5 Steps to Recover from an Injury, On and Off the Mat


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/5-steps-to-recover-from-an-injury-on-and-off-the-mat

5 Steps to Recover from an Injury, On and Off the Mat

You may be experiencing an injury and all that comes with it, but you are not your injury. Here are 5 ways to recover mentally, physically, and emotionally.
lauraburkhart

Over the past two years, while dealing with a slow-healing hip injury, I’ve learned that injuries not only affect your physical life—which can have a major impact if you’re an active person or use your body for your profession, like I do—they can also take a toll on your mind, emotions, and finances. In this Yogaland Podcast, hosted by Andrea Ferretti, I go into full detail about my mental, physical, emotional, and financial experiences during my injury journey, plus challenges I’ve faced as a yoga teacher, what gave me hope, and what made my experience more manageable. Though the first six months post-injury were especially difficult, once I started to implement the following life-changing steps, my journey became a lot easier.

See also 4 Ways to Build Hip Stability + Prevent Injury

5 Steps to Recover from an Injury, On and Off the Mat

1. Take Care of Your Injury, but Don’t Let Your Injury Take Over Your Life.

When dealing with an injury, obviously take good care of your body, avoid activities that make the injury worse, and be sure to get all the medical attention you need. If you know the healing process is going to take a long time, it’s important not to get your identity wrapped up with your injury. You are experiencing an injury, and all that comes with it, but you are not your injury. There is more to you and your life than this particular experience.

I learned this lesson a long time ago when dealing with a health issue that influenced my entire digestive track, and got worse after I picked up a parasite in India. For the next couple of years, my entire world revolved around my stomach and colon—that was all I thought about, talked about, read about, etc. My health issue, and trying to fix it, became such a part of my life that it wasn’t healthy for me, or my relationships.

This time around, even though for the first six months I was in non-stop pain that affected my daily activities (I couldn’t even put shoes on unless they were flip-flops), my teaching, and my sleep, I refused to let this experience take over my life. I continue to meet with medical care professionals and do activities to support the healing process, but I don’t give this experience all of my attention. There is a big world out there and more to life than focusing on my hip.

The takeaway: Constantly talking and thinking about your injury, or any negative situation or setback, gives it more power. Focus on the positive aspects of your life while taking steps to get well.

2. Prioritize Self-Care. Feel the Feels, but Don’t Get Stuck There.

Injuries not only take a toll on your body, they also do a number on you mental and emotional state, leaving you in a vulnerable place. The first few months post-injury, I experienced a lot of internal turmoil, anxiety, and depression. I questioned how I would be able to stand on my own two feet, literally and figuratively. I wondered how long would I be in this limited state, how would it affect my teaching and teaching career, what else could I do for work since I’d worked solely in the yoga world for well over a decade, and where would I live if I had to give up everything? The way I normally processed this type of anxiety would be by going for a walk or moving through an asana practice, but that wasn’t an option.

I discovered the best way to handle this period of instability was coming up with routines that helped me feel supported and whole. To de-stress, I found that I could swim with a buoy between my legs, which felt like a meditative practice in and of itself. I got a waterproof iPod and turned it into an underwater party. To brighten my mood, I reintroduced my body to the sun. I spent more time with friends, and discovered how much I love Jacuzzis, hot springs, bathhouses, listening to the ocean, and getting chair massages.

The takeaway: Figure out what makes you feel at ease and supported, and do it!

3. Rewire Your Thinking. Focus on What You Can Do Now.

Post-injury, it’s easy to dwell on not having the same range of motion you once had or not having the capability to safely get into your favorite yoga postures. These limitations may last weeks, years, or even a lifetime. It’s normal to experience frustration and grieve your new limitations. That being said, continuing to focus on what “used to be” is not going to serve you or anyone else. It’s important not to get your identity, or value, wrapped up with your physical range of motion or capability. Your “do” is not your “who." You are not your yoga practice. The asana practice is only a tool to help connect you to something deeper than the physical body. Also, let go of the misconception that being able to do complex asanas equates to being an advanced yoga practitioner.

In the same way holding onto your past doesn’t serve you, putting unrealistic expectations on what your practice “should” look like by an arbitrary date isn’t healthy. Our timeline and Mother Nature’s timelines don’t always line up. It’s important to respect your body instead of pushing yourself too hard, which can lead to further setbacks. I learned this all too well in the first couple of weeks after my injury by pushing myself too hard, making my injury 100 times worse. Even after making my injury worse, I planned to be back to my normal practice in four to six months, while no doctor, both then and now, has been able to give me a timeline as to when I’ll be back to “normal."  Currently, I would be in a much better place and had an easier time healing had I backed off rather than pushed.

Two months into my injury, after experiencing a lot of depression and anxiety, I decided to rewire my mind. I sat down with a pen and paper and made an exhaustive list of everything I could do NOW, both on and off the mat. This was by far a turning point for me that gave me a much more positive outlook. I was so shocked and excited about all the things I could do, even while being in a limited state. For example, in addition to my new self-care activities, I realized how much I loved writing blogs and articles. I honed my verbal cues and realized I could still teach complex asanas in classes, workshops, and online by using students to demonstrate poses rather than my own body. I found out how much I enjoyed helping other teachers with their career path, and began developing a co-led 200-hour teacher training. I also went through a couple more teacher trainings, deepened my knowledge in anatomy, learned more about yoga injury prevention, and have become interested in yoga balls and therapeutic classes.

The takeaway: Focus on what you CAN do, not what you can’t do.

4. Don’t Let Go Of Your Practice—Work With What You’ve Got.

It can be easy to dwell on what your practice used to look and feel like pre-injury. Though your practice may temporarily or permanently altered, instead of focusing on what you can’t do, figure out what you can safely do now, even if it’s one pose, such as Legs-Up-the-Wall Pose (Viparita Karani) or a meditation practice.

Talk to your doctor or physical therapist and find out if there are any poses that may may reduce your pain or help heal your injury. For example, throughout my entire healing process, Viparita Karani has helped me reduce inflammation in my legs and hips and relax my pelvic floor muscles. Months after the initial injury, to help reduce pain, I added Downward-Facing Dog in wall ropes; a Reclining Hand-to-Big-Toe Pose (Supta Padangusthasana) variation in order to create space between the head of my femur bone and hip socket; and eventually Bridge Pose and one-legged Bridge Pose, to strengthen my gluteus and hamstring muscles, which tend to weaken when you have a hip injury.

Before doing any asana, ask yourself, “Is this pose going to help my injury, make it worse, or neither?" Don’t feel pressure to do any poses that aren’t going to support you getting better. Let your body be your guide. For poses that seem OK for you to do, be hypersensitive, take things slow, and be cautious when coming into a posture. Start with the most conservative variation of a pose and see how it feels before gradually going deeper. You might find the most conservative variation is the best variation for your body now and maybe even 10 years from now, and that’s OK. Its better to be safe than cause further harm to your body.

Let your yoga teacher know you are injured. If you have a minor injury, it might be OK for your teacher to adjust you during class. As for me, I don’t want anyone touching my body unless they are a medical professional. If there are poses offered in class that don’t seem best for you, find a couple of default poses that work for you. You can also ask your teacher for recommendations.

See also The 10 Rules of Hands-On Adjustments for Yoga Teachers

The takeaway: Let go of your ego. It’s important for you to let go of what you think a pose “should” look like. Don’t compare what your current practice looks like with what it used to look like, and don’t ever compare your practice with others.

5. Stay Positive About Your Future. Continue to Dream Big.

In addition to focusing on what you can do now, keep your eyes on what you want to see manifest! One of the positive things my injury did was force me to slow down my hamster wheel and allow me to see that my wheel wasn’t rolling down the best, most sustainable path. It gave me a chance to rethink what I really wanted in life, both big and small. I asked myself, “What do I want? How do I want to feel?" I discovered that the majority of the things that I wanted either didn’t require having a fully mobile body, or by the time some of my wants manifested, I would have a more mobile body. For example, I wanted feelings of peace, abundance, and stability. I wanted more quiet time, and more time to see my family my friends. I wanted to help animals and build water wells. I wanted to spend more time in nature, go clothes shopping (it’s been years), get a Vitamix (I finally got one!), take a vacation at least once a year (it had been years!), and have my own house. I wanted to use my gifts and talents, both known and unknown, in the best ways. Teaching-wise, I decided I wanted to take a slightly different direction, but I listed many of the same desires I had pre-injury. I wanted to work more with Yoga Journal (which I’m doing!), teach more online classes, learn more about yoga injury prevention, teach at more national and international workshops and festivals, and lead teacher trainings.

The takeaway: Don’t waste any time on being bitter. Don’t let your injury limit you now or your future. Where the mind goes, the man (or woman) follows! You may find the same dreams you had pre-injury can still happen post-injury. Let your setbacks become your divine set-ups. Dream big.

Hear Laura’s story come to life and learn how she turned the fear and difficulty of injury into a catalyst for positive change on Yogaland Podcast.

 

20 Modern Bedrooms by Roche Bobois


https://www.caandesign.com/20-modern-bedrooms-by-roche-bobois/

20 Modern Bedrooms by Roche Bobois

Photo courtesy: Roche Bobois
Description:

This a selection of 20 beds signed by famous designers such as Jean Paul Gaultier, Sacha Lakic, Philippe Bouix, Daniel Ezan, Luigi Gorgoni and others for Roche Bobois.

Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-01Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-02Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-03Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-04Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-05Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-06Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-07Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-08Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-09Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-11Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-12Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-13Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-16Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-17Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-18Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-19Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-20Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-21Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-22Roche-Bobois-Bedrooms-23

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Quiz: Which of Your Chakras Is Out of Balance?


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/quiz-chakras-out-of-balance

Quiz: Which of Your Chakras Is Out of Balance?

Take our quiz to discover which of your chakras is out of balance so you can begin to realign your subtle body for vibrancy and overall well-being.
chakras diagram, meditation

 

Brick, wood and black & white touches define this contemporary home by COSO Architecture


https://www.caandesign.com/brick-wood-and-black-white-touches-define-this-contemporary-home-by-coso-architecture/

Brick, wood and black & white touches define this contemporary home by COSO Architecture

Architects: COSO Architecture
Location: Australia
Year: 2016
Photo courtesy: Luc Remond

Thank you for reading this article!

 

Yoga Anatomy: What You Need to Know About the Shoulder Girdle


https://www.yogajournal.com/teach/yoga-anatomy-shoulder-girdle

Yoga Anatomy: What You Need to Know About the Shoulder Girdle

The shoulder girdle is the most mobile and arguably the most vulnerable joint 
in the body. Here’s what you need to know to prevent injury.
shoulder anatomy

It’s the most mobile and arguably the most vulnerable joint in the body. Here’s what you need to know about the muscles of the shoulder to find greater stability and prevent injury.

The shoulder girdle’s mobility is a study in functional architecture. It was designed to help us climb, hang from trees, and occasionally even crawl. These days, however, most of us tend to move the shoulder joint in one direction only—out in front of us. Think about it: We spend the vast majority of our time on computer keyboards, cell phones, holding the steering wheel, or pushing a shopping cart. The result? We don’t take our shoulders through their full range of motion on a regular basis, and this repetition of forward-reaching tasks overtightens certain muscles in the shoulder joint while weakening others. Over time, this creates chronic misalignments of multiple muscles in the shoulder complex and eventually leads to pain and injury—particularly when we start weight-bearing on this joint on the yoga mat.

May-Anatomy_2

Anatomy of the Shoulder

The shoulder is made up of more than a dozen muscles, as well as the following four joints:

Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint

Where the shoulder blade (scapula) attaches to the collarbone

Glenohumeral (GH) Joint

Where the upper arm bone (the humerus) fits into the shallow ball-and-socket joint of the shoulder blade

Scapulocostal (SCC) Joint

Connects the rib cage to the shoulder blade

Sternoclavicular (SC) Joint

Connects the collarbone to your sternum

Top Shoulder Injuries

Unfortunately, the rotator cuff (see below) has become synonymous with “injury.” Here are two of the most common shoulder injuries and why they occur, plus try 4 Poses to Prevent + Heal Shoulder Injuries

Rotator Cuff Bursitis/Impingement

This typically refers to inflammation caused by excessive irritation of the supraspinatus tendon, which passes directly underneath the AC joint. If the shoulders are out of alignment repeatedly in weight-bearing poses like Down DogUpward-Facing Dog, and Chaturanga, the supraspinatus tendon and its bursa (a fluid-filled sack that cushions the tendon) can become impinged in the narrow, bony tunnel underneath the AC joint. The result? Pain.

Biceps Tendinitis

Two tendons attach to the biceps: One connects over the humeral head into the shallow GH joint on the scapula; the other attaches to the coracoid process, a bony protrusion on the scapula. When students complain of pain in the front of the shoulder, it can mean one or both of these biceps tendons are irritated. A likely culprit is poor alignment of the shoulders in Chaturanga. When lowering, the biceps tendons can easily become overstretched and even tear.

See alsoAlignment Cues Decoded: “Draw Your Shoulder Blades Down”

May-Anatomy_1

The rotator cuff, explained

Surrounding the glenohumeral joint is the rotator cuff, a group of four muscles that help negotiate the position of the humeral head within its socket. These muscles originate from different landmarks on the scapula and latch onto the head of the humerus. They are:

Subscapularis (not shown)

Located on the front side of the scapula; helps you internally rotate the arm

Supraspinatus

Located on the top side of the scapula; initiates abduction, or the lifting of your arm out to the side

Infraspinatus

The bigger muscle on the back surface of the scapula; externally rotates the arm bone and stabilizes the shoulder joint

Teres Minor

The smaller muscle on the back surface of the scapula; externally rotates the shoulder

To keep the rotator cuff muscles injury-free, it’s crucial to stabilize the entire shoulder girdle when you place weight on your hands—like in Plank Pose, for example. In an efficient Plank, the body recruits multiple muscles to stabilize the shoulder girdle. Two key muscles that stabilize the scapulae against your rib cage at the ScC joints are the serratus anterior muscles (which protract the shoulder blades, pulling them away from the spine) and the rhomboids (which retract the shoulder blades, pulling them toward the spine). While the serratus anterior and rhomboids have opposing actions, they work together to help keep your scapulae from winging off your back and wreaking havoc on the rest of your shoulder joints and muscles.

See alsoA Yogi’s Guide to the Shoulder Girdle + Its Actions

About Our Pros
Writer Jill Miller is the co-founder of Tune Up Fitness Worldwide and creator of the corrective exercise format Yoga Tune Up® and author of The Roll Model. She has presented case studies at the Fascia Congress and the International Symposium of Yoga Therapists, and teaches at fitness and yoga conferences worldwide. Learn more at yogatuneup.com.

Model Carrie Owerko is a New York–based Senior Iyengar Yoga teacher and Laban Movement Analyst. She also leads Yoga Journal’s online course Iyengar 101: A 6-Week Master Class on Iyengar Yoga’s Legendary Poses and Principles.Sign up nowfor our adventurous Iyengar class, a fun, creative journey that will profoundly deepen and transform your approach to yoga and teach you everything you need to know about BKS Iyengar’s unique method.

 

《 Caro Emerald – You Don’t Love Me (03:56) 》


《 Caro Emerald – You Don’t Love Me (03:56) 》

Moscow Stylish Apartment by Alexandra Fedorova


https://www.caandesign.com/moscow-stylish-apartment-alexandra-fedorova/

Moscow Stylish Apartment by Alexandra Fedorova

Architects: Alexandra Fedorova
Location: MoscowRussia
Photo courtesy: Alexandra Fedorova

Moscow Stylish Apartment-01Moscow Stylish Apartment-02Moscow Stylish Apartment-03Moscow Stylish Apartment-04Moscow Stylish Apartment-05Moscow Stylish Apartment-06Moscow Stylish Apartment-07Moscow Stylish Apartment-08Moscow Stylish Apartment-09Moscow Stylish Apartment-10Moscow Stylish Apartment-11Moscow Stylish Apartment-12Moscow Stylish Apartment-13Moscow Stylish Apartment-14Moscow Stylish Apartment-15Moscow Stylish Apartment-16Moscow Stylish Apartment-17Moscow Stylish Apartment-18Moscow Stylish Apartment-19Moscow Stylish Apartment-20Moscow Stylish Apartment-21Moscow Stylish Apartment-22Moscow Stylish Apartment-23Moscow Stylish Apartment-24Moscow Stylish Apartment-25Moscow Stylish Apartment-26Moscow Stylish Apartment-27

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《 Caro Emerald – The Other Woman (05:36) 》


《 Caro Emerald – The Other Woman (05:36) 》

【滬尾經濟學】找出市場機制的豬隊友|蔡明芳


即使近年來台灣政府對於勞工的重視程度逐漸提高,但工會的力量與歐洲國家仍存在不小的落差,因此,相較於歐洲國家,可以想見亞洲或台灣勞動市場所決定的工資必然對勞工較為不利,例如,日本的過勞工作,韓國勞工的自殺率高,以及台灣的工作貧窮等,均是明顯的例子。因此,勞動市場的供需力量若不對等,工資可能由雇主機制或工會機制所決定,但絕非市場機制決定。

【滬尾經濟學】找出市場機制的豬隊友|蔡明芳

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6913

【滬尾經濟學】找出市場機制的豬隊友

友善列印版本

每個接觸經濟學的人,對經濟學的的基本印象多會有供給曲線與需求曲線,市場均衡價格與銷售量,就由供給與需求來決定。這也是一般人常聽到的市場機制或市場經濟。

來源:Pixabay

市場機制顧名思義是由市場上的參與者可共同參與市場決策的機制。如同我們所談的民主制度,是國家內的人可以直接或間接參與政策的討論與決策。然而,凡事都交給市場決定是否真的就表示任何結果都是對市場的供需雙方都一定有利,這是一個重要且值得深入討論的問題。

市場中的供需雙方所決定的價格可以完全反映供需雙方的利益,必須建立在供需雙方地位是對等的前提下。也就是說,任何使雙方不對等的因素都會導致市場機制無法運作或市場失靈 (failure)。導致供需雙方地位不對等的因素很多,例如,供需雙方的市場力量、訊息不對稱或國營企業等。

就供需雙方的市場力量而言,以勞動市場為例,我們可以看到亞洲國家與歐洲國家的勞工工會力量差異是非常大的。今年四月初,法國總統馬克宏(Emmanuel Macron)放棄逼迫法國國家鐵路公司(SNCF)進行改革,預計有48%的鐵路員工響應工會罷工號召,而參加罷工的鐵路司機將達77%,且罷工將持續至六月底,這樣的舉動必然導致法國鐵路運輸大癱瘓。然而,這樣的罷工情景在亞洲國家要發生的機率並不高。這是因為亞洲地區的工會力量並未如歐洲如此強大所致。即使近年來台灣政府對於勞工的重視程度逐漸提高,但工會的力量與歐洲國家仍存在不小的落差,因此,相較於歐洲國家,可以想見亞洲或台灣勞動市場所決定的工資必然對勞工較為不利,例如,日本的過勞工作,韓國勞工的自殺率高,以及台灣的工作貧窮等,均是明顯的例子。因此,勞動市場的供需力量若不對等,工資可能由雇主機制或工會機制所決定,但絕非市場機制決定。

來源:Pixabay

就訊息不對稱而言,指的是市場上的某一方擁有另一方不知道的訊息,例如,我們有租屋需求時,不清楚屋主是否為有信用的人,這部分只有屋主知道。同時,屋主也不知道房客是否會好好維護租屋環境。因此,以學生與教師為例,屋主都常會希望租給教師,以降低訊息的不對稱性。中國觀光客來台灣買阿里山茶葉時,只有茶莊知道該茶葉是否真為阿里山茶葉,若有黑心茶莊使用低價茶葉混充阿里山茶葉來欺騙觀光客,則觀光客將受到傷害。此時,茶葉市場的價格將是由擁有較多訊息的茶莊所決定,故消費者將會受到傷害。此外,二手車市場是更為大家所熟知的訊息不對稱的典型案例。因此,當市場存在訊息不對稱時,擁有較多訊息的一方將會得利,市場機制自然也就無法發揮。

就國營企業而言,國家的規模愈大,該國的國營企業對於市場的影響能力愈大,也會對於其他民營企業的利潤帶來負向的影響。若是國營企業在國際市場上與他國企業競爭,則可能對他國的經濟安全帶來威脅。因此,世界上像美國如此崇尚市場經濟的國家,面對他國企業有威脅其經濟安全的疑慮時,美國政府仍會採取政策干預,因為,若政府不干預且放任市場競爭時,規模大的國營企業將會獲得市場中的最大利益,這樣的結果絕非市場機制所決定的。

來源:Pixabay

綜合上述討論可知,經濟學雖然強調市場供需雙方共同決定價格的市場機制,然而,實務上,市場機制可能不存在或發生失靈,因此,政府才會有存在的必要。若要判斷市場能否決定一切的資源分配時,應先了解這個市場是否存在使得市場供需雙方地位不對等的因素。若市場供需雙方的地位對等,政府應該採取自由放任的態度。若市場存在任何使得交易雙方地位不對等的因素,則政府有介入的必要。因此,我們常聽到政府不應該介入市場的說法,並非在所有情況下均成立。若政府沒有作為,應稱為自由放縱而非放任。

 

《 Caro Emerald – Just One Dance (04:02) 》


《 Caro Emerald – Just One Dance (04:02) 》

【生態旅遊】春遊查拉密 一探山海間的生態智慧


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211169?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=7706690d3d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-7706690d3d-84956681

【生態旅遊】春遊查拉密 一探山海間的生態智慧

發表日期 2018/04/30
作者:廖靜蕙

春天結實飽滿的小米穗迎著海風微微搖動,收成後的紅等著陽光吸乾水分,部落媽媽不時得出來翻動紅藜。這些畫面構築了位於台東太麻里鄉查拉密部落的春天。近日部落族人不但種下香花,當地的向陽薪傳木工坊與部落居民合作舉辦導覽活動,讓遊客親身體會這個古老部落的生態智慧。

依傍著太平洋世居的查拉密部落,是少數未因政權更迭而遷徙的古老部落,他們在祖先選擇的土地上安身立命,累積與土地長久互動而生的智慧,這些傳統知識成為部落每天的實踐。這幾年,木工坊經理陳秀如努力紀錄查拉密的傳統知識。他是池上鄉人,因工作關係進入部落,在他眼裡,查拉密有挖不完的寶藏。

查拉密部落又有瀧部落之稱,世居於此發展精彩的傳統文化與厚實的生態智慧。攝影:廖靜蕙
部落媽媽不時出來翻動紅藜。攝影:廖靜蕙

「瀧」部落的由來 原來是海裡的「黑色百步蛇」

查拉密部落又有「瀧」部落之稱。仔細一看,部落門牌都有一個「瀧」字。為何稱為瀧呢?老人家說,因為有龍。但原住民文化並沒有龍的傳說。陳秀如為此尋找解答。一位90多歲的vuvu[註]告訴他,以前的老人家傳說云,海裡住著黑色的百步蛇,有一對黑色的翅膀,一拍打翅膀就會發出巨大的「喳啦喳啦」聲音,這也是查拉密(calavig)的由來。

傳說中的百步蛇十分調皮,牠會跑到部落上方水塘造成氾濫,老人家都會告誡子孫,海裡的黑色百步蛇很壞,不要到海裡玩。日治時代,日本人知道這個故事,自黑色百步蛇聯想到龍,於是稱這裡為「瀧」部落。

陳秀如說,這裡天氣好的時候,遠眺海洋盡頭隱約可見黑潮線,故事中的百步蛇指的可能正是黑潮,以此傳說告誡子孫不要輕忽海的力量。

小米田砌石牆 保水又防災的生態智慧

4月正是小米結穗,逐漸成熟之際,只見部落坡地上,到處都是結實飽滿的小米。只是小米田裡,散落一層碎石頭,這可不是阿瑪(對男性長輩的尊稱)工作偷懶喔!

四年前陳秀如剛到部落時,他的媽媽從池上來探望他,看了一下部落環境後說:「這裡的原住民好像很懶惰,田裡怎麼這麼多石頭?」這時陳秀如才注意到田裡特別的景況。一般認為,田裡就該是裸露的泥土,而且越肥沃越好。後經延平鄉桃源國小校長鄭漢文解說,他才知道這是部落的智慧。

部落認為這裡的太陽有兩個,一個在天空,另一個在海平面,當太陽從海平面升起時,熱輻射相當驚人,地表的水分隨即蒸發;但鋪上石頭卻能阻隔了熱度,保留住地底下的一點濕潤,而這一點濕度,就讓生物得以存活。

這裡的坡度雖都在45度以上,卻未發生土石流,正是因為部落堆疊的砌石牆營造了孔隙,讓每次大雨所降下的雨水往下滲透、保留在地底。陳秀如稱之為「部落的生態工法」。

小米田與砌石牆是查拉密的智慧。攝影:廖靜蕙

此外,種植小米完全倚靠人力,十分辛苦。陳秀如問過vuvu,為何要種到陡坡上?vuvu告訴他,這樣站著就能整理小米,比較不費力氣。一開始他相信了這個說法,直到自己親自整地之後,才發現其實並不好站。

後來,陳秀如才知道陡坡的好處,其實和當地的生態有關。這裡後山的森林,是老鷹的棲息地,加上面海,氣流非常適合老鷹飛翔。由於老鷹多,坡地上的小米田有如暴露在鷹眼中,因此沒有鳥害也不需要趕鳥;而晚上吹山風、白天吹海風的小米不容易生病,好吃又健康。

族人也會沿著砌石牆種山芋,雖引來山豬覓食,這些吃山芋長大的山豬,之後就成了族人獵捕的對象!

vuvu的後花園 滿是學問

部落vuvu會利用家屋周邊空間營造花園,小小的土地上,種滿各式植物,一般人看似沒有用的植物,到了vuvu手中威力瞬間強大!月桃刺蔥假酸漿,是構成vuvu後花園的基本要角。

陳秀如解釋,月桃可用於包材,包裹阿拜、粽子或食物,像是排灣族用月桃葉盛飯包阿拜,就是要把月桃防蟲抗菌的成分融入飲食中;月桃也是做成帽子、籃子的編織材料;過去亦曾用於藥材研發,仁丹公司的「口味兒」就來自台灣的月桃種子!在部落媽媽口中,月桃茶更是去體內油脂的部落智慧。

刺蔥用作料理食材烹煮外,社區媽媽還會做成香料,用來調味增加風味;這裡的刺蔥是莖部長刺的紅刺蔥。而由於刺蔥得透過小鳥傳播,家附近若有刺蔥樹,便是一件幸運的事。

部落稱假酸漿葉為「阿拜」的衣服,是部落普遍利用的民族植物,部落阿嬤說可防止脹氣。古早獵人上山時,就是帶著阿拜當糧食;阿拜的主要成分為糯米,其容易增加胃酸,而假酸漿可防止脹氣和胃酸。阿嬤會摘幾片葉子加小魚乾煮湯,就能減緩胃痛。是非常好的植物。

假酸漿有很多好處,本草綱目更提及有抑制潰瘍的療效。攝影:廖靜蕙

「夠用就好」 與大自然和諧共處的智慧

剛落腳時,陳秀如成天在部落賴賴蛇(走來晃去)。vuvu問他,在這裡做什麼?他說他在木工坊工作,要幫部落發展觀光。vuvu回了一句:「發展觀光不就帶來垃圾?」為了這句話,陳秀如決定,將來舉辦的所有活動,都不使用免洗餐具。

早晨,在部落偶爾見到老人家從山底下慢慢往上走,原來是家裡沒水,沿著部落巡水。陳秀如解釋,部落沒有自來水,全仰仗山泉水,只是若遇到水流量不夠時,就會沉澱泥沙造成水管堵塞,一旦堵塞,家裡就沒水。

一開始,陳秀如不懂老人家為何這麼麻煩地做這些事,因此建議由木工坊寫計畫申請經費,在水源地建水塔,搭配沉砂池和水管,老人家就不用這麼辛苦。vuvu卻說:「我們人要用水,山豬、獼猴也要用水,這些花花草草也要用水,我們人夠用就好。」

這也解釋了,何以家家戶戶都只儲存一桶水,蓄滿就任讓水自流,原來是留給山豬和大自然。這種與大自然分享的精神,讓陳秀如相當敬佩。

陳秀如將這些小故事整理成小手冊,遊客到多良車站一遊時,可到向陽工坊參觀,也許還能聽聽部落的故事!

[註] 原意指祖父母,此處延伸為對祖父母輩之泛稱。參考:原住民族語言線上查詢字典

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※ 本文與 行政院農業委員會 林務局  合作刊登

作者

廖靜蕙

環境記者/自由撰稿人。從事社工10餘年,認知到畢竟是人的社會,再弱勢的人都可以為自己發言,決定轉投生態保育,為無法以人類語言發聲的生命與土地寫報導。現居台北市,與貓先生、龜小姐,微曦中閱讀,斗室中寫作。個人粉專「小麻通訊」。

 

《 Caro Emerald – The Ghost Of You (03:47) 》


《 Caro Emerald – The Ghost Of You (03:47) 》

從河串起的起起落落 水田幾乎消失在粗坑


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211210?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=7706690d3d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-7706690d3d-84956681

從河串起的起起落落 水田幾乎消失在粗坑

發表日期 2018/04/30
作者:人禾環境倫理發展基金會

水,之於生命是必需的,之於文化也是重要的元素。一個聚落曾經因豐沛的溪水,發展出獨特的水源利用、分配模式,一時聚落人聲鼎沸,倚靠河溪資源的產業興盛,但也因為沒了水,原有的模式不在、產業不在,到後來居住於此的居民,也慢慢移居離開。數十年的時間,聚落經歷大起,也走到低潮,這是一段「河與人」的故事。

1_位於冬山的柯林育苗場「春分」過後幾乎已出清所有秧苗(圖片來源:人禾)
位於冬山的柯林育苗場「春分」過後幾乎已出清所有秧苗。圖片來源:人禾

節氣走過「春分」,目光來到宜蘭,供作秧盤二次催芽的綠化場,送走了碧綠的秧苗,也已重新引水翻耘,回歸水田樣貌,整個宜蘭插秧季算是正式結束。雨量豐沛的宜蘭,給大家的印象一直是水資源充足,無須設置水庫儲水、湧泉質淨量足,也因為水耕的水稻一直是蘭陽平原重要的農作物。

位處宜蘭山腳的中華社區粗坑聚落,也曾經水田密佈,在大家很熟悉由農田水利會設立灌區,修築水圳灌溉的時代背景下,粗坑聚落為中華社區四處聚落中,面積最大、人口最多,卻是唯一未有農田水利會灌溉系統的區域。

那怎麼解決灌溉水源需求呢?

在解答這疑問前,我們先把注意力拉到水利會能量罕至的山區環境,早年先民移墾山區,直接取山澗坑溝的作灌溉,在水源取得容易的區域,可能開墾成水梯田;反之則種植地瓜等旱作。而耕作水梯田的區域,或透過宗族共識、水田位置高低、離取水點遠近的因素,決定各戶、田區水源分配的多寡。位於水尾或連續耕作面積廣大的農戶,則開鑿埤塘,平時蓄水以因應枯水時區耕作之需。

平原地區開墾,經歷清領時期的「諭告裁定水份(類似今日水權)」、日治時期的「公共埤圳管理」、「官設埤圳管理」,乃至後期的「水利組合」確立,開始有農田水利會的雛型,平原地區的灌溉給排系統多以設置完善。何以曾經水田密布的粗坑,始終不是農田水利會灌區呢?

先民開墾的「輪水鬮」機制

在開墾之初,粗坑先民自發性籌工建置引水設施,取粗坑溪豐沛的溪水飲用、灌溉及畜養家禽,初期仍有水源分配糾紛,但為公平分配灌溉水源,先民推行「輪水鬮」機制。居民共同推舉村中深受信賴的藍家為共主,由藍家主人依各戶耕地大小範圍分配供水時數,並以藍家宅院裡的時鐘為輪流供水切換基準,而供水順序則由各家抽籤(鬮)決定,排定無異議後,製表貼在藍家廳牆上,輪水期間藍家泡好茶水,夜不閉戶,方便前來看鐘、看表的人。

村民彼此信賴,長久以來皆無紛爭,而水圳設施的維護管理,則仰賴農戶間出工、水錢收取支應。粗坑溪除了是聚落水源重要來源外,溪流中的魚蝦蟹,一直是居民補充食物的來源;而粗坑河攤上,前來汲取礦物質的蝴蝶為數眾多,也帶起一波居民採集、製作標本販售的歷史,曾有「蝴蝶谷」的別稱。可以說粗坑溪的種種資源供養著社區所需。

1985年(民國74年)經建版地形圖-粗坑地區仍標註為大片水田
1985年經建版地形圖──粗坑地區仍標註為大片水田。圖片來源:人禾

國民政府時期,農田水利會徵詢納編灌區時,也因為「輪水鬮」機制的存在,當地居民僅申請「水權」取水,而未申請加入灌區,水圳的維護管理工作,仍由在地居民共同籌工維護。這樣的「輪水鬮」管理機制,在平原地區算是獨有,居民互助互信,維持好長一片光景。

經歷農路整修,部分舊有的「土溝、水汴」已被「道路加蓋及水泥工法」取代
經歷農路整修,部分舊有的「土溝、水汴」已被「道路加蓋及水泥工法」取代。圖片來源:人禾

然而穩定的動態平衡,在民國84年自來水公司深溝淨水場擴建工程,越域取粗坑溪地表水供宜蘭民生用水使用後被打破,豐水粗坑溪不在,原本宜蘭山邊伏流型的粗坑溪,也因地表水被截流後,汛期常流水量減少、沽期伏流日數驟增。雖後續自來水公司出資,籌設簡易自來水系統,另拉管線取粗坑溪支流冷埤出流溝、潘仔灶溝供社區使用,但水量僅能供日常民生飲用,原有的水田漫淹、灌溉,若想倚靠簡易自來水民生剩餘水或溝渠中僅存的絲絲水流,皆不足以維持既有耕作面積及年間灌溉需求,棄耕變成大家心底必然的選擇。

中華社區簡易自來水管理委員會清查的汲水系統用水狀況,顯見使用非常吃緊。圖片來源:人禾

期間僅短短二十年的時間,聚落型態已大幅改變,一級產業規模不在,尤以水稻耕作已全然消失在粗坑,僅存少量栽植葉菜;採蝶產業也因河道枯竭,農業生產環境劣化等因素數量驟減;人口遷出增加,二十年間中華人口以減少近百分之四十,至107年2月統計整個中華社區設籍人口僅剩702人,更不用說多數是「籍在人不在」或「早出晚歸」到外地討生活,日常社區活動人口多以年長者為主。粗坑農耕發展的沒落,離農也加速引水系統失修、「輪水鬮」制度崩解。現有「輪水鬮」制度僅能由藍家宅院外憑弔,由「輪水鬮」所串起的居民互助互信也不復見,對於河川的情感,也只剩下堤防與橋梁。

藍家後代已搬離粗坑,僅留下空蕩蕩的宅子。
藍家後代已搬離粗坑,僅留下空蕩蕩的宅子。圖片來源:人禾
空景下的粗坑,看得出早年的水田皆已棄耕不復在。(拍攝日期:2018.02.28 豐水期)
空景下的粗坑,看得出早年的水田皆已棄耕不復在。(拍攝日期:2018.02.28 豐水期)圖片來源:人禾

這樣因「河川串起的大起大落」的社區故事,在現在社會實有耳聞,「輪水鬮」互助互信的歷史對於25歲以下的粗坑人來說,是不曾擁有的記憶;「河灘採蝶」風光一時的歷史對於25歲以下的粗坑人來說,是不曾擁有的記憶;「親河捕蟹」嘻笑玩樂對於25歲以下的粗坑人來說,也是不曾擁有的記憶。當世代變遷過後,對於粗坑人腦海裡,還留下什麼?「河川」之於人,不只是維持生命所需,孕育生態,也是流動著聚落文史的血脈。

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※ 本文原載於2018年04月15日人禾基金會「從河說起」部落格

 

《 Caro Emerald – Back It Up (03:42) 》


《 Caro Emerald – Back It Up (03:42) 》

高手在民間 環團發起徵件 尋取代深澳電廠的N種可能


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211304?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=7706690d3d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-7706690d3d-84956681

高手在民間 環團發起徵件 尋取代深澳電廠的N種可能

發表日期 2018/04/30
本報2018年4月30日台北訊,賴品瑀報導

「我們為什麼非要在核電、燃煤最差的兩個發電方式中二選一,為什麼?」深澳燃煤電廠興建爭議延燒至今,從空污與生態爭議擴大到燃煤、核電的能源政策,環團提出「取代深澳電廠的N種可能」公民創意徵件比賽,相信高手就在民間,可以從民間找出善用建廠經費一千億的計畫,從創能、儲能、節能來取代燃煤電廠。

環團提出「取代深澳電廠的N種可能」公民創意徵件比賽。賴品瑀攝。

台灣再生能源推動聯盟理事長高茹萍表示,徵件活動即日開跑,6月30日截止,入選計畫將會送給總統府、行政院、經濟部,做為政策參考用。投件構想不只要提出這個計畫的時程和預算,也應該評估對自然環境、經濟的效益的衝擊,更要有社區參與的設計。

高茹萍認為,除了燃煤跟核電,風力發電、太陽光電等再生能源,甚至木質顆粒、地熱、海洋能等都有可能取代深澳電廠。

綠色公民行動聯盟副秘書長洪申翰更表示,北部直轄市除了表態反對燃煤電廠,同時也要在創能、儲能、節能更用心更努力,尤其是台北市,自身沒有電源、用電量最高,卻擁有最多的資源,當然應該負起更大的責任,但日前柯文哲卻輕言「要減1%都很難啦」,讓環團相當失望,直批不該是這樣的格局,相較之下,新北跟桃園對於節能都比台北市更認真。

檢視官方北部缺電說詞  環團:尖峰缺口由太陽能補齊

據經濟部能源局推估,2025年北部供電區的尖峰負載將達15.41 GW,但供電能力只有14.5 GW,因此若要避免中電北送,北部需設法補上0.91 GW的缺口。

但媽媽監督核電廠聯盟秘書長楊順美批評,這個15.41GW的需求並不合理,因為2017年北部的尖峰負載是14.16GW,能源局預估8年後還要成長1.25GW,等於宣告這8年內沒有積極節電,或是再生能源發展條例規範用電大戶必須節能或使用綠電10%的任務沒有達成,政府也沒有做電價合理化等節能措施。

DSC04341
媽媽監督核電廠聯盟秘書長楊順美。賴品瑀攝。

洪申翰表示,目前社會對深澳電廠的討論中,對於台北缺電的隱憂,一直缺少精準的估算,上週經濟部記者會中,以北部用電量減北部發電量,得出每年北送電力134億度,就是北部需要補足的電力缺口。

但洪申翰認為,應該以尖峰用電來計算才對,而根據台電的資料,北部用電的供給與需求在尖峰用電上,兩者只是差了57萬瓩。洪申翰表示,台電直接用過去的發電量來算並不公平,因為其中有台電在調度上的選擇,例如中火的成本低,所以台電自然多選用中火,這其實無關北部的供電能力如何。再者,台電把新竹算進北部地區,多了竹科的用電量,也造成估算失準。

楊順美表示,回歸到尖峰用電的缺口來看,尖峰往往就出現在夏季中午的那三、四個小時,若要為此啟用核電、煤電並不合理,因為核電、煤電並不能只開中午三、四個小時,為了攤平成本,就必須全天持續運轉,24小時影響環境。反觀,夏天最熱的時段太陽最大,應該善用太陽光電補上這個尖峰用電缺口。

假如我有一千億取代深澳電廠的N種可能競賽辦法
「取代深澳電廠的N種可能」公民創意徵件活動辦法。

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作者

賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 Caro Emerald – That Man (03:51) 》


《 Caro Emerald – That Man (03:51) 》

離岸風電遴選出爐 發出3836MW 外商達德、沃旭成大贏家


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211305?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=7706690d3d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-7706690d3d-84956681

離岸風電遴選出爐 發出3836MW 外商達德、沃旭成大贏家

發表日期 2018/04/30
本報2018年4月30日台北訊,賴品瑀報導

離岸風電遴選結果30日出爐,共發出容量3836MW。共有7家業者入選,外商達德、沃旭成大贏家,而本土廠商有台電、中鋼上榜扳回顏面。其中2400MW位在彰化外海,佔了62.6%。

DSC04352
經濟部30日由經濟部長龔明鑫、能源局局長林全能宣布離岸風力發電規劃廠址遴選結果。賴品瑀攝。

經濟部30日中午舉行「離岸風力發電規劃廠址遴選結果說明記者會」,經濟部長龔明鑫、能源局長林全能宣布,遴選結果有7家開發商、10個離岸風場入選。未來將分2020年、2025年兩階段完工併聯,由於所有參加遴選的業者都獲評為60分以上,即便這次落選,還有機會參加後續競標。

目前能源局核配出3836MW中,有2400MW位在彰化外海,達62.6%,其次則是雲林708MW佔18.4%,苗栗378MW佔9.9%、桃園350MW佔9.1%

參與遴選的業者,參與第一批2020年前完工者有3家、最後入選2家,爭取第二批2025年完工者有17家,最後有7家10個分場入選。按照總分得分高低排序序位,以此分配總量比例,第一序位得40%、第二30%、第三20%,其餘則10%。

遴選結果,有6成在彰化外海。經濟部提供。

2020年前完工者,能源局原本訂0.5GW為目標,遴選後核配出738MW。

申請的有上緯、達德(WPD)與亞泥,入選的有上緯、達德兩家;上緯的「海能」風場取得378MW核配容量,達德「允能」取得360MW。龔明鑫表示,第一階段面臨如期完成併聯的時間壓力,且後續需要取得的文件也必須顯示程序上進度順利,曾是示範風場的上緯已經架設了2隻,這樣的經驗是他的優勢。不過,上緯的海鼎1、2、3並沒有在2025年完工併聯的遴選中入選。

而第二波2025年完成者,獲選的有達德的「麗威」、「允能」、沃旭的「大彰化東南」、「大彰化西南」、「大彰化東北」、丹麥哥本哈根基礎建設基金(CIP)的「彰芳」、「西島」、中鋼的「中能」、台電、北陸電力與玉山能源(NPI)的「海龍二號」。合計核配了3098MW,其中達德合計得到692MW、沃旭900MW。

強調2025年完工併聯的申請案,遴選重點是跟國內相關產業鏈的關連,龔明鑫指出,雖然這次遴選並沒有強制要求與國內業者合作,不過每個開發商都表示非常有興趣,更在口頭上表示將有50%以上的合作,我國產業的零組件、開發能力都獲重視。未來可能包括工程設計、施工、零組件、運維、海事工程都有機會與離岸風電外商合作,外商也允諾願意培訓人才。

林全能表示,建造能力、工程與團隊的系統整合,也就是「介面銜接」是否完整,是第二階段遴選所重視的,國內的台電跟中鋼雖然沒有離岸風場的開發經驗,但是他們遴選委員感受到他準備內容的紮實與用心。除了與產業鏈的結合完整,台電有海事工程經驗,過去火力電廠有很多海管要拉,他們在遴選中具體了呈現過去的經驗,而獲得青睞。

這些入選的業者還需與能源局簽約,完來還有取得籌設許可、施工許可等關要過,如果沒有如期完工,則將面臨相關罰則,林全能表示,簽約時業者就必須繳交保證金。

而沒有入選者,由於遴選總分都超過60分,都有資格參加6月的競價,經濟部預定6月底公布競價結果。經濟部也提出台電併網的逐年規劃,預計2025年時可達10,650MW。

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作者

賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 Caro Emerald – A Night Like This (03:52) 》


《 Caro Emerald – A Night Like This (03:52) 》

Scientists discover moss that filters arsenic out of water, making it safe to drink


https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/moss-arsenic-environment-sweden-mining-stokholm-maria-greger-phytofiltration-a8311311.html

Scientists discover moss that filters arsenic out of water, making it safe to drink

Discovery could provide environmentally friendly way to purify water contaminated by mining activity, say researchers

320

Scientists in Sweden have discovered a moss that purifies water contaminated with poisonous arsenic so successfully that it becomes safe to drink.

Researchers at Stockholm University say the aquatic moss, warnstofia fluitans, which flourishes in northern Sweden, can rapidly absorb arsenic, removing as much as 82 per cent of the toxins within one hour in some tests.

Due to mining operations in this part of Sweden, wetlands and water sources used for drinking and for growing crops are often contaminated with arsenic.

The research team said the discovery could provide an environmentally friendly way to purify the water.

One possible scenario is to grow the moss in streams and other watercourses with high levels of arsenic, they said.

“We hope that the plant-based wetland system that we are developing will solve the arsenic problem in Sweden’s northern mining areas," said Maria Greger, associate professor at the Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences at Stockholm University and leader of the research group.

Arsenic is a metalloid element common in many minerals, and is a common waste product from mining. Mine tailings are a major environmental issue as they can often be highly toxic. It is difficult to successfully isolate large deposits of waste, and as a result, concentrations of toxins can end up in water sources.

In Sweden the bedrock contains high levels of arsenic, which has been brought to the surface by mining.

The arsenic enters water courses, and then raises levels of arsenic in crops. In Sweden, this applies to wheat, root vegetables and leafy greens, the researchers said.

A small amount of arsenic in some foods is not abnormal. In other countries, there are high levels of arsenic in rice, for example.

“How much arsenic we consume ultimately depends on how much of these foods we eat, as well as how and where they were grown,” said Professor Greger.

“Our aim is that the plant-based wetland system we are developing will filter out the arsenic before the water becomes drinking water and irrigation water. That way, the arsenic will not make it into our food," she added.

The research, published in the journal Environmental Pollution, centres around the ability of the moss to perform a process called phytofiltration, in which waste products such as heavy metals like arsenic are largely absorbed.

“Our experiments show that the moss has a very high capacity to remove arsenic. It takes no more than an hour to remove 80 per cent of the arsenic from a container of water. By then, the water has reached such a low level of arsenic that it is no longer harmful to people," said research assistant Arifin Sandhi, who conducted the experiments.

 

能過濾飲水砷污染的苔蘚 科學家找到了


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211314?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=7706690d3d-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-7706690d3d-84956681

能過濾飲水砷污染的苔蘚 科學家找到了

發表日期 2018/04/30
環境資訊中心綜合外電;姜唯 編譯;林大利 審校

瑞典斯德哥爾摩大學的科學家發現一種苔蘚,能淨化被有毒物質砷所污染的水,使其安全到可飲用的程度。

根據英國獨立報報導,科學家發現瑞典北部常見的一種水生苔蘚(Warnstofia fluitans)能迅速吸收砷,在部分的測試中,甚至可在一小時內排除多達82%的毒素。

Arifin Sandhi (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)
研究團隊在溫室中培養的苔癬。斯德哥爾摩大學堤東,Arifin Sandhi攝 (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)。

由於瑞典該地區的採礦活動,供給飲水和種植作物的濕地和水源經常被砷所污染。研究團隊表示,這項發現提供了一種環境友善的淨水方式。

一種可行的做法是,在溪流和其他含砷量高的水道中種植苔蘚。此方案仍在發展中,「希望我們這個以植物為基礎的濕地系統,能解決瑞典北部礦區的砷污染問題,」斯德哥爾摩大學生態環境與植物科學系副教授、研究主持人Maria Greger說。

砷是存在許多礦物中的類金屬元素,是採礦業常見的廢棄物。尾礦是一個重大環境問題,因為它們通常具有強烈毒性。此外,大量的廢棄物很難完全被隔離,因此毒素往往最終會進入水源。

在瑞典,底岩含有大量的砷,透過開採被帶到地表。砷會進入水道,導致作物砷含量提高。研究人員說,在瑞典,小麥、根莖類蔬菜和綠葉蔬菜可觀察到這個現象。

某些食物含有少量的砷是正常的。像是在其他國家,米中的砷含量可能很高。「我們吃下多少砷取決於吃下多少食物,以及作物種植的方式和地點,」Greger教授說,「我們的目標是,用植物濕地系統將水在變成飲用水和灌溉水之前過濾出砷,防止砷進入食物中。」

該研究發表在《環境污染》(Environmental Pollution)期刊上,探討苔蘚「植生過濾」(phytofiltration)的能力。在植生過濾的過程中,砷等重金屬被大量吸收掉。

「我們的實驗顯示,苔蘚吸收砷的能力很優異,不到一個小時就能從一個容器的水中去除80%的砷,使水中的砷含量達到安全的程度。」進行實驗的研究助理Arifin Sandhi說。

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作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。

 

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