娜.西蒙在1968年4月7日舉辦了偉斯伯理音樂節(Westbury Music Fair)獻給於4月4日被刺殺的金恩博士,其中她難過得歌唱到嘶啞失聲。其他如"I Wish I Knew How It Would Feel to Be Free" (1967)、"Backlash Blues"(1968), “Ain’t Got No, I Got Life"(1968),和"To Be Young, Gifted and Black" (1970),都是她著名的黑人運動歌曲。根據訪談,她認為那是她生命最有活力的幾年,因為她被需要、且能為她的種族歌唱。

1969年的西蒙(圖片來源:By Gerrit de Bruin, CC BY 4.0)

1971年,西蒙因為與經紀人、唱片商的不合,稅務方面的不清,以及從事種族運動帶來的種種爭議,離開了美國,後來在1978年回國時因逃稅而被逮捕了一陣子(她曾在越戰時拒絕繳稅了幾年),但西蒙依然沒有被流行樂界遺忘,她的著名單曲”My Baby Just Cares for Me”在1980年代的英國,成為香奈兒五號香水人所週知的廣告曲。

Nina Simone – My Baby Just Cares For Me

西蒙曾承認自己的作風傲慢、疏離,也有著某些程度的權威性格,因而獲得了「靈魂教母」(High Priestess of Soul)的稱號;她那充滿磁性和靈魂的歌聲,極具療瘉效果,伴隨著輕盈靈活的鋼琴樂音,不知撫慰了多少受傷的心靈,給予許多人們奮發再起的力量。

1975年的西蒙(圖片來源:By Kroon, Ron, CC BY 4.0)

Netflix在2015年拍攝了一部關於西蒙的紀錄片《妮娜.西蒙:女伶的靈魂》(What Happened, Miss Simone?),獲得2016艾美獎的最佳紀錄片,以及2015奧斯卡最佳紀錄片提名,除了是西蒙的傳記電影外,也簡述了20世紀下半黑人運動的歷史;的確,妮娜.西蒙的一生,便是一個黑人女性面對生命掙扎、理解自身力量、奮起求生的過程;或許她本人不在乎是否入主搖滾名人堂,但她對音樂、以及20世紀人權的貢獻,絕對是有目共睹。

Nina Simone – Sinnerman

 

《 Alizée – The Best Collection Of Alizee (01:02:40) 》


《 Alizée – The Best Collection Of Alizee (01:02:40) 》

賴鵬智:Overtourism 超限旅遊


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211679?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=c6eaf2626f-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-c6eaf2626f-84956681

賴鵬智:Overtourism 超限旅遊

2018年05月22日
文:賴鵬智(野FUN生態實業總經理)

這二年全世界觀光界熱議的字眼是「Overtourism」,一般都直譯為「過度旅遊」,但我把它翻譯成「超限旅遊」,就像環境資源被過度利用稱為「超限利用」一樣,「超限旅遊」應該可以很明確表達出景區遊客量擁擠超載,旅遊地資源被超量利用,觀光遊憩品質一塌糊塗的直覺意象。

Protected Areas In-Sight 2017  Illustration by Frits Ahlefeldt www.fritsahlefeldt.com or www.hikingartist.com
超限旅遊。圖片來源:Protected Areas In-Sight 2017  Illustration by Frits Ahlefeldt http://www.fritsahlefeldt.com or http://www.hikingartist.com

旅遊業是世界上最大的經濟產業之一,貢獻全球10%的GDP,或是七兆美元產值。全球每11個工作就有一個是直接或間接跟旅遊有關,相當於創造了2億8400萬個工作機會。旅遊產業的員工數七倍於汽車製造業,兩倍於財務服務業。這個產業在2015年有約4%的成長,帶動了全球6%的出口,以及超過30%的服務輸出。當今全世界各國無不卯盡全力發展旅遊,推動自己國人或外國旅客到各景點遊玩,以提昇在地經濟與發展動能,而如果外國旅客多,則更能增加外匯收入,實質增進國家經濟成長。 除了一般大眾觀光旅遊景點是促銷的重點,現代人有很大部分也希望走進原野,體驗大自然之美並療愈身心,因此鄉村及保護區也逐漸成為熱門旅遊地。根據研究,全球保護區每年約有80億遊客量,其中80%集中在歐洲與北美洲。但是愈來愈多人走進保護區,如果沒有嚴格的規範與監控,也表示保護區的自然生態或人文景觀都受到極大衝擊或破壞的威脅。

南投縣仁愛鄉清境地區就是臺灣嚴重超限利用、超限旅遊以及公權力不彰的代表
南投縣仁愛鄉清境地區就是台灣嚴重超限利用、超限旅遊以及公權力不彰的代表。

在世界旅遊風氣日盛之下,全球各地都不斷傳來風景點遊客超量,環境遭受破壞的新聞,例如到喜馬拉雅山登珠穆朗瑪峰(聖母峰)已變成如大眾登山路線一般,在天氣好的時候,一天之內就會有200多人登上珠穆朗瑪峰,而基地營更是像大眾露營區般熱鬧。管理當局每年從珠峰清除1.1萬公斤人類排泄物,而其他廢棄物則是無以記數的散落山區,所以號稱「世界最高垃圾堆在聖母峰」。 再如泰國達差島(Tachai Island),其海灘一次只能接待大約70人,但有時海灘上的遊客人數超過1000人,還擠滿了小食品攤和旅遊船。泰國管理單位認為「在達差島島嶼和海洋的自然環境被徹底破壞前,我們必須對遊客關閉該島,讓自然環境得到修複的機會」,於是在2016年5月無限期關閉該島,讓生態有休養生息的機會。中國大陸知名的國家級風景名勝區在各長假期間更是人滿為患,完全沒有旅遊品質,更談不上對環境資源的維護,那簡直就是自然與人文資源的浩劫,是全球唾手可得最典型的超限旅遊案例。

2015中國十一長假風景區排隊人潮
2015中國十一長假風景區排隊人潮

2018年3月柏林國際旅遊展(ITB Berlin 2018)中,「超限旅遊」就是個熱議話題,例如馬約卡島(Majorca)、威尼斯、柏林都面臨雖然旅遊業是重要的經濟支柱,但現在卻受苦於過量的遊客帶來的許多問題(Overtourism: where will it take us?)。

負責任旅遊夥伴公司(Responsible Tourism Partnership)說「超限旅遊」是風景區的業者或顧客、在地人或遊客,都覺得遊客太多了,而且該區的生活品質或體驗品質都惡化到無法接受的程度。超限旅遊與負責任旅遊是衝突的,負責任旅遊是以旅遊帶動地方生活得更好及更值得造訪。

describes destinations where hosts or guests, locals or visitors, feel that there are too many visitors and that the quality of life in the area or the quality of the experience has deteriorated unacceptably. It is the opposite of Responsible Tourism which is about using tourism to make better places to live in and better places to visit.

Overtourism是一個較新的英文名詞,網路資料是說目前只有柯林斯英文字典(Collins)收納這個詞,解釋為:熱門景點或觀光勝地因遊客爆量而不能永續經營的現象。

The phenomenon of a popular destination or sight becoming overrun with tourists in an unsustainable way.

由歐洲37國保護區及政府機關組成的歐洲公園聯盟(EUROPARC Federation)在其出版的2017年刊,就製作了超限旅遊專題,提到出乎意料的遊客量大增將導致二個負面衝擊,其一是對在地社區的生活品質及公共設施等在生物物理學上的影響,其二是遊客體驗品質的降低。

Unpredicted visitation growth might create twofolded negative impacts, firstly on the  biophysical attributes, to local communities’ life quality and to the existing infrastructures; and secondly a decline in the quality of visitor experience that sites are expected to provide.

為了解決這問題,歐洲一些保護區旅遊地採取總量管制措施,以保護資源及確保旅遊體驗品質。

To tackle the problem, some parks in Europe established strategic limits on visitation in order to preserve resources and ensure quality of visitor experience.

他們建議在保護區可以有以下處理方式:

  1. 確立經營管理政策(Set management principles)
  2. 建置經營管理組織架構(Look for a management framework)
  3. 擬定策略與行動方案(Define a strategy and action plan)
  4. 執行監測計畫(Implement a monitoring programme)

雖然旅遊業常說「人潮就是錢潮」,但景區若發生超限旅遊現象,則對人與環境資源不僅不是好事,甚至是惡夢一場,能不要發生最好;如果已經發生了,就要趕緊面對問題處理,千萬不可鄉愿拖延處理,最怕終致玉石俱焚的下場。如果還沒發生,但已有些徵兆了,則管理單位應會同業者、在地居民共同會商防止之道,提早預防以確保景區生活與遊憩品質,以及保護到景區內的珍貴資源,一舉數得才是聰明之舉。

※ 本文轉載自「賴鵬智的野FUN特區」

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《 Alizée – The Singles Collections (01:08:29) 》


《 Alizée – The Singles Collections (01:08:29) 》

無采工 !那些上了回收車 卻進焚化爐的塑膠垃圾


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211681?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=c6eaf2626f-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-c6eaf2626f-84956681

無采工 !那些上了回收車 卻進焚化爐的塑膠垃圾

2018年05月22日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀、彭瑞祥報導

目前各縣市清潔隊的回收車會收的塑膠垃圾大致有三類:環保署公告應回收[1]的塑膠容器、硬質塑膠為主的「雜項塑膠」、與乾淨的塑膠袋。

這些琳瑯滿目的塑膠垃圾,因為熱值高、含氯與重金屬成分的特性,如果進入焚化爐,不但減短焚化爐的壽命,也製造了戴奧辛等空氣污染。而真的能進入回收系統的塑膠,卻也因為回收處理時需要高溫熔融致材質劣化,只能降級再利用,面臨去化不順的困境。看守台灣協會秘書長謝和霖提醒,這些登上回收車的塑膠垃圾們,卻還是有大半最後進入了焚化爐。

琳瑯滿目的塑膠垃圾,因為熱值高、含氯與重金屬成分的特性,不但減短了焚化爐的壽命,也製造了戴奧辛等空氣污染。圖片來源: Ikhlasul Amal via Flickr.  (CC BY-SA 2.0)

塑膠垃圾處理成本高  回收業者也拒收

雖然塑膠製品琳琅滿目,但目前環保署有公告應回收的塑膠製品只有塑膠容器,這塑膠容器中又可大致分為瓶罐類,以及包括生鮮托盤、食品包裝盒等的「薄片容器」。其餘環保署沒有公告應回收(也就是其生產者不用繳交回收清除處理費)但清潔隊會回收的塑膠垃圾,則被稱為「雜項塑膠」,其回收仰賴自由市場機制,以比較會有人要的硬質塑膠為主,另外還有使用氾濫而被環保署要求應該要回收的乾淨塑膠袋。

謝和霖直言,目前實際上回收狀況較佳的還是只有寶特瓶、牛奶瓶等瓶罐類,其餘塑膠垃圾因為來源太多樣、種類複雜、物性不一,在回收處理業者眼中相當「難用」。除非單一性質、大量,否則塑膠垃圾的回收總是乏人問津,它們在回收廠等著等著,最終的下場還是進入焚化爐。謝和霖就曾聽聞,環保署回收基管會為解決乏人問津而堆積如山的薄片塑膠,補貼業者將其破碎為膠片,但沒有製成再生粒料,而是送進焚化爐。

目前全台有18家業者有能力處理塑膠回收,各自擅長的材質有所不同。相對於環團對於回收現況的失望觀察,環保署回收基管會所呈現的數據卻是,目前所有公告應回收的塑膠回收率,合計高達84%。

寶特瓶全台年回收54億支  台食安法規禁再製成寶特瓶

相對來說,寶特瓶、牛奶瓶等因為材質較為單一、數量夠大而較受青睞。據回收基管會的數據顯示,去年獲回收的寶特瓶達到54億支。環署回收基管會執秘許永興表示,寶特瓶材質是PET,回收的狀況更是世界名列前茅。雖然礙於當前的食安法規,寶特瓶在台灣回收後不能再製成寶特瓶,不過,PET造粒後外銷給可口可樂等飲料大廠相當受歡迎,做為毛毯、運動衣物都有不錯的效果。

寶特瓶因為材質較為單一、數量夠大,相對來說較受回收業者青睞。圖片來源:Tom Page via Flickr. (CC BY-SA 2.0)

不過,謝和霖表示,由於塑膠再生會經過高溫熔融過程,會有分子鏈斷裂、變短的狀況,除了導致再生塑膠料發生黃化、色澤變差的現象,力學性能也變差,往往需要再加新料或是降級使用。例如要再製寶特瓶,就必須添加70%的新料,只能有30%的再生料。

飲料杯、便當、生鮮包裝材質多   分選是關鍵

對使用於生鮮托盤與食品包裝盒的薄片容器,謝和霖指出,這些看似都是透明的塑膠片,目前實則有PS、PET、PVC、PLA等材質在市面上使用。回收後混合在一起,反而難處理,也造成業者回收意願低。即便未來有機械生物處理系統(MBT, Mechanical and Biological Treatment)等自動分選設備可以協助,他擔憂仍會因為互相套疊,恐怕誤判程度也不會太低。

許永興針對薄片容器的回收狀況表示,材質紛雜不是問題,關鍵就在於塑膠材質的分選。前年台灣的業者從德國引進「近紅外線」的設備,可以針對不同的塑膠設定頻譜,比起過去以人力分選,已是大幅增加速度與正確率。

塑膠垃圾回收後混合在一起,材質分選不易,反而難以處理,造成業者回收意願低。影片來源:公視晚間新聞。

在減少塑膠的使用上,除了目前政府展開限塑、民間也發起各種減塑行動,自備生活用品減少一次性塑膠製品的使用外,謝和霖認為,從政策上讓塑膠製品的材質走向單一化、除毒化,也是一種改善的作法。

舉例來說,在薄片塑膠的使用上,謝和霖建議可以從大型量販業者的「逆向回收」開始做起。大賣場、連鎖店可以將自家的生鮮食材包裝改採較耐用的材質,再請消費者拿回賣場回收。薄片塑膠容器經過物流回收後,便可再滅菌、消毒後重複使用。謝和霖認為,尤其生鮮食材,消費者購賣後仍需要烹煮,並非直接使用,因此只要有經過滅菌處理,薄片容器的回收再使用就不太會有安全衛生疑慮。

至於生物可分解的PLA[2],目前全台僅有「大豐」一家業者有能力處理,不過謝和霖指出,若仍是與其他薄片容器混淆,那麼可分解的特性也就無實際發揮了。

轉做替代燃料  髒塑膠袋、雜項塑膠、衣物比直接進入焚化爐划算

塑膠目前再利用的技術還在不斷突破中。謝和霖認為,最有利環境的作法,當然還是減少塑膠的使用。退而求其次,才是回收再利用。如果物質性的再利用欠缺效益,那麼至少應禁止含氯塑膠與含氯油墨的使用,降低重金屬等有害物質的添加,以讓這些沒有回收價值的廢塑膠可以無害地熱烈解成油品或燃氣,或送到工業用爐作為替代燃料,此舉至少比起進入垃圾焚化爐有較好的能源效率。

看守台灣協會秘書長謝和霖認為,最有利環境的作法,當然還是減少塑膠使用;退而求其次,才是回收再利用。至於焚化,不但會破壞資源又會衍生二次污染,應盡量避免。圖片來源:公視晚間新聞。

環保署廢棄物管理處處長賴瑩瑩則表示,目前塑膠袋回收的確是「乾淨才收」,若能作為替代燃料,髒塑膠袋、雜項塑膠、衣物等塑膠垃圾,也都多了一個再利用的去處。不過,國內目前僅有正隆、永豐餘、廣源等少數業者,主要是紙廠在使用替代燃料,環署還在向其他有使用鍋爐的業者推廣中。

要成為適合的替代燃料,謝和霖認為,就要讓塑膠去氯化並減少有害重金屬的使用。在日常生活上,食品包裝袋應是每個人最常使用與製造垃圾的塑膠製品。但謝和霖指出,不管是冷凍水餃、糕餅的包裝,為了追求氣密的效果,往往採用複合材質,尤其裡面常有一層含氯的PVDC膜,會在焚化時產生戴奧辛;而包裝上色彩繽紛、讓人食指大動的圖樣所使用的油墨,又可能含有氯及重金屬,焚化後也恐排出有毒空污。

食品包裝袋為了追求氣密的效果,往往採用複合材質,增加了處理的難度。而包裝上色彩繽紛、讓人食指大動的圖樣所使用的油墨,又可能含有氯及重金屬,焚化後也恐排出有毒空污。圖片來源:stevendepolo via Flickr. (CC BY-SA 2.0)

謝和霖認為食品包材上,應由政府出面管制材質,例如要求使用無氯、無重金屬的材質。這樣一來,這些塑膠垃圾雖然無法回收,但是可以收集轉做替代燃料,比起進入垃圾焚化爐,兩者的能源產生效率有很大的區別。

據掌管焚化爐的環保署督察總隊統計,以2016年為例,進入焚化爐的垃圾合計有660萬噸,其中塑膠佔16%、紙類36%、廚餘39%、金屬0.5%、玻璃0.9%、其他佔8%。目前焚化爐的熱值大多設定為2200至2500 kcal/kg之間,不過塑膠的熱值卻約是4000至5000 kcal/kg。謝和霖指出,塑膠高熱值不但會降低焚化爐可處理廢棄物量,也會導致焚化爐受到高溫腐蝕;如果塑膠含氯,那麼不但燃燒會產生世紀之毒戴奧辛,更會產生大量鹽酸氣體侵蝕爐管,增加意外停爐維修機率,進而惡化空污排放,因為焚化爐於起停爐時,戴奧辛等空污排放是正常操作的好幾倍。

針對塑膠垃圾「熱值高、能處理量就小」的描述,環署督察總隊總隊長吳盛忠也確認在焚化爐操作的實務上的確如此。他進一步表示,未來垃圾處理的改善,在末端的確是朝向替代燃料。運用機械在破碎、分選後,將金屬、玻璃先分出,後續再把剩下的塑膠、廚餘、紙類則脫水乾燥後造粒,製作為替代燃料,甚至轉為氣化替代燃料。

※註[1]為加強資源有效利用,減少廢棄物產生,環保署依據廢棄物清理法第15條第2項規定,公告應回收廢棄物項目分為容器與物品兩大類,細分13類33項。

※註[2]中文名稱為聚乳酸,又名玉米澱粉樹酯。

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作者

賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 Alizée – J’en Ai Marre (04:19) 》


《 Alizée – J’en Ai Marre (04:19) 》

【愛知目標】結合市民力 新移民也不放過 愛德蒙頓創下生態都市典範


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211684?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=c6eaf2626f-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-c6eaf2626f-84956681

【愛知目標】結合市民力 新移民也不放過 愛德蒙頓創下生態都市典範

2018年05月22日
作者:黃鈺婷

位在加拿大西南端的愛德蒙頓市(Edmonton),為亞伯達省(Alberta)首府,位處溫帶草木區,是北方葉林及南方草原的交界區,四季分明,降水較集中夏季。位置的特殊性,讓愛德蒙頓市同時具有針葉林和草原地區的氣候與植被特色,再加上蜿蜒綿長的北薩斯喀徹溫河(North Saskatchewan River)貫穿城市,形成豐富且多元的棲地類型,如遍佈森林的河谷、深谷,以及落葉林地、小湖泊、濕地、草原、沙丘和泥炭地等,具有豐富的生物多樣性。

雖然是人口近百萬的城市,愛德蒙頓市的都市景觀與自然地景相互交織,變化萬千的自然就存在於市民的家門前以及後院,一方面提供了良好的生物多樣性服務,另一方面也考驗著市政府要如何在都市發展與生態保育之間取得平衡。

北薩斯喀徹溫河蜿蜒流經愛德蒙頓市,營造出壯麗的自然景觀及豐富的生物多樣性。圖片來源:Jeff Wallace (CC BY-NC 2.0)

防止生態系統受破壞 將生物多樣性整合進都市規畫中

認知到棲地破碎化是生物多樣性損失的重要原因,為保全自然區域的完整性,愛德蒙頓市保護了3700公頃的自然區域(約佔該市5%總面積),並且創立了全加拿大最大的市立公園系統,經市議會許可設立的公園就有將近400個。除劃設保護區域之外,也以考量生物敏感性的方法,將生態系功能與都市建築和市政運作結合,促進永續發展,以及對自然系統的保護。

舉例來說,為考量永續發展,在鄰里建設計畫的申請階段,要求提交生態設計報告書(ecological design report),並在報告產製過程中,導入社群成員的參與,一同定義特定生物多樣性價值和期望達到的保護成果,藉此對生態較為敏感的鄰里地區,擬定開發計畫,並且減少社群的衝突。此外,愛德蒙頓市也透過生態網絡模型(ecological network model)及野生動物廊道工程設計準則(Wildlife Passages Engineering Design Guidelines),將陸地區域視為相互連結及整合的棲地網絡,增加生態廊道、創造棲地、保持生態系統的完整性。愛德蒙頓市多樣的都市規劃作法,展現了經濟發展並不一定要犧牲自然環境來達成,而可能在開發需求與生物多樣性保護之間取得平衡。

借力也培力 與自然觀察大師共管城市生態

除了將生物多樣性保護納入都市規畫的內涵之外,由於市民與自然區域的距離相當接近,愛德蒙頓市若要維護城市的生物多樣性,勢必得納入市民的參與,建立民眾的覺知,並透過活動和計畫的設計,讓民眾加入保育工作的行列。

愛德蒙頓市自2009年開始執行「自然觀察大師計畫」(Master Naturalists Program),這是一種學習與服務計畫。不需具備特定的教育訓練背景,凡是18歲以上,對生態感興趣,且願意投注心力在學習與志工工作的市民,都可以申請成為「自然觀察大師」。通過面試程序的申請者,將能夠以35小時的訓練課程和戶外教學,換到35小時的志工服務,包含監控和盤點自然區域的資源、執行動植物移植、復育和生態教育等。結業後,自然觀察大師將協助市政府和社區組織管理和保護愛德蒙頓市的自然區域,也擔負起帶領更多市民認識城市生物多樣性的任務。計畫施行以來,已誕生超過200位自然觀察大師,年齡從19歲到60歲以上都有。

根據參與者Angela Hobson表示,自然觀察大師不只在保護城市的自然區域上扮演重要角色,也在重建、重塑與復育自然生態的工作上,擔任領導角色。此計畫不僅提供在地自然愛好者交流的機會,也創造了在地行動的中心,激起社區參與城市生物多樣性保護的興趣和動力。

生物多樣性主流化不設限 受眾擴展至新移民

根據2016年加拿大的人口普查結果,愛德蒙頓市的移民人數有30萬8610人,佔該市人口23.8%。在2011到2016年間,就有7萬8500人移民至愛德蒙頓市,其中半數以上來自東南亞。由於移民數量多,愛德蒙頓市也正快速地成為語言多樣性最為豐富的大城市之一,在五年之間,不以英語和法語為母語的愛德蒙頓市民,數量上升31%,成長速度比加拿大其他大城市都還要快。

由於國際移民眾多,愛德蒙頓市特別將新移民納入生物多樣性主流化的對象當中。以加拿大環境部的「生態工具箱」(Biosphere BioKit)為範本,設計出以新移民為主要受眾的「城市生態工具箱」(Biospere Urban BioKit Edmonton)手冊,愛德蒙頓是全加拿大第一個將此生物多樣性出版品的受眾落實到新移民的城市。

愛德蒙頓市為新移民設計的城市生態工具箱。圖片來源:The City of Edmonton

因為主要對象為新移民,這本手冊的內容都以初階等級、淺白易懂的英文單字寫成,搭配生動的全彩圖片,不只以活動規畫導引新移民家庭探索自然,也結合自然觀察大師計畫,由志工陪伴並帶領新移民認識愛德蒙頓市的自然生態。

原先來自南蘇丹(South Sudan)的市民Joseph Luri指出,在他的家鄉,大多數的城市地區都沒有公園,他和他的同鄉認為來到愛德蒙頓市,讓他們學習到保存公園與森林的重要性。此外,他認為生態工具箱提供了循序漸進的指引,讓他們知道如何在公園享受愛德蒙頓市的自然、讓他們認識了各種不同的野生動物和植物,也提供選擇公園的指引。

生態工具箱試辦計畫,觸及了將近100個剛落腳的移民家庭。此工具箱的讀者一方面能透過出版品認識當地自然區域和生物多樣性,另一方面也能夠獲得第一手訓練,幫助他們藉由正向經驗來認識自然世界。

愛德蒙頓市的生物多樣性主流化政策,正符合愛知目標所強調的,將生物多樣性納入政策與社會的主流,尤其是生態工具箱的概念,更是跨越了資訊傳遞的籓籬,將主流化的對象擴及至新移民。這些做法再再展現了如何更有想法地落實生物多樣性主流化。

愛知目標:生物多樣性主流化 強化地方政府的角色

自1993年,《生物多樣性公約》生效以來,國際社會不停尋找挽救生物多樣性的可能,卻每每在檢視落實狀況時,發現結果不如預期。2010年,在生物多樣性公約第10屆締約方大會上,通過2011-2020 愛知生物多樣性目標,希望能夠在2020年之前有效保全生態系統。相較於過去擬定的生物多樣性目標,愛知目標特別強調要將生物多樣性納入政策與社會的主流,要各階層政府都能把生物多樣性置於政策規劃和發展計畫之中。

一般而言,生物多樣性保育和保護,過去多被視為是國家層級的範疇和責任,然而地方政府在調適生物多樣性損失的工作上,扮演重要角色,因為地方政府其實是和居民最為貼近的政府層級,能夠發展符合在地需求並具整合性的生物多樣性策略,來保護和維持生態系與物種的存續。加拿大的愛德蒙頓市,從市政規劃到培力志工、擴展生物多樣性主流化受眾等許多作法,正展現了地方政府所具備的行動量能及可能性。

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《 Alizée – J’ai Pas Vingt Ans (04:44) 》


《 Alizée – J’ai Pas Vingt Ans (04:44) 》

毒管法完成逐條審查 資訊公開升級、成立跨部會報


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211682?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=c6eaf2626f-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-c6eaf2626f-84956681

毒管法完成逐條審查 資訊公開升級、成立跨部會報

2018年05月21日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導

立院衛環委員會21日完成《毒管法》修法的逐條審查,這次的修法新增「關注化學物」一項,將雖非毒化物,但有食安疑慮的化學物也納管。而日前敬鵬大火的悲劇,也促使「危害預防應變計畫」的提報與公開查閱機制將再加強,讓消防機關與民眾得以掌握。

此外,也確定將成立基金以進行風險預防管理、強化環境事故應變諮詢體制,也成立跨部會的管理會報。同時近年環保法規陸續加上的吹哨者條款、證人保護、民眾檢舉、公民訴訟及追繳不法利得等制度也獲納入。

DSC04627
環保署化學局局長謝燕儒。賴品瑀攝。

新增「關注化學物質」 食安、污染疑慮者納管

原名為《毒性化學物質管理法》,在納入關注化學物後,將更改為《毒性及關注化學物質管理法》。原本管理的是一到四類的毒性化學物,新加入的關注化學物質一項,則是定義為毒性化學物質以外,但有污染環境、危害人體健康之虞者。

關注化學物質包括了國內外關注的食安等民生消費相關物質,具有內分泌干擾素特性或有腐蝕性、爆裂性等其他危害性之虞,並經中央主管機關公告者。關注化學物質主要會在管理方面會有提出準用的規範,將依特性採不同管理方式。

毒性化學物質必須從製造、輸入、運送、販售等都要列管,但關注化學物質將就其特性,進行部分項目列管。

敬鵬大火教訓 應變計畫、工廠配置圖公開再升級

毒管法在敬鵬大火後展開審議,化學災害的預防及緊急應變更受到立委重視。

在「事故預防及緊急應變」專章中,除了現行的毒管法對一到三類毒化物要求業者向縣市政府檢送備查危害預防及應變計畫,第三類毒化物的部分需公開供民眾查閱。新增關注化學物質一項後,化學局也在草案要求危害預防及應變計畫。而敬鵬大火後,立委楊鎮浯等更要求由中央主管機關設置專門網站,這些申報資料都將上網供民眾查詢,並建立專業的應變機構認證制度及專業應變人員,平日可協助廠商辦理訓練,發生災害時亦可到現場協助救災,可避免環境或人員傷害擴大。

蔣萬安等委員更提出,運作人應該將場所內全廠及內部配置圖提供給消防機關,這個建議獲化學局認同而納入,在委員會也無異議獲得通過。

陳宜民、劉建國、吳玉琴等要求成立跨部會的管理會報,跨部會協調化學物質風險評估及管理措施,由行政院院長作召集人,政府部門、專家學者、民間團體共同組成。管理會報的決議,將成為行政院要定期追蹤管考的事項,並需每年向立院提出報告。這是原本草案並沒有的新增法條。

未來毒化物及關注化學物之販賣或轉讓,不得以郵購、電子購物或其他無法辨識身分等方式進行販賣,以利有效管理;對於已經核准登錄之化學物質資料,亦要求製造或輸入者應主動維護更新。環保署也將要求有必要者,得通知製造或輸入者提出補正資料,以確保該化學物質製造、輸入情形及毒理、暴露與危害 評估等相關資料,保持最新之資訊。

此外,毒化物運作及釋放量紀錄也將分期上網公開,化學局局長謝燕儒承諾法立委陳曼麗,關於紀錄的細節,後續將訂子法來專法處理。

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作者

賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 Alizée – Moi….Lolita (04:46) 》


《 Alizée – Moi….Lolita (04:46) 》

高屏空污總量管制二期 「移污」抵換爭議大 環團堅決反對


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211704?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=c6eaf2626f-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-c6eaf2626f-84956681

高屏空污總量管制二期 「移污」抵換爭議大 環團堅決反對

2018年05月22日
環境資訊中心特約記者 李育琴高雄報導

高屏地區是全國第一個實施空污總量管制的區域,自2015年6月30日開始實施的空污總量管制計畫,至今年7月即將結束第一期三年的管制,並且進入第二期程。由於計畫第二期程將實質管制固定污染源的污染指定削減,及污染量的抵換交易,環保署昨(21)日在高雄潭會館舉辦計畫修正草案公聽會,說明第二期程的實質減量目標,和未來高屏地區工廠新設或變更,需取得的污染額度和抵換交易辦法。

不過修正草案公布後,高屏環團即大表不滿,怒批第二期程的減量速度太慢,且固定污染源的污染減量太少。此外,環團多次反對「移動污染源減量可抵換固定污染源增量」,痛批環保署不積極削減工廠排污,反而幫新建工廠找污染量,直問「高雄空污什麼時候才有改善的一天?」

地球公民基金會等高雄10個團體抗議高屏空污減量速度太慢,用行動劇諷刺政府聽不見高屏人的心聲。攝影:李育琴
地球公民基金會等高雄10個團體抗議高屏空污減量速度太慢,用行動劇諷刺政府聽不見高屏人的心聲。攝影:李育琴

批減污龜速!環團要求加速減量

21日上午,地球公民基金會等10個在地團體召開記者會,批評環保署對高屏空污減量龜速,讓人忍無可忍。他們手持鍋碗瓢盆大聲敲擊抗議,並且諷刺環保署長李應元與經濟部長沈榮津聽不見高屏人的心聲。

長期監督政府的空污政策,敦促政府改善始終處於三級空品區的高雄空品狀況,地球公民基金會副執行長王敏玲表示對第二期的時程和管制目標大失所望。她說,空污總量管制計畫歷經16年才公告實施,前三年第一期實質減量不多,第二期程應對固定污染源的指定削減,但是卻要花六年半的時間(到2024年底),這樣的速度根本是龜速!「總共要花25年半的時間,一個孩子出生都已經成人了才能看到實施效果,我們怎能忍受這樣的污染一年又一年?」

此外,環保署規劃第二期程各種污染排放的指定削減幅度只有7%-25%,王敏玲說,環保署對於業者改善減排的要求太低,未來高雄如要達到WHO的空品標準PM2.5為10微克,現在就應該削減更多的排放量。

共同發表聲明要求政府加速減污的還有美濃愛鄉協進會、台灣親子共學教育促進會、荒野保護協會等10個團體。高雄市公民監督公僕聯盟副理事長陳銘彬沉痛指責:「夠了!高雄發展重工業,長達50年的空污傷害人民的身體健康已經夠了!」他批評高雄市政府目前的產業政策忽視市民健康,而執政黨的市議員更是與市府沆瀣一氣,未能好好監督,為市民把關。

新廠拿不到污染量  批環署用移污幫工廠找增量

下午公聽會前,南部反空污大聯盟也共同出席,抗議高屏空污總量管制計畫是「假管制真污染」。聯盟表示,高雄市有臨海工業區800多根煙囪、林園工業區,當中的燃煤發電廠、中鋼煉焦爐等重大污染源至今未見有效改善,現在環保署又要把移動污染源的減量、關廠工廠的減量,來換抵給新設或擴廠工廠使用,對高雄空污是雪上加霜。

他們表示堅決反對移動污染源減量抵換新設工廠增量。高雄健康空氣行動聯盟理事長黃義英說,高雄PM2.5是全國之冠,林園、臨海工業區的致癌健康風險已經超標,但是不管環團如何抗議,當地最大污染源之一的中鋼卻始終不願改善,如果讓移動污染源可抵換,再新設工廠增加當地污染,政府對小港沿海六里的居民如何交代?

南部反空污大聯盟質疑移動污染源抵用交易實質讓高雄污染增加,不希望高屏成為計畫白老鼠。攝影:李育琴
南部反空污大聯盟質疑移動污染源抵用交易實質讓高雄污染增加,不希望高屏成為計畫白老鼠。攝影:李育琴

高雄市教師職業工會監事蘇義昌指出,新設工廠必須拿到污染量,但是既有業者改善或拆除舊廠拿到的量並不會拿出來交易,多保留做為未來自己擴廠使用,造成新廠要進入高雄困難。

「但是,高雄要發展什麼產業?如要照舊發展石化鋼鐵業,就應該加強減量力道,讓業者思考轉型,否則自然淘汰。如不加強既有業者的減量,新廠進入無法取得污染量時,政府又想找移動污染源來抵換,對這些工業區的居民來說太不公平。」

移污未總量管制 抵換制度恐造成實質污染增加

移動污染源抵換固定污染源的爭議在於,移動污染源並未總量管制,抵換後移動污染源仍有可能增加。台灣要健康婆婆媽媽團古珮嫆說,「政府並沒有限制車輛自由進出高屏管制區,也沒有禁止人民添購燃油車,除非燃油車不再移轉買賣,否則未來的移動污染源仍可能增加,到時被抵換的排放量再也收不回來,也阻止不了得到排放量的工廠光明正大製造污染。」

儘管環團對環保署的預定公告辦法砲聲隆隆,公聽會現場出席的近百位鋼鐵業者和員工也對管制辦法不滿。

有業者發言表示,高雄重工業是歷史共業,設備改善業者都有在努力,但是政府是否要因空品標準殺雞取卵,希望能多加考慮。這名業者說,「每一個企業後面都是一個個家庭,如今外在經營環境不佳,如果要把空氣弄好,卻讓企業沒路走,以後台灣人也只能淪為到國外去做台勞。」他的發言引起在場民眾大聲鼓掌叫好。

21日高屏空污總量管制計畫修正公聽會,鋼鐵公會動員出席,反對政府對業者殺雞取卵。攝影:李育琴
21日高屏空污總量管制計畫修正公聽會,鋼鐵公會動員出席,反對政府對業者殺雞取卵。攝影:李育琴

根據環保署的修法時程,預計6月進行公告修正辦法,7月開始執行第二期程。不過對於污染抵換的爭議仍大,無法取得共識,環團甚至質疑實施空污總量管制的實質效果,高屏恐成為污染交易的白老鼠

對此環保署空品處處長蔡鴻德說,讓高雄空氣盡快變好是大家共同的目標。總量管制是透過行政管制和經濟誘因的方式,來加速改善空氣品質,目前計畫繼續往前走對高雄的空品改善速度是最快的。

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作者

李育琴

站在南方的土地,用平躺的島嶼歷史視角,說環境與人的故事。炙風拂面,腳踏黏土之時,試著讓心保持冷靜。

 

《 Alizée – En Concert (01:33:14) 》


《 Alizée – En Concert (01:33:14) 》

Cracks in nuclear reactor will hit EDF Energy with £120m bill


https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/06/cracks-nuclear-reactor-threaten-uk-energy-policy-hunsterston

Cracks in nuclear reactor will hit EDF Energy with £120m bill

Problems at Hunterston B in Scotland trigger doubts over six other 1970s and 80s plants

Workers at Hunterston B power station
 Workers at Hunterston B power station. Its prolonged closure is expected to blow a £120m hole in the revenues of its owner, EDF Energy. Photograph: Jeff J Mitchell/Getty Images

The six month closure of one of Britain’s oldest nuclear reactors will burn a £120m hole in the revenues of owner EDF Energy and has raised questions over the reliability of the country’s ageing nuclear fleet.

EDF said this week that it was taking reactor 3 of Hunterston B in Scotlandoffline for half a year, after inspections found more cracks than expected in the graphite bricks at the reactor’s core.

The plant is one of seven Advanced Gas-Cooling Reactors (AGRS) switched on during the 1970s and 80s, several of which have seen their lifetimes extended into the 2020s.

EDF maintains that the prospect of more old reactors having a sustained outage is highly unlikely, but experts said it would pose a significant challenge to power supplies if they did.

Peter Atherton, an analyst at the consultancy Cornwall Insight, said: “Let’s say worst-case scenario they found a big graphite core problem and Hunterston never comes back on.

“That would be a big hole in the plan [for electricity supplies]. The gas-fired power stations, we’ve probably got enough of them, but it would be pretty tight. It would also be a knock-back to carbon targets. You could build more windfarms, but that would take time.”

The Hunterston outage is the longest yet over the graphite issue, which EDF calls a “unique challenge”, and company presentations concede the cracking “will probably limit the lifetime for the current generation of AGRs”.

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The graphite core is used to moderate the neutrons in a nuclear reaction, but over time the irradiation degrades the graphite, ultimately leading to cracks. These cause a series of knock-on effects that can impair control of the nuclear reaction.

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The UK nuclear regulator points outthat the total number of cracks is well below specified safety limits. It has also welcomed more frequent inspections such as those that led EDF to take the Hunterston reactor offline.

Experts estimate the 40% cut in the power station’s output – it normally supplies enough electricity for 1.8m homes – will cost the French state-owned firm £100m-120m in lost revenue.

That is small compared with the impact of temporary safety closures at EDF’s French plants, which led profits to fall 16% last year, but it is still a blow the company could do without as it ramps up construction of the £20bn Hinkley Point C nuclear power station in Somerset.

EDF will not be the only energy company affected by the outage. Deepa Venkateswaran, an analyst at Bernstein bank, said she thought it would also hurt the price British Gas’s parent company, Centrica, would fetch for its stake in the plants. Centrica recently said it hoped to sell its 20% share by 2020.

Brian Cowell, EDF’s generation managing director, said he was very confident the Hunterston reactor would come back online in mid-November.

So far, significant cracks have only been found at reactors three and four at Hunterston B.

https://interactive.guim.co.uk/uploader/embed/2018/05/nuclear-plants-with-cracks-zip/giv-3902QRkjYb2NS3VM
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Hinkley Point B, which came online in the same year as Hunterston, is offline to carry out checks for cracks, which will be completed in three to four weeks.

“The one that will be worrying them is Hinkley [Point B],” said John Large, a nuclear consultant who has advised the UK government.

Hinkley Point has not only become an industry showcase for why new nuclear reactors should be built in the UK, but the old power station is providing electricity for the 3,500-strong workforce constructing the new plant.

Nuclear provides about a fifth of UK electricity, but experts said this week that it would slump to 10% by 2027, as the old plants are retired.

BMI Research said it did not expect Hinkley Point C to come online by 2025 as planned, given recent warnings of further delays to EDF’s Flamanville plant in France, which uses the same reactor design.

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英最老核反應爐嚴重裂縫 宣告停機半年


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211700?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=c6eaf2626f-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-c6eaf2626f-84956681

英最老核反應爐嚴重裂縫 宣告停機半年

2018年05月22日
環境資訊中心綜合外電;姜唯 編譯;林大利 審校

英國一座歷史悠久的核反應爐因爐芯石墨磚出現裂痕,宣布停機六個月,這也是石墨問題引發停機案例中最久的一次,預計將使法國電力公司(Électricité de France S.A.,EDF)收入銳減1億2000萬英鎊(約新台幣48億元),引發對老化核電機組可靠度的質疑。

Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament(CC BY 2.0)
核反應爐停機六個月,讓電力公司短少數十億收入。圖片來源:Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament(CC BY 2.0)

EDF本週表示,因檢查時發現反應爐爐芯石墨磚的裂痕比預期要多,決定將位於蘇格蘭的核電廠「Hunterston B」的三號反應爐停機半年。該廠是1970~80年代啟用的七個先進氣冷式反應爐(Advanced Gas-Cooling Reactors,AGRS)之一。這七組中有幾組壽命已經延長到2020年。

EDF認為,其他舊式反應爐持續停機的可能性極小,但專家表示,如果發生這種情況,將對電力供應造成重大挑戰。

康沃爾洞察顧問公司(Cornwall Insight)分析師阿瑟頓(Peter Atherton)說:「最糟的情況是,(EDF)發現石墨核心出現大問題,Hunterston B永遠停機。這將是電力供應計畫的一大漏洞。雖然我們燃氣發電廠的數量應該夠,但供電還是會很吃緊,也會影響到減碳目標。我們也可以建造更多風電場,但需要時間。」

此次停機是石墨問題引發停機案例中最久的一次,EDF稱這是一個「獨特的挑戰」,該公司的簡報稱這種裂痕「可能會限制當代AGR的使用壽命」。

石墨芯用於使核反應中的中子減速,但隨著時間推移,輻射會使石墨降解,最終造成裂縫,引發一系列可能不利控制核反應的連鎖效應。

英國核監管機構指出,裂縫總數遠低於規定的安全限值,並歡迎更頻繁進行檢查,就算會產生類似Hunterston B三號反應爐停機的決策。

專家估計,電廠產量將減少40%——大約足夠180萬戶家庭使用的電力——將使EDF損失1億至1.2億英鎊的收入。

儘管與EDF法國廠的臨時安全停機比起來,這個數字很小,但仍然是難以承受的打擊,去年該公司獲利下降16%,因為它正加速建造耗資200億英鎊,位於薩默塞特的「辛克利角C」(Hinkley Point C)核電廠。

Crowcombe Al(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
辛克利角核電廠。圖片來源:Crowcombe Al(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

EDF不會是唯一受停機影響的能源公司。伯恩斯坦銀行(Bernstein bank)分析師凡卡特(Deepa Venkateswaran)認為這也會損害英國天然氣公司的母公司Centrica的股權。 Centrica最近表示希望在2020年之前出售其20%的股份。

EDF發電管理總監考威爾(Brian Cowell)表示,他非常有信心Hunterston B能在11月中旬上線。到目前為止,在Hunterston B只有發現三至四道嚴重裂縫。與Hunterston同年啟用的辛克利角B核電廠,也正在停機進行裂縫檢查,預計三到四周內完成。

「他們比較擔心辛克利角B核電廠,」英國政府核能顧問拉吉(John Large)說。辛克利角不但是英國核電的示範廠,還正供電給建造新廠的3500多名員工。

核電提供英國1/5的電力,但專家本週表示,隨著舊電廠退役,到2027年,這個比例將下降至10%。BMI研究公司預測,由於反應爐設計相同的EDF法國弗拉維爾廠進度再次延後,辛克利角C不會按計畫在2025年上線。

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參考資料

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。

 

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