Heat It Up! A Yoga Playlist to Ignite Your Inner Fire


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/-heat-it-up-a-yoga-playlist-to-ignite-your-inner-fire

Heat It Up! A Yoga Playlist to Ignite Your Inner Fire

Draw your shoulders back, lift your chest, and let your heart shine with these beats.
lauraburkhart-Pigeon---NOW---Samuel-Henderson-

Samuel Henderson

We’re always focused on taking up as little space as possible, when really we should be spreading our arms and sharing our light with the world. Hit play and let this playlist from #YJInfluencer Laura Burkhart inspire you to draw your shoulders back and let your heart shine.

1. “To Heal," Underworld
2. “China Flowers," Afterlife
3. “Peace Will Come with Sleep – Triple Bass Mix," Club des Belugas, anna.luca
4. “Dark Star," POLIÇA
5. “Mundo Bizarro," Electro Dub Tango
6. “Sun Is Shining," Bebel Gilberto
7. “Crystal Frontier – Acoustic Version," Calexico
8. “Angelica," Lamb
9. “Amongster – Exitmusic Remix," POLIÇA
10. “Open Chanel," Kalya Scintilla
11. “Transmitter," Daniel Lanois
12. “Sleepwalk," Sant & Johnny
13. “Ships In The Night," Brazilian Girls
14. “Lountang," Ablaye Cissoko, Volker Goetze
15. “Sleepy Sounds," Deep Sleep Music Experience
16. “Renewal," Liquid Mind
17. “Deep Sleep," Liquid Mind

Download the free Spotify software to listen to our playlists—and check back weekly for more of our fave yoga tunes.

 

Challenge Pose: Urdhva Mukha Svanasana


https://www.yogajournal.com/poses/challenge-pose-urdhva-mukha-svanasana

Challenge Pose: Urdhva Mukha Svanasana

Experience a surge of energy as you move step by step into Urdhva Mukha Svanasana, or Upward-Facing Dog.

PREVIOUS STEP IN YOGAPEDIA 3 Ways to Prep for Urdhva Mukha Svanasana
SEE ALL ENTRIES IN YOGAPEDIA

Urdhva Mukha Svanasana
Urdhva = Upward · Mudha = Face · Vana = Dog · Asana = Pose
Upward-Facing Dog Pose

Benefits
Energizes the front line of your body; lifts your spirits; strengthens your hands, wrists, arms, shoulders, upper back, abdominals, hip flexors, and quadriceps.

See also Challenge Pose: Hanumanasana

Stay Safe

Urdhva Mukha Svanasana can strain your lower back due to tightness or lack of support from the front of your body. If you feel any strain in your back, modify the pose with props—or by bending your knees to decrease the backbend. Another helpful modification is to rest with your legs down and your forearms on a small bolster so the backbend is gentler. This way, you can still experience the actions of your legs, lower abdomen, upper back, and shoulders, but with less effort and range of motion.

See also Poses for Your Pelvis

About Our Pro
Alison West is the director of Yoga Union and the Yoga Union Backcare & Scoliosis Center in New York City where she leads yoga teacher trainings, a Backcare and Scoliosis Certification Program, and a Slings and Ropes Certification Program. She also holds a PhD in art history from New York University. Transitioning from sculpture to the human form has led her to 35 years of practice and teaching. Learn more at yogaunion.com.

 

Anatomy 101: Understand Your Quadratus Lumborums (QLs)


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/anatomy-quadratus-lumborums

Anatomy 101: Understand Your Quadratus Lumborums (QLs)

Relieve hard-to-release back tension by unlocking your QL muscles.
ANATOMY QUADRATAS LUMBORUM

Relieve hard-to-release back tension by unlocking your QL muscles.

Ever noticed a lingering ache deep in your low back after prolonged sitting or standing? When your back muscles are weak or you have poor posture, intrinsic rectangular muscles between your ribs and hips called the quadratus lumborums, or QLs, work overtime to stabilize your spine and pelvis, leaving them tight and sore. These deep muscles are also near critical organs like the kidneys and colon, which means that in addition to contributing to an achy back they can adversely affect your digestive health, and therefore energy and well-being, according to some alternative health practitioners.

Fortunately, yoga is one of the best methods for engaging these little-known muscles and keeping them agile and pain free. Releasing tension from your QLs will lengthen the sides of your lower back (i.e., your flanks), a process that can be exquisitely liberating, creating powerful feelings of relaxation within the abdomen, low back, and hips. To experience this, you first need to know exactly where your QL muscles are.

Your QLs originate on the internal side of the iliac crests (hip bones) and insert into the twelfth rib and the transverse processes—the boney, winglike protrusions on either side of the vertebrae—of the first through fourth lumbar vertebrae, L1–4. They sidebend your spine, help raise or “hike up” your hips one at a time, and extend your lumbar spine in poses like Uttanasana (Standing Forward Bend). Find your right QL by placing your right thumb on your back about halfway between your right side waist and your spine, and pressing into the space between your bottom rib and your hip. Then press in toward your transverse processes and hike up your right hip: You should feel your QL contract.

Your QLs get tight and tender when they have to kick in and compensate for poor posture. And often soreness is one-sided, due, say, to carrying a small child on one side or side-sleeping with your top hip hiked up every night. Leg-length discrepancies are also a common cause of QL tension—most people have a slight variance in leg length, and around 2o percent of people have a clinically significant (greater than 2 cm) difference.

Yoga offers a host of poses to stretch your sides—and your QLs. Standing poseslike Utthita Trikonasana (Extended Triangle Pose) and Utthita Parsvakonasana (Extended Side Angle Pose), and seated poses like Parsva Upavistha Konasana (Side Seated Wide Angle Pose) and Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana (Revolved Head-of-the-Knee Pose), can help you access a QL stretch. As you warm up for the restorative sequence, designed to create ease around your lumbar spine, first work on releasing any tightness in your hips and thighs. This will free up your pelvis and allow for a deeper stretch in your QLs.

4 Poses to Free Your Flanks

Combine these exercises to bring more mobility to your lumbar spine and sides and to find greater range of motion in sidebending poses.

 

4 Steps to Getting Into a Blissful Supported Child’s Pose


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/supported-child-s-pose

4 Steps to Getting Into a Blissful Supported Child’s Pose

Frazzled nerves? The restorative version of Child’s Pose (Salamba Balanasana) can help you bring things down a notch.
Supported Child’s Pose

Soothe frazzled nerves in the restorative yoga version of Child’s Pose (Salamba Balanasana).

Each of us needs a haven in this world, a place that offers comfort during difficult times. For some people, this may be a peaceful spot in a sunny garden. For others, it may be the supportive arms of a loved one or a favorite activity, like a long run along a familiar country road.

These sanctuaries create a sense of safety and protection when we feel tossed about by the tumultuous winds of life. They help us feel free from danger, calm, soft, and able to once again breathe a few easy, healing breaths.

For me, the restorative version of Child’s Pose (Salamba Balasana) offers just such a shelter from life’s inevitable storms. I consider the pose to be a good friend whom I can turn to when the world has wearied my heart and when my mind cries out for comfort and relief.

A forward-bending posture, it soothes frazzled nerves, teaches back-body breathing, and gently supports the vital energy centers of the belly, heart, and head. Its tightly wrapped shape envelops the front of the body, allowing us to soften and release protective holding patterns in the abdomen.

See also

How to Set Up for Supported Child’s Pose

Step One: Use Blankets for Optimal Bliss

This version of the asana is my favorite, and while it’s a bit prop heavy, I believe that rounding up every last blanket in the house is well worth the effort. Be patient with the preparation and trust that your body and mind will be well rewarded.

To begin, fold five blankets so that each is about eight to 12 inches wide and long enough to support your torso and head when you fold forward. Neatly stack three of the blankets on top of one another and position them on your yoga mat. Form a second stack with the last two blankets and place it within arm’s reach.

Sit astride one end of the thicker stack with your knees, your shins, and the tops of your feet resting on the floor. Stay here for just a moment, readjusting your knees and feet as needed so you feel completely comfortable.

Now place the two-blanket stack atop the three-blanket stack in front of your pelvis, so your stomach and chest will be gently supported when you bend forward over it. Take care to ensure that all the blankets are neatly folded and even, so when you bend forward, the support will be smooth and firm.

As you sit on top of the blankets, rise up through your heart and broaden your collarbones, so the front of your body feels both long and spacious. Soften your skin, deepen your breath, and invite feelings of tenderness and tranquility to melt inward toward your core.When you’re ready to nestle into Child’s Pose, inhale as you stretch your spine toward the sky, then exhale as you fold forward from the hips, allowing the torso to settle into the support you’ve created in front of you. Take care to lengthen the front of your spine as you go forward, leaving ample space for the torso to stretch out fully. Turn your head to one side and rest it on the blankets as you relax your arms comfortably on the floor on either side of the bolster.

See also5 Ways to Make Every Yoga Class More Restorative and Therapeutic

Step Two: Prop Properly

Once you’re situated, your belly, heart, and head should all rest contentedly on the cushions beneath you. If not, make a few adjustments so the shape of your blanket stack supports your body.

First, consider adding or removing blankets to find a more comfortable distance from the floor. There’s no right or wrong placement of the blankets—some people simply prefer more support in the deep belly, while others do not. So feel free to experiment with your setup to discover the perfect arrangement for you.

If you are tight in the hips or achy in the knees, for example, you might like more support beneath your pelvis when you rest forward. If so, add one or more blankets to the thick stack on which you’re sitting. This additional distance between the pelvis and the ground will create a little more space for the legs and relieve some of the pressure you may feel in the knees and feet.

If, on the other hand, you feel like your arms and legs are dangling precipitously from your blankets, you might want to subtract a few blankets. You might even prefer the less-supported version of the pose, in which the hips rest on the heels in the traditional version of Balasana and just the upper body rests on a bolster.

Second, consider shifting the upper blanket stack either closer to or farther away from your pelvis until you find the position that’s most comfortable for your abdomen.

Third, make sure your head is well supported and not dangling off the front edge of the blankets. If the head isn’t resting comfortably, slip another blanket or a firm pillow beneath the far end of the stack until the chin and forehead are level and even.

And finally, if as you rest here, you feel like any part of your front torso is unable to fully surrender, consider wedging a small blanket or a towel between that part of your body and the support beneath. I often roll up a thin blanket and slip it just beneath my collarbones, so my throat and heart are able to release evenly. You may find a part of your own body that responds well to additional support.

Step Three: Settle In and Surrender

You’ll know you’ve found just the right arrangement when you feel yourself dropping into the blankets or bolster with a blissful smile and a gigantic sigh of relief. Once this happens, your only job is to settle in and surrender. Encourage every cell in your body to soften and unclench, so with each breath, you feel yourself melting farther into the cushion of support beneath you.

As you rest here, invite gravity to pull the legs deeply toward the earth to release any lingering tension in the hips and thighs. Soften the muscles of the lower back and release the tailbone toward the heels. At the same time, spread your shoulder blades apart as your arms dangle like vines toward the floor.

See also 4-Step Bedtime Restorative Practice for Better Sleep

Unwind, soften, and let go. Close your eyes, unfurrow the brow, and release the jaw. Unclench your hands and feet. Dissolve the armor around your back so the skin feels soft and unwrinkled, forming a blanket of comfort around your body. Encourage your entire body to feel tender, spacious, and at ease.

After a few minutes in the pose, your torso may have relaxed so much that it needs more space to lengthen. If so, press your hands into the ground, lift the torso a few inches away from the support, and slip the belly toward the heart, the heart toward the head, and the head toward the front of the stack. Then slowly release the torso back down onto the blankets, letting the spine elongate forward.

Step Four: Balasana Breathing

Now consider your breath. For the first few moments in Salamba Balasana, your inhalations and exhalations may feel choppy and short, since the front body is so deeply supported that it isn’t able to participate as fully as usual in the breathing process. But after resting quietly for several minutes, your body will likely discover new breathing patterns that encourage the back to expand to more completely accommodate the ebb and flow of the breath.

Every time you inhale, let the shoulder blades and the back of your waist rise and spread like a dry sponge absorbing water. Every time you exhale, envision the fibers of the back melting toward the cushion of support. The inhalations should be long and wide, filling out the nooks and crannies of your back. The exhalations should feel warm and endless. Enjoy the ease and tranquility that the gentle, undulating rhythm of the breath evokes.

Rest in Supported Child’s Pose for at least three to five minutes, or for as long as you feel comfortable, turning the head to face the opposite direction when you’re halfway through your time in the pose. Relax the head, relieving your shoulders of the burden of holding it up high. Encourage the heart to melt into the support beneath. Unclench the belly and let the outer world dissolve away as you draw your awareness inward toward the center of your being.

See alsoHappiness Toolkit: Two-Minute Restorative Poses

Now envision your back as a soft blanket surrounding you that offers shelter from the troubles of the world. Notice how the vital organs of the front of your body are well protected by the soft shell of the back, and allow any feelings of safety this creates to melt into the marrow of your bones.

Enjoy this sense of letting go, feeling every last ounce of tension drain from your body into the earth. Release every muscle in your body and experience how there is no place to fall. In a sense, you’ve already fallen—into a deep and soulful space with no threat and no fear. All that is left is an ocean of tranquility.

About our writer
Claudia Cummins teaches yoga in central Ohio.

 

Melt Tension with Pigeon Pose


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/proper-pigeon-pose

Melt Tension with Pigeon Pose

Find proper alignment in Pigeon Pose, then practice it often, and those stiff, tight hips will start to feel open again.
Chelsea Jackson Pigeon

Dive into the fundamentals of asana at Yoga Journal LIVE! Colorado on the uniquely curated Beginners Path with Rina JakubowiczRegister now to join us in Colorado Sept 27–Oct 4, 2015.

Whenever I ask my students before class if they have any requests, I’m greeted with a chorus of “Hip openers!" At first I was puzzled: My students always looked so tense—tight jaws, fierce eyes, rigid necks—while practicing these poses. But as I paid more attention, I began to notice a universal look of relief on their faces by the end of class. Hip openers may be challenging, but they can also be incredibly satisfying, both physically and emotionally.

If you’re like most students, you probably feel as though someone poured superglue into your hip sockets. There are perfectly good reasons for this. First, modern life requires sitting all day, which keeps your hips from the rotation, flexion, and extension they need to remain agile. Second, common sports such as running and cycling—and even an everyday activity like walking—demand hip strength but not flexibility. The third culprit is stress, which creates tension in your body, especially in your hip area, which is a complex cluster of powerful muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Even a little bit of stress-induced clenching can really lock them up.

So, short of tossing out your chair (which could lead to other physiological problems), and entirely eliminating stress from your life, what can you do to unstick your hips and get them gliding freely again? For starters, you can start to incorporate Pigeon Pose into your daily routine.

This pose is perfect for tight hips because it stretches the hip rotators (the buttocks area) and the hip flexors (the long muscles that run along the front of your thighs and pelvis). It also requires substantial external rotation in the front leg and substantial internal rotation in the back leg. If you practice it consistently, you’ll notice an increased suppleness throughout your practice. You may also find that your body moves more easily even after class, since your pelvis is the central hub of movement.

Sounds easy, right? Well, sort of. If you’ve ever tried Pigeon Pose, you know how challenging it is. It’s effective because it’s so good at isolating certain muscles in the hips, ultimately softening stiffness and rigidity and making you feel lighter and more flexible. But isolating those muscles is the very thing that can make Pigeon Pose grueling. So just be aware that you might taste some bitterness before getting to the pose’s sweet spot.

All you have to do is be attentive to the many—and sometimes difficult—physical sensations that arise. Your ability to observe and be with these sensations and the accompanying cacophony of thoughts and feelings may be just as rewarding as the physical benefits of the pose.

Keep Your Waist Long

The first stage of the pose elongates the hip flexors of your back leg and creates a mild backbend. It’s also the time to establish stability in your pelvis before moving into the second stage.

Start on all fours, placing your hands directly below your shoulders, and your knees below your hips. Bring your right knee forward until it touches your right wrist, keeping your right thigh parallel to the sides of your mat. Slowly inch your right shin and foot (hereafter referred to as your “front leg") toward the midline of your body until your foot is directly below your left hip. Now straighten your left leg (hereafter referred to as your “back" leg) toward the back of your mat.

Instead of leaning forward, walk your hands back and lower both sides of your pelvis toward the floor. As your pelvis releases, be sure your hips don’t lean to the right. You’ll know this is happening if your left hip lifts higher than your right. You need to keep your hips as level as possible to get the full effects of the pose and to keep your lower back safely aligned. If you’re not able to lower the hips evenly (join the club!), sit on a folded blanket or a block before starting the pose.

As your hips continue to settle, press your fingertips firmly into the floor and lengthen the sides of your waist to help keep your lower back long and free from strain. Using your arms this way allows you to modify the intensity of the stretch.

Fold Into the Stretch

Image placeholder title

Walk your hands forward, inhale deeply as you lengthen your torso, and exhale as you fold forward, lowering your elbows to the floor (pictured right). Again, use your arms to adjust the weight you release into your hips. If the stretch feels too intense, lift away from the floor and use your arms to support more of your weight. If you have space to spare in your hips, lower your torso and let your weight settle onto the floor.

As you come into the second version of the pose, you might feel sensations shift from your back leg to your outer front hip and buttock. The sensations that flood your hips might feel great or slightly unnerving—or a combination of the two. In any case, it’s important to refine your alignment again to ensure that you’re peeling away layers of tension rather than stressing any of your joints.

Start by making sure your hips are level. If you were meticulous about this in the first stage, you are probably in good shape. If not, then any imbalance will increase as you come forward. So if necessary, place a folded blanket under your right buttock so your pelvis isn’t off kilter.

Look at your front thigh. Make sure it’s parallel to the sides of the mat and that your front foot is directly beneath your back hip. Breathe into the sensations rumbling in your hips. Observe the reactions in your mind and try to let go of them by relaxing your eyes, jaw, and throat. Continue to breathe into your hips and allow your belly to melt toward the floor. Feel your hips and your mind soften as you allow waves of feelings to wash over you.

After 5 to 10 breaths in the forward bend, inhale to come back up. Press down through your fingertips as you lift your hips away from the floor and transition all the way to Downward Dog. Take five deep breaths and observe how your hips feel—lighter? clearer? achy? There’s no need to attach any meaning to the sensations. No need to worry or judge yourself. Strong as these sensations are, they’ll soon morph into different feelings as you switch to your second side.

 

《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Piano Melodies Collection (50:49) 》


《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Piano Melodies Collection (50:49) 》

House Zeist finished inside and out in exposed concrete by Bedaux de Brouwer Architects


https://www.caandesign.com/house-zeist-finished-inside-and-out-in-exposed-concrete-by-bedaux-de-brouwer-architects/

House Zeist finished inside and out in exposed concrete by Bedaux de Brouwer Architects

Architects: Bedaux de Brouwer Architects
Location: ZeistThe Netherlands
Year: 2016
Area: 4.327 ft²/ 402 m²
Photo courtesy: Michel Kievits, Peter Keijsers
Description:

“The house is situated on the edge of a village in a natural setting where forest meets heathland. Distinctive features of the house are the raised patio and living area, the large overhanging roofs and the generous picture windows. The house is finished inside and out in exposed concrete. The straight lines and subdued detailing go to make up a striking design by Bedaux de Brouwer Architects.

The living area, which is raised above the forest floor, has the appearance of a pavilion and feels like a lookout post in the forest. At the back it runs into the patio, which overlooks the heath. The large glass panels and sliding door at the back provide views of the surrounding countryside. Further to the front, the rooms are more enclosed to provide a safer and cosier feel. Access to the living area and patio is via a concrete path and outside stairway. A concrete wall guides the visitor to the front door, which is sheltered by a thin steel canopy.

The main structure of the house consists of inner and outer concrete shells, poured on site, which required careful detailing and intensive coordination with the structural engineer and contractor.

The aluminium panorama facades are finished cleanly and merge unobtrusively into the walls and floors. Mullions have been minimised to ensure the least possible hindrance to the influx of light. As a result, the outer and inner spaces appear to flow seamlessly into each other. The aluminium louvres can be used to ensure privacy when desired.

The raw concrete gives the house a pure and basic appearance, which contrasts handsomely with the refined and restrained detailing of the frames, louvres and interior. The connection with the natural outdoor environment, the subdued design language and the use of materials give the house its striking character and provide an exceptional living experience.”

Thank you for reading this article!

 

《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – First Love (05:45) 》


《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – First Love (05:45) 》

【科哲絮語】論風水


台灣人相信風水,所以建築師一般也必須去學風水語言。風水學對台灣的影響有多少?本文帶您窺伺祖先們的智慧!
#風水學 #堪輿學 #占星學 #傳統習俗
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6960

【科哲絮語】論風水

友善列印版本

十幾年前我在台北教書,當時曾想在台北購屋。在一個偶然機會,我遇到一位大學同學,他變成建築設計師,事務所在士林。他很熱心地陪同我去看房子,我覺得不錯的物件,他卻說「不行」,因為風水理由,例如窗口可看到「壁刀」或者正門有「角煞」。我很訝異,為什麼像他這樣一位建築碩士會相信這些?後來我知道因為台灣人相信這些,所以建築師一般也必須去學風水語言。當然啦,他是不是從心底相信「居家風水對人的生命影響」這一套我並不淸楚。後來我買到一本《風水理論研究(二)》(地景出版社),是中國學者的論文合集,主要是從歷史和學術的角度來討論風水的理論和工具(例如羅盤的發明),以及這些風水觀念或信念對於中國城鎮選址、建構、園林景觀、建築配置與風格的影響。從這本書,我瞭解到在中國古代,「風水學」同時發揮現代科學或技藝中的「環境科學(含心理學)」、「都市計畫」、「房屋建築」、「園藝造景」和「室內設計」等等學問的功能。

「風水」在晉代之前被稱作「堪輿」,指堪察「地形、地勢、疆域」(即「地理」)的行為或學問,最初是觀察地理環境、選擇與決定人民聚落和居住場所的一套信念。「堪輿」一詞據考證最早出於《淮南子》第三卷〈天文訓〉「堪輿徐行,雄以音知雌。」「天文訓」會出現堪輿一詞,暗示了中國古代的天文與堪輿像是希臘羅馬時代的占星學、天文學、地理學都是宇宙論(天與地的理論)的一部分。堪察地理的行為描述還可以回溯到《詩經》「公劉篇」,其中的「逝彼百泉。瞻彼薄原,迺陡南岡。乃覯于京。」其中,「覯」是指「遇」,這四句是指公劉看到一片地形美景,決定建都於該地,雖然這並沒有講出究竟什麼樣的「地理」是適合居住建都的。

在中國古代堪輿學中,一般最適合聚落定居和建城的地理場所是所謂的「穴」或「結穴」,它的地形結構可以產生洞穴般保護居民的功能,因為它是一種四周受到包圍,地勢北高南低,前有水流存在或貫穿的封閉地形,也像是一個盆地。在風水觀念上,叫負陰抱陽、背山面水的格局。一般說來,它的北方是一座屏擋的大山,從左右兩側有輔弼之構物,如兩臂般環抱住盆底,有河流或水塘位盆底之南。如此的基本地形,風水術語叫「左青龍,右白虎;前朱雀,後玄武。」像注音符號的「ㄇ」形。這個格局可適用於家宅、村聚、城鎮、到皇城皇陵。不過什麼是青龍,什麼是白虎?視環境和建築類型而略有不同。例如,家宅的左青龍可能是一條河流,右白虎則是道路,前朱雀是一個半月形的水池。像早期民間的四合院,有正廳、左右廂房,半月形水池,圍牆和大門,也都是模擬這一基本模式。如果是城鎮的選址,那還有一套更複雜的形勢。

最好的「穴」格局稱作「龍穴」──「龍」代表「天子」,所以是天子居所是「龍穴」。下圖是一個典型的龍穴格局。如圖標[1]所指示的,在盆底中央地帶乃是結穴位置,它位於山腳下,背後所屏靠的山峰[2]就是「後玄武」,稱作「主山」,又稱「來龍山」;來龍山是另一座大山的支脈,該大山稱作「少祖山」[3],往上追蹤其來龍山脈,稱為「龍脈」[4];龍脈發源之起始山峰,通常最為龐大,稱作「祖山」[5]。結穴之處是一個盆地,左右受主山所伸展的次峰脈或崗巒環抱,稱作「龍虎砂山」,又叫「左輔[6]、右弼山[7]」;在青龍、白虎砂山外側,也要有山脈環繞,稱作「護山」[8]。山脈帶來水源;形成溪流,在盆底之南匯聚成河,流出盆地,河流之南要有稱作案山[9]的近山,恰環住盆底南方開口。更南之處要有朝山[10],河流流出盆地之出口,還要有水口山[11],這整個構成最完整(美)的龍穴格局。

來源:作者提供

這個地形格局被中國文化傳統當成一個「模版」(模型、理型),套用到居家建築、室內佈置、和墳墓,產生了所謂「陽宅風水」、「陰宅風水」等等「理論」。「風水」這個詞得之於晉人郭璞的《葬經》,「氣乘風則散,界水則止,古人聚之使不散,行之使有止,故謂之風水。風水之法,得水為上,藏風次之。」在這段話中,除了「風」、「水」之外,還包括了「氣」這個重要的觀念,中國古人認為「氣」之周流循環才使得萬物生生不息,聚氣則有賴於水源涵蓄同時避開朔風,故風水茂美之地首在能「藏風聚氣」,《葬經》總結風水選擇標準為:「來積止聚,沖陽和陰,土厚水深,郁草茂林。」如此的風水基本觀念乃至整個風水之學,其背後有著一整套中國文化的宇宙思維。可以這麼說,從「堪輿」到「風水」是從聚落選址的學問到把「穴」的格局套用到陽宅、陰宅(墓葬)的設計上,進一步把「穴」的模版和一個人的命運連結起來的「風水觀」。

換言之,「風水學」有三個部分:城鎮村聚的選址和規劃設計、居家住宅的選址和外部內部格局設計、墳墓的地點選擇和墓形設計。這三個部分可以被分開看待,並使用「合理的自然因果鏈假設」來檢驗(關於「合理的自然因果鏈假設」,參看我的〈占星學的巫術性與科學性〉一文(附帶一提,「合理的自然因果鏈假設」是一種「自然主義」的立場,而不是「實證主義」。)

在農業社會的時代,選擇在一個「穴」的封閉地形與方法(坐北朝南)的位置建立城鎮村聚,具有適合定居、農耕、防洪、並利於防衛的社會功能,在這樣的地理位置中生活,人民易於安居樂業,也易於防衛自己,因此自然地會對社會和個人的命運產生因果影響,所以,這裏有一個合理的自然因果鏈假設。同理,過去台灣民間常見的三合院,朝南處有半月形水池,週遭種植竹林或樹林,模仿「穴」或「ㄇ」形的結構,也可以產生農業社會的生活功能。再者,由於考量個別家族或家庭,一些城鎮沒有的風水禁忌會被強調:例如「路沖」,大門不宜正對大馬路,因為這樣可能會使敵人或強盜直衝入門,不利防守。還有,室內空間佈置也同樣複製ㄇ形結構,例如三合院的正廳安放祖先牌位,兩側擺了太師椅──一個ㄇ形擺設。甚至連太師椅本身的結構也是標準方正的ㄇ形。這就是所謂的「同構體」。室內家具擺放的禁忌有眠牀不能放在大樑正下方,因為考量大樑若倒塌,睡夢中的人可能會被壓死。

然而,這些適於過去農業時代的安居條件,在今日的現代建築和都市社會中,早已蕩然無存。今日的各種建築,不管是大樓公寓或獨棟住宅,都不易同構於ㄇ形的「穴」格局,就算同構,也沒有過去能產生的作用。結果,今日的陽宅風水變成強調室內擺設。當然,建築設計師仍然可以使用風水精神(藏風聚氣)來設計房屋的內部格局(以方正為尚),讓空氣流通、冬暖夏涼,但是這恐怕不能死硬地套用ㄇ形結構。此外,我們在網路上可以找到的很多居家風水禁忌,有些可能是空間對人心理的影響(例如畸形或低矮空間可能會潛在地對人產生壓迫感),但有些是否真有心理影響(例如,據說臥房門不宜正對大門,否則會耽於淫欲?),得作心理學調查才能確定。至於其它想產生好運的風水擺設設計如八卦鏡、銅錢制劍、水族箱、水晶座…等等,企圖利用特别的器物來産生好運勢,恐怕只有符號象徵性的作用(類似符號巫術),而沒有真正的因果影響。總而言之,在消極的風水禁忌上,如果我們可以透過特定擺設對人們的心理和生理健康的影響,來連結特定擺設和人的生活運勢的因果關係,那麼,陽宅風水(禁忌)的一些說法,其背後或許仍可以找出一套自然因果鏈的假設,但需要進一步的心理統計調查或實驗檢驗。有一種可能的因果影響是相信者可能會產生「自我實現的預言」這樣的心理效果──「我相信風水擺設,因此相信自己會好運聚財,我的信念使我樂觀,因而努力去實現我的希望」,產生正面的效果。但這仍然是透過人們心理狀態來建立因果觀念,它也像是一種安慰劑效應。

現在,讓我們檢視墓葬(或陰宅)風水。墓葬風水的核心是墳墓的選址,這與古代中國人崇拜祖先的信仰有密切相關,這信仰讓他們想選擇好的埋葬地點,才能享有後代子孫年年掃墓祭祖的香火。這種信仰產生的要求,在日後卻發展出「祖先埋葬的地理環境庇蔭、甚至支配了後代子孫的命運」這樣的觀念。但這令人懷疑:究竟是什麼力量可以使這樣的事發生?祖先埋葬地點和後代子孫命運有什麼因果關聯?兩者之間真地可以建立「合理的自然因果鏈」嗎?像我對待占星學一樣,我也想去設想它們的因果聯結,但完全失敗。如果真有這種力量的話,它應該不會只是影響中國人或華人,也應該對西方人有作用,但是西方人的墓園都規劃得整整齊齊,在地形格局上人人平等。然而,他們的後代子孫的命運卻大不相同。初步看來,墓葬地點與後代子孫命運的關係只是一種觀念、一種信仰、一種文化現象,並沒有實質的因果性。那,為什麼古代中國會出現這種觀念、信仰和文化現象呢?前面已談到,中國文化的宇宙思維顯現出萬事萬物都具有特定「共同結構」(同構體)的信念(這個信念也可能是人類心智的一種普遍的思維模式,把一個固定的模版、框架套用到各種事物上。)換言之,把城鎮村聚地點的選擇對於人民安居樂業(命運)的因果影響,套用到墓葬地點對於後代子孫命運的影響。問題是,兩者真的有因果關係嗎?能得到證實嗎?如果一直得不到起碼的證據,為何深受中國文化影響的人們會對之深信不移?我認為,除了訴諸於傳統和習俗對人民思維的約束力之外,至少還有一個「倒果為因」的可能解釋:在戰亂時代,人民無法安居樂業,家人任意安葬;相反地,在承平時代,大富人家可以選好地、蓋好墓、可以花心力,在文化影響下,三四代努力維繫祖先墓地。這種對比給予古代人民一個深刻的「相關性」的經驗印象:好墓相關於好命好運;壞墓相關於壞運。問題是,相關不見得具因果關係。事實上,因果可能是反過來的,墓地好壞其實是人們生活好壞的結果,活得好,祖先的墓地就選得好、維繫得好;活得不好,祖先的墓就亂糟糟。墓的好壞是人民命運好壞的結果,而不是原因。但是,古代中國人卻對這種相關性產生了倒果為因的印象,從而強化傳統和習俗對於人民信念的約束力。

命相和風水(不管陽宅、陰宅)是不是科學或能不能被科學化的問題,並不在於它們的從業者的預測或預言是否準確或準確率有多少的問題。很多人對於科學的準確預測能力印象深刻,因此常以「預測準確」來當成科學的特徵。問題是,其實有些體制或系統也可以作出「準確」預測,例如在一個健全的司法和警政系統之中,我們可以準確地預測一個犯罪者的命運──坐牢。因為他犯罪,而警政和司法系統健全,所以他有很高的機率會被逮捕和定罪,然後接受懲罰。我們甚至可以根據法律條文和司法運作習慣「準確」預測犯罪者會被定什麼罪、坐牢坐多久。但這些「準確」預測並不會使得司法和警政系統變成是科學──雖然我們還是可以談及「科學」協助司法和警政系統更完善,但是,重點在於法律規範的制定和司法與警政運作的設計與執行,有它自己的傳統,並不能被歸於「科學」。

事實上,科學(如物理學)預測的最大特色不在於「準確」而在於「精確」,也就是說,一個科學預測可以精確地預測發生時間、持續的時間長短、多少量(依被預測的對象而定)等等。「準確」和「精確」是兩個不一樣的概念和標準,「準確」只是「吻合」,某事會發生而且真地發生就算準確,但是「精確」是除了「準確」外再加上其它性質變化量的預測,如上述所言。因此,想訴諸於「準確」或「準確率」來「科學化」命相與風水,恐怕是徒勞的。何況,對人們「命運」的描述或認定,容許很大的詮釋空間,也就容許從業者進行特置性的調整(ad hoc revision)(這是一個重要的科學哲學概念,可以參看本人的《科學哲學:理論與歷史》第三章和第五章)──你總是可以把一個人的「命運」(遭遇)詮釋(引入特置條件)得符合你的預測,因此可以宣稱你很準確。對人們命運的詮釋也有價值觀的問題:什麼是好運?什麼是不幸?人生起起伏伏、福禍相倚,對於自己遭遇的態度和描述,受到價值觀的影響更深遠。如果一個人的價值觀與風水預設的價值觀不同,如何談論風水預測的準確或不準確?

真正說來,命相和風水最大的問題不在於它們是不是科學,而在於它們的「命運」觀:它們預設一個「個人的命運是被某些種不可見的、神秘的力量所限定」的觀念──這個觀念可接受嗎?這其實是一個哲學問題。任何有哲學意識的思考者會很自然地問:這個觀念有什麼合理依據?那些不可見的力量是什麼?它們又何因果地限定了個人的命運?「命定」真地可以被證成(可以找到合理依據)嗎?如果我們可以有其它更合理的觀念,為什麼還要接受上述「命定觀」呢?問題是,我們有更合理的「命運」觀念嗎?

事實上,我們生活在一個自然環境和特定的社會文化環境中,我們的命運自然地會受到自然物質力量和社會制度(政治、經濟、文化、他人)力量的影響,這些因素都是可見的。它們産生的因果關聯可以被明確地證實:例如一場戰爭,不管祖先墳墓如何、不管出生時辰如何,我們都會陷入悲慘的命運中。一個階級分明的社會體制,相同階級的成員會共享相似的「命運」,不同階級的成員則會有不同類型的「命運」。台灣的制度和經濟條件則產生了「世代」間的命運差異,出生在某些年代間的人們,共享相似的「命運」(例如接受同一套教育、教養和科技環境),他們與出生在另一些年代間的人們的「命運」則大不相同。真正說來,現代科學的核心目的之一就是為了說明、解釋、預測和改善我們人類的集體命運──例如自然科學透過預測和控制自然力以預防它們對人類的傷害;社會科學說明和改善社會體制,扭轉人類原來的命運;人文科學透過思考價值觀與文化、引導新社會體制的建立等等。最後,哲學企圖針對這些作出整合性的思考──這一切是不是可以形成一個更合理的「命運觀」?

「命運」這個觀念和相關問題值得再寫一篇更完整的文章。

本文原載於「陳瑞麟的科哲絮語(link is external)」,經作者授權轉載。

 

《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – 真夏の通り雨 (05:45) 》


《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – 真夏の通り雨 (05:45) 》

【聲明稿】反對高雄市政府養工處不當開挖濕地


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【聲明稿】反對高雄市政府養工處不當開挖濕地

2018年05月24日
文:荒野保護協會
聲明團體:高雄市茄萣生態文化協會、守護茄萣濕地青年聯盟、中華鳥會、高雄鳥會、台南鳥會、荒野保護協會、美濃愛鄉協進會、地球公民基金會

5月6日,民眾目睹怪手於萣濕地開挖壕溝。開挖範圍位於賞鳥亭、八角亭前方,與正順北路平行。民間團體於5月14日向高雄市政府工務局養工處岡山養護工程隊長,董慶生先生會勘後,得知開挖人乃是工程隊所委託的包商。開挖目的是清除乾季擱淺的魚屍,以緩解惡臭。

開挖範圍示意圖
開挖範圍示意圖。
壕溝延伸
壕溝延伸。
壕溝開挖
壕溝開挖。

養工處為了清除魚屍的立意雖屬良善,但以重機具開挖的手法卻過於草率,恐衝擊濕地生態。民間團體因而呼籲以下訴求:

1、茄萣濕地被列為國家重要濕地,更是黑面琵鷺等珍稀候鳥之棲息地,主管機關應謹慎以待,妥善經營濕地。不宜以一般公園之管理方式對待。

2、對本次不當開挖事件,主管機關養工處應公開說明本次開挖工程之決策過程,並加以檢討,釐清責任歸屬。

3、我們呼籲:棲地環境應盡可能保持自然狀態。若有人為介入的必要,則應謹慎評估,採用「維護棲地品質的最小擾動方式」。主管機關養工處應謹守該原則。

4、根據濕地經營實務工作者之建議,應以人工方式處理魚屍,例如僱工、召集志工徒步進入濕地,手工撿拾魚屍,以減少對濕地環境之擾動。

5、養工處應諮詢濕地相關專業人士之意見,並會同專家現勘後,再擬定合理的經營管理策略。同時,養工處應善盡監督責任,挑選擁有濕地經營相關專業的承包商,並監督其施作手法,以確保濕地環境之健全。

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《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Greatest Hits New 2018 (01:40:48) 》


《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Greatest Hits New 2018 (01:40:48) 》

Global Energy & CO2 Status Report


https://www.iea.org/geco/

Global Energy & CO2 Status Report

The latest trends in energy and emissions in 2017

Download the report

The IEA’s first Global Energy and CO2 Status Report – released in March 2018 – provides a snapshot of recent global trends and developments across fuels, renewable sources, and energy efficiency and carbon emissions, in 2017.


Overview

Global energy demand grew by 2.1% in 2017, according to IEA preliminary estimates, more than twice the growth rate in 2016. Global energy demand in 2017 reached an estimated 14 050 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), compared with 10 035 Mtoe in 2000.

Fossil fuels met over 70% of the growth in energy demand around the world. Natural gas demand increased the most, reaching a record share of 22% in total energy demand. Renewables also grew strongly, making up around a quarter of global energy demand growth, while nuclear use accounted for the remainder of the growth. The overall share of fossil fuels in global energy demand in 2017 remained at 81%, a level that has remained stable for more than three decades despite strong growth in renewables.

Improvements in global energy efficiency slowed down. The rate of decline in global energy intensity, defined as the energy consumed per unit of economic output, slowed to only 1.7%* in 2017, much lower than the 2.0% improvement seen in 2016.

The growth in global energy demand was concentrated in Asia, with China and India together representing more than 40% of the increase. Energy demand in all advanced economies contributed more than 20% of global energy demand growth, although their share in total energy use continued to fall. Notable growth was also registered in Southeast Asia (which accounted for 8% of global energy demand growth) and Africa (6%), although per capita energy use in these regions still remains well below the global average.

MtoeAverage annual growth in energy demand by fuel2006-2015201620170300-1001002000%3%-1%1%2%CoalOilGasNuclearRenewablesNet growth rate (right axis)© OECD/IEA2006-2015● Net growth rate (right axis): 1.7%

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Global energy-related CO2 emissions grew by 1.4% in 2017, reaching a historic high of 32.5 gigatonnes (Gt), a resumption of growth after three years of global emissions remaining flat. The increase in CO2 emissions, however, was not universal. While most major economies saw a rise, some others experienced declines, including the United States, United Kingdom, Mexico and Japan. The biggest decline came from the United States, mainly because of higher deployment of renewables.

Latest findings on CO2 emissions

200020022004200620082010201220142016-10010203040CO2 EmissionsYearly Increase 2000-2016Increase 2016-2017© OECD/IEA200023.01 Gt CO2Global energy-related CO2 emissions

Gt CO2

Oil

World oil demand rose by 1.6% (or 1.5 million barrels a day) in 2017, much higher than the annual average rate of 1% seen over the last decade.** An increasing share of sport utility vehicles and light trucks in major economies and demand from the petrochemicals sector bolstered this growth.

Latest findings on oil

mb/dAverage annual growth in global oil demand1985-20052006-201520162017020.511.50%2%0.5%1%1.5%Oil demand growthNet growth rate (right axis)© OECD/IEA

Natural gas

Global natural gas demand grew by 3%, thanks in large part to abundant and relatively low-cost supplies. China alone accounted for almost 30% of global growth. In the past decade, half of global gas demand growth came from the power sector; last year, however, over 80% of the rise came from industry and buildings.

Latest findings on natural gas

bcm/yearAverage annual growth in global gas demand52 %15 %48 %85 %2000-201620170255075100125Power generationIndustry, buildings, transport, oil and gas own use© OECD/IEA

Coal

Global coal demand rose about 1% in 2017, reversing the declining trend seen over the last two years. This growth was mainly due to demand in Asia, almost entirely driven by an increase in coal-fired electricity generation.

Latest findings on coal

MtoeAverage annual growth in global coal demand2005-2014201520162017-160-80080160-4%-2%0%2%4%Coal demand increaseNet growth rate (right axis)© OECD/IEA

Renewables

Renewables saw the highest growth rate of any energy source in 2017, meeting a quarter of global energy demand growth. China and the United States led this unprecedented growth, contributing around 50% of the increase in renewables-based electricity generation, followed by the European Union, India and Japan. Wind power accounted for 36% of the growth in renewables-based power output.

Latest findings on renewables

TWhAverage annual growth in global renewables generationhistorically and in the Sustainable Development Scenario(SDS)SDS – 2017-4020172000-1606001202403604807200%150%30%60%90%120%1…Solar PVWindHydroOtherShare of net growth (top axis)© OECD/IEA

Electricity

World electricity demand increased by 3.1%, significantly higher than the overall increase in energy demand. Together, China and India accounted for 70% of this growth. Output from nuclear plants rose by 26 terrawatt hours (TWh) in 2017, as a significant amount of new nuclear capacity saw its first full year of operation.

Latest findings on electricity

TWhChange in electricity generation by source 2016-2017CoalGasOilNuclearRenewa…-1000100200300400© OECD/IEA

Energy efficiency

Improvements in global energy efficiency slowed down dramatically in 2017, because of weaker improvement in efficiency policy coverage and stringency as well as lower energy prices. Global energy intensity improved by only 1.7% in 2017, compared with an average of 2.3% over the last three years.

Latest findings on energy efficiency

Average annual change in energy intensityhistorically and in the Sustainable Development Scenario(SDS)2014201520162017SDS 2017-40-4%-3%-2%-1%0%© OECD/IEA

Energy intensity is per unit of economic output in purchasing power parity terms


*Corrected 23 March 2018 from 1.6% to 1.7%
** Corrected 20 April from “double" to “much higher than"

This analysis uses the latest monthly and annual data available from national statistical offices, energy ministries and international organisations to build full energy balances by region. Where complete 2017 data is unavailable, this report uses market data and analysis by fuel and sector. For questions and comments, please contact weo@iea.org.

 

Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2017


http://www.irena.org/publications/2018/Jan/Renewable-power-generation-costs-in-2017

Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2017


January 2018
ISBN : 978-92-9260-040-2

Renewable energy has emerged as an increasingly competitive way to meet new power generation needs. This comprehensive cost report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) highlights the latest trends for each of the main renewable power technologies, based on the latest cost and auction price data from projects around the world.

Download the Executive Summary.

Broadly, the study finds:

  • Renewable power generation costs continue to fall and are already very competitive to meet needs for new capacity.
  • Competitive procurement – including auctions – accounts for a small fraction of global renewable energy deployment. Yet these mechanisms are very rapidly driving down costs in new markets.
  • Global competition is helping to spread the best project development practices, reducing technology and project risk and making renewables more cost-competitive than ever before.
  • In developed countries, solar power has become cheaper than new nuclear power.
  • The levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) from solar photovoltaics (PV) decreased by 69% between 2010 and 2016 – coming well into the cost range of fossil fuels.
  • Onshore wind, whose costs fell 18% in the same period, provides very competitive electricity, with projects routinely commissioned nowadays at USD 0.04/kWh.
  • As installation accelerates, the cost equation for renewables just gets better and better. With every doubling of cumulative installed capacity for onshore wind, investment costs drop by 9% while the resulting electricity becomes 15% cheaper.
  • Solar PV module costs have fallen by about four-fifths, making residential solar PV systems as much as two-thirds cheaper than in 2010.

The IRENA Renewable Cost Database includes 15000 data points for LCOE from projects around the globe, representing over 1000 gigawats (GW) of power generation capacity. An additional auctions database encompasses over 7,000 projects with nearly 300 GW of capacity.

 

Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition


http://www.irena.org/publications/2018/Apr/Renewable-energy-policies-in-a-time-of-transition

Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition


April 2018
ISBN : 978-92-9260-061-7

Spurred by innovation, increased competition, and policy support in a growing number of countries, renewable energy technologies have achieved massive technological advances and sharp cost reductions. Renewables have come to the forefront of the global energy transition, with nearly every country adopting a renewable energy target.

Yet progress has been uneven in different countries and sectors. Technology and financial risks still hamper the expansion of renewables into new markets. As the power sector develops further, the increased adoption of variable renewables like solar and wind requires more flexible systems. Compared to power generation, the regulatory framework for end-use sectors lags behind.

This report, prepared jointly by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), identifies key barriers and highlights policy options to boost renewable energy deployment.

After reviewing current policies and targets worldwide, it examines sector-specific policies for heating and cooling, transport and power, as well as measures for integrating variable renewables. An updated policy classification and terminology list can serve as a global reference for renewable energy policy instruments.

Among the key findings:

  • Renewable energy policies must focus on end-use sectors, not just power generation;
  • The use of renewables for heating and cooling requires greater policy attention, including dedicated targets, technology mandates, financial incentives, generation-based incentives, and carbon or energy taxes;
  • Policies in the transport sector require further development, including integrated policies to decarbonise energy carriers and fuels, vehicles and infrastructure;
  • Policies in the power sector must also evolve further to address new challenges.
  • Measures are needed to support the integration of variable renewable energy, taking into account the specific characteristics of solar and wind power
  • Achieving the energy transition requires holistic policies that consider factors beyond the energy sector itself.

The report provides a comprehensive overview of policy measures available to address such challenges.



 

綠能不只是發電 「供暖、製冷」也通吃


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211788?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=5daec6e7c4-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-5daec6e7c4-84956681

綠能不只是發電 「供暖、製冷」也通吃

2018年05月24日
文:詹詒絜(台達電子文教基金會氣候與能源專員)

2018年4月,專門研究能源議題的國際三大權威智庫:國際再生能源總署(IRENA)、國際能源總署(IEA)、21世紀再生能源政策網(REN21),聯手發表了一份新報告〈轉型時期的再生能源政策〉〈Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition〉,對於當前的全球綠能政策及推廣概況,進行了一次完整盤點。

目前各國多把再生能源用來發電,但製冷、供暖、交通燃料等方面仍大有可為。資料來源:IRENA

不只發電,綠能還可供暖、製冷

報告估算,目前全球約有一半的國家,已將再生能源目標列入國家自主貢獻(NDCs),並鼓勵綠能直接供應終端用戶日常需求。但持平而論,這樣的政策強度及推廣進程,依舊遠落後於《巴黎協定》設定的全球升溫控制目標。

論及再生能源的用途,大部分人都會直接聯想到「發電」,但〈轉型時期的再生能源政策〉提醒,再生能源的用途不僅於此,還可用於供暖、製冷(Heating & Cooling),為一般家戶提供冷氣、熱水、暖氣等生活服務。

太陽能集熱板可替冷水加溫減少熱水器用電。圖片來源:P. A. H(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

舉例來說,太陽能集熱板可替冷水加溫,以減少熱水器的用電,台灣盛行的「太陽能熱水器」就是最好示範。與太陽能熱水器這種單一設備相對的,是集中型的「區域供熱」(district heat)系統,主要盛行於北歐一帶,當地人用太陽能、地熱、或將生質能燃燒產熱,再以水為介質傳遞熱能給區域內所有用戶,一來毋需投入額外電力產生暖氣或熱水,二來更減少了能源轉換過程(熱→電→熱)的浪費。

報告統計2016年資料,發現全球僅有21個國家,懂得將再生能源投入供暖及製冷用途,只有少數幾國(如巴西、中國)設定建築「綠能供熱」的法定比例;像丹麥直接禁止建築供暖使用化石燃料的強力政策,更是少之又少。

全球運輸部門超過95%能源皆來自化石燃料,必須加速再生能源的使用比率。資料來源:IRENA

交通應用,低碳運具極需環保燃料

〈轉型時期的再生能源政策〉報告的另一項重要呼籲是,大家應多將再生能源投入全球最大的吃油怪獸──「交通」部門,可用的解決方案包含「生質燃料」和「綠色電力」。

現階段各國政府常見作法,不出「法定義務」(obligation/mandate)和「經濟誘因」(fiscal/financial incentive)兩種,前者是透過法令要求能源供應商及交通載具,使用的燃料要有一定比例來自再生能源和生質燃料,後者則是在生質燃料的製造和使用上,給予減稅優惠和財務誘因,試圖把再生能源從電力部門導向運輸用途。近來許多國家極力扶植的電動車,未來也需要由再生能源產製的綠色電力,才能符合減碳、擺脫化石燃料等環保目的。

由各種再生能源供應的綠色電力,已占全球電力消費組成近1/4比重。資料來源:IRENA

據統計,目前全世界由再生能源供應的綠色電力,已占全球總發電量約1/4比重!多家研究機構也看好,到了2020年,再生能源的發電成本就可以跟化石燃料匹敵,種種跡象都證明,今後再生能源的應用方向,會愈來愈符合一般民眾的日常需求,從電力、冷氣、熱水、到交通燃料,都要愈來愈低碳。

※ 本文轉載自低碳生活部落格

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《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Kremlin Dusk (05:15) 》


《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Kremlin Dusk (05:15) 》

民眾健康風險為限值 「有害空污物」排放標準重新公聽


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211785?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=5daec6e7c4-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-5daec6e7c4-84956681

民眾健康風險為限值 「有害空污物」排放標準重新公聽

2018年05月24日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導

環保署去年9月抛出「固定污染源有害空氣污染物排放標準」草案,打算從維護周遭民眾的健康風險來促使業者改善,不過,在一系列的研商與公聽會議後,草案回頭修改重新預告,以求實際執法順利,24日空保處舉行協商會議,後續公聽會也將起跑。

此案受環保署視為空污減量的重要配套,而《空污法》日前完成朝野協商,立院已揚言將拼會期結束前三讀。空保處副處長謝炳輝表示,除了對個別工廠增訂有害空污物排放標準外,環保署對有害空污物的管制,還有對特定對象的製程提出排放端的源頭管制,未來也將對高濃度區域提出「熱區」管制,處理增量與既存風險。

DSC04709
24日環署舉行「固定污染源有害空氣污染物排放標準」草案,機關間的協商會議。賴品瑀攝。

有害空污物受重視 環署推三策略管制

有害空污物(HAPs)包括揮發性有毒污染物(VOCs)、重金屬、戴奧辛、酸性氣體等,但目前分散在11個不同行業的排放標準法規中,且明確定義還有待環署提出。

環署提出有害空污物排放標準,將對特定行業所排放的有害空污物訂出排放標準。約有1000家業者將納管,在2020年第一波優先納管的主要會是燃煤電廠、水泥廠、煉鋼廠的製程,他們因為排放重金屬、VOCs而遭列優先鎖定,將有72項有害物納管。後續尚有40多種,預計將在2021、2023年陸續加入。

先訂容許環境濃度限值 再量身打造各廠排放量

有害空污物管制與現有的空污管制不同之處,在於將會納入健康風險概念,除了管制排放源的排放率,也會考量附近居民的暴露濃度。

為了降低健康風險這個目的,環保署對有害空污物管制的計畫是,一端是從排放端管制,要求從控制技術進行排放減量,一端則是風險評估,並從模擬工具檢視管制成效。

包括氣象、地形等因子,不同地區的擴散狀況不同,對鄰近居民健康的影響也不同,因此有害空污排放標準將對個別管道訂定排放標準,不再如過去以定值來管制。

從身為「受體」的民眾健康風險、避免民眾暴露於高濃度的立場出發,先訂出容許環境濃度的限值,包括單位致癌風險、慢性暴露參考濃度等物種毒理資料將成為各物種限值。

排放標準則將透過空氣擴散模擬工具來核算管道與逸散兩種排放,且區域內排放源的數量與排放量也將影響個別排放源能排放的量。

求地方實際執法 環署收回重新預告

在十多場與業者、縣市環保局、環保團體的公聽會,環保署修改後重新拋出有害空污排放標準草案,空保處高級環境技術師戴忠良表示,修正的部分是考量縣市環保局實際執法的能量,主要是管道排放與管制逸散的周界標準兩項,將直接採行現行的「固定污染源空氣污染物排放標準」內的規範,方便環保機關查核與執法,因此與會的縣市環保局代表並無提出反對意見。

僅有經濟部工業局建議分階段、分行業別逐步展開,讓縣市環保機關的執法,與工業局的輔導計畫來得及跟上。經濟部也指出,《空污法》修法後,將有一波子法需要跟著調整,因此建議環保署暫緩有害空污排放標準的制訂,讓相關規範有時間整合與周全,反則相關法條太多太複雜,業者恐怕吃不消。

空保處表示,將會分三階段推動,公布之後會給產業時間改善,預定2020年開始實施第一階段。二年內業者必須提出評估報告,環保單位則是確認模擬參數的正確性,並核可業者的評估報告,若是不符標準的業者,在第3、4年必須提出改善計畫,並完成改善符合標準。

不過,長期關注有害空污物議題的地球公民基金會副執行長王敏玲,聞訊對於納管期程沒有提前感到失望。王敏玲指出,有害空污物的管制,台灣已落後先進國家太多年,必須急起直追。尤其高雄住商與大工廠相鄰,但管制還要分好幾階段,許多有害的物種還要等好幾年才納管,但對人民的傷害是現在進行式,問題嚴重管制卻顯牛步,實在對不起人民,這個時間差所造成傷害,誰來承擔?呼籲環保署徹底從「受體端」來思考。

而此草案的對民眾的公聽會,下週就開跑,目前已知31日上午將在環保署舉行台北場,也將舉辦中南部場次。

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《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Passion (04:40) 》


《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Passion (04:40) 》

Giant predatory worms invading France and threatening local wildlife


https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/giant-worms-france-invade-hammerhead-flatworms-threat-wildlife-a8363646.html

Giant predatory worms invading France and threatening local wildlife

Creatures that grow up to 40cm have been living virtually unnoticed across the region for decades

Giant predatory worms from tropical parts of Asia that have stealthily invaded French gardens pose a threat to local wildlife, scientists are warning.

The voracious creatures have infiltrated gardens across the country and also French territories.

A new study has collected reports of the unusual creatures, which are known to grow up to 40cm in length.

Despite their size, these unusual creatures would have gone completely unnoticed were it not for the efforts of amateur naturalist Pierre Gros who took a photograph of an unidentified worm in 2013.

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“This photograph was sent from email to email to email and finally it came to me,” Professor Jean-Lou Justine, a zoologist at the French National Museum of Natural History told The Independent.

“I looked at it and said ‘Well, this is not possible – we don’t have this kind of animal in France’.”

At first he thought it was a prank, especially when weeks later Mr Gros sent him images of a second and third exotic flatworm species, all allegedly found in his garden.

flatworm-earthworm.jpg
Bipalium kewense killing an earthworm (Pierre Gros)

However, having verified the images Professor Justine decided to assess the scale of the invasion.

Over five years he gathered recorded sightings from over 100 contributors based around the country, as well as some in tropical French territories including Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana. The oldest sightings dated back to 1999.

“What we know now is that there are invasive flatworms almost everywhere in metropolitan France,” he said.

The study published in the journal PeerJ and co-authored by Mr Gros looks specifically at the presence of hammerhead species – a group with shovel-like heads that have been known to grow up to one metre in length.

All of these flatworms are predators, which means the pose a serious threat to other small creatures that inhabit the soil, as well as ecological processes in general.

Though the researchers did not conduct a full evaluation of the threat posed by these animals – a process which requires costly and complex ecological surveys – Professor Justine pointed to the example of the New Zealand flatworm in the UK.

flatworm-mayotte.jpg
Hammerhead worm species Diversibipalium ‘blue’ from Mayotte, a French island off the African East Coast (Laurent Charles)

These large invasive worms now thrive in wetter parts of Britain, and are known to decimate local earthworm populations. As a result, measures are now in place to control their movements between countries.

This is easier said than done, and Professor Justine explained that most of the Asian species currently on the loose in Europe are likely to have originated from populations transported over in tropical plants.

One of the species identified in the new study, Bipalium kewense, actually takes its name from London’s Kew Gardens. The first specimen identified by scientists was found in one of the botanical garden’s hothouses, having presumably arrived in one of the tropical plant deliveries.

As for how the monster hammerhead worms have managed to take up residence for decades without being noticed by the wider population or scientific authorities, Professor Justine is baffled.

“I am still amazed – I don’t understand how this is possible in a developed country,” he said.

 

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