Heat It Up! A Yoga Playlist to Ignite Your Inner Fire


Heat It Up! A Yoga Playlist to Ignite Your Inner Fire

Draw your shoulders back, lift your chest, and let your heart shine with these beats.

Samuel Henderson

We’re always focused on taking up as little space as possible, when really we should be spreading our arms and sharing our light with the world. Hit play and let this playlist from #YJInfluencer Laura Burkhart inspire you to draw your shoulders back and let your heart shine.

1. “To Heal," Underworld
2. “China Flowers," Afterlife
3. “Peace Will Come with Sleep – Triple Bass Mix," Club des Belugas, anna.luca
4. “Dark Star," POLIÇA
5. “Mundo Bizarro," Electro Dub Tango
6. “Sun Is Shining," Bebel Gilberto
7. “Crystal Frontier – Acoustic Version," Calexico
8. “Angelica," Lamb
9. “Amongster – Exitmusic Remix," POLIÇA
10. “Open Chanel," Kalya Scintilla
11. “Transmitter," Daniel Lanois
12. “Sleepwalk," Sant & Johnny
13. “Ships In The Night," Brazilian Girls
14. “Lountang," Ablaye Cissoko, Volker Goetze
15. “Sleepy Sounds," Deep Sleep Music Experience
16. “Renewal," Liquid Mind
17. “Deep Sleep," Liquid Mind

Download the free Spotify software to listen to our playlists—and check back weekly for more of our fave yoga tunes.


Challenge Pose: Urdhva Mukha Svanasana


Challenge Pose: Urdhva Mukha Svanasana

Experience a surge of energy as you move step by step into Urdhva Mukha Svanasana, or Upward-Facing Dog.

PREVIOUS STEP IN YOGAPEDIA 3 Ways to Prep for Urdhva Mukha Svanasana

Urdhva Mukha Svanasana
Urdhva = Upward · Mudha = Face · Vana = Dog · Asana = Pose
Upward-Facing Dog Pose

Energizes the front line of your body; lifts your spirits; strengthens your hands, wrists, arms, shoulders, upper back, abdominals, hip flexors, and quadriceps.

See also Challenge Pose: Hanumanasana

Stay Safe

Urdhva Mukha Svanasana can strain your lower back due to tightness or lack of support from the front of your body. If you feel any strain in your back, modify the pose with props—or by bending your knees to decrease the backbend. Another helpful modification is to rest with your legs down and your forearms on a small bolster so the backbend is gentler. This way, you can still experience the actions of your legs, lower abdomen, upper back, and shoulders, but with less effort and range of motion.

See also Poses for Your Pelvis

About Our Pro
Alison West is the director of Yoga Union and the Yoga Union Backcare & Scoliosis Center in New York City where she leads yoga teacher trainings, a Backcare and Scoliosis Certification Program, and a Slings and Ropes Certification Program. She also holds a PhD in art history from New York University. Transitioning from sculpture to the human form has led her to 35 years of practice and teaching. Learn more at yogaunion.com.


Anatomy 101: Understand Your Quadratus Lumborums (QLs)


Anatomy 101: Understand Your Quadratus Lumborums (QLs)

Relieve hard-to-release back tension by unlocking your QL muscles.

Relieve hard-to-release back tension by unlocking your QL muscles.

Ever noticed a lingering ache deep in your low back after prolonged sitting or standing? When your back muscles are weak or you have poor posture, intrinsic rectangular muscles between your ribs and hips called the quadratus lumborums, or QLs, work overtime to stabilize your spine and pelvis, leaving them tight and sore. These deep muscles are also near critical organs like the kidneys and colon, which means that in addition to contributing to an achy back they can adversely affect your digestive health, and therefore energy and well-being, according to some alternative health practitioners.

Fortunately, yoga is one of the best methods for engaging these little-known muscles and keeping them agile and pain free. Releasing tension from your QLs will lengthen the sides of your lower back (i.e., your flanks), a process that can be exquisitely liberating, creating powerful feelings of relaxation within the abdomen, low back, and hips. To experience this, you first need to know exactly where your QL muscles are.

Your QLs originate on the internal side of the iliac crests (hip bones) and insert into the twelfth rib and the transverse processes—the boney, winglike protrusions on either side of the vertebrae—of the first through fourth lumbar vertebrae, L1–4. They sidebend your spine, help raise or “hike up” your hips one at a time, and extend your lumbar spine in poses like Uttanasana (Standing Forward Bend). Find your right QL by placing your right thumb on your back about halfway between your right side waist and your spine, and pressing into the space between your bottom rib and your hip. Then press in toward your transverse processes and hike up your right hip: You should feel your QL contract.

Your QLs get tight and tender when they have to kick in and compensate for poor posture. And often soreness is one-sided, due, say, to carrying a small child on one side or side-sleeping with your top hip hiked up every night. Leg-length discrepancies are also a common cause of QL tension—most people have a slight variance in leg length, and around 2o percent of people have a clinically significant (greater than 2 cm) difference.

Yoga offers a host of poses to stretch your sides—and your QLs. Standing poseslike Utthita Trikonasana (Extended Triangle Pose) and Utthita Parsvakonasana (Extended Side Angle Pose), and seated poses like Parsva Upavistha Konasana (Side Seated Wide Angle Pose) and Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana (Revolved Head-of-the-Knee Pose), can help you access a QL stretch. As you warm up for the restorative sequence, designed to create ease around your lumbar spine, first work on releasing any tightness in your hips and thighs. This will free up your pelvis and allow for a deeper stretch in your QLs.

4 Poses to Free Your Flanks

Combine these exercises to bring more mobility to your lumbar spine and sides and to find greater range of motion in sidebending poses.


4 Steps to Getting Into a Blissful Supported Child’s Pose


4 Steps to Getting Into a Blissful Supported Child’s Pose

Frazzled nerves? The restorative version of Child’s Pose (Salamba Balanasana) can help you bring things down a notch.
Supported Child’s Pose

Soothe frazzled nerves in the restorative yoga version of Child’s Pose (Salamba Balanasana).

Each of us needs a haven in this world, a place that offers comfort during difficult times. For some people, this may be a peaceful spot in a sunny garden. For others, it may be the supportive arms of a loved one or a favorite activity, like a long run along a familiar country road.

These sanctuaries create a sense of safety and protection when we feel tossed about by the tumultuous winds of life. They help us feel free from danger, calm, soft, and able to once again breathe a few easy, healing breaths.

For me, the restorative version of Child’s Pose (Salamba Balasana) offers just such a shelter from life’s inevitable storms. I consider the pose to be a good friend whom I can turn to when the world has wearied my heart and when my mind cries out for comfort and relief.

A forward-bending posture, it soothes frazzled nerves, teaches back-body breathing, and gently supports the vital energy centers of the belly, heart, and head. Its tightly wrapped shape envelops the front of the body, allowing us to soften and release protective holding patterns in the abdomen.

See also

How to Set Up for Supported Child’s Pose

Step One: Use Blankets for Optimal Bliss

This version of the asana is my favorite, and while it’s a bit prop heavy, I believe that rounding up every last blanket in the house is well worth the effort. Be patient with the preparation and trust that your body and mind will be well rewarded.

To begin, fold five blankets so that each is about eight to 12 inches wide and long enough to support your torso and head when you fold forward. Neatly stack three of the blankets on top of one another and position them on your yoga mat. Form a second stack with the last two blankets and place it within arm’s reach.

Sit astride one end of the thicker stack with your knees, your shins, and the tops of your feet resting on the floor. Stay here for just a moment, readjusting your knees and feet as needed so you feel completely comfortable.

Now place the two-blanket stack atop the three-blanket stack in front of your pelvis, so your stomach and chest will be gently supported when you bend forward over it. Take care to ensure that all the blankets are neatly folded and even, so when you bend forward, the support will be smooth and firm.

As you sit on top of the blankets, rise up through your heart and broaden your collarbones, so the front of your body feels both long and spacious. Soften your skin, deepen your breath, and invite feelings of tenderness and tranquility to melt inward toward your core.When you’re ready to nestle into Child’s Pose, inhale as you stretch your spine toward the sky, then exhale as you fold forward from the hips, allowing the torso to settle into the support you’ve created in front of you. Take care to lengthen the front of your spine as you go forward, leaving ample space for the torso to stretch out fully. Turn your head to one side and rest it on the blankets as you relax your arms comfortably on the floor on either side of the bolster.

See also5 Ways to Make Every Yoga Class More Restorative and Therapeutic

Step Two: Prop Properly

Once you’re situated, your belly, heart, and head should all rest contentedly on the cushions beneath you. If not, make a few adjustments so the shape of your blanket stack supports your body.

First, consider adding or removing blankets to find a more comfortable distance from the floor. There’s no right or wrong placement of the blankets—some people simply prefer more support in the deep belly, while others do not. So feel free to experiment with your setup to discover the perfect arrangement for you.

If you are tight in the hips or achy in the knees, for example, you might like more support beneath your pelvis when you rest forward. If so, add one or more blankets to the thick stack on which you’re sitting. This additional distance between the pelvis and the ground will create a little more space for the legs and relieve some of the pressure you may feel in the knees and feet.

If, on the other hand, you feel like your arms and legs are dangling precipitously from your blankets, you might want to subtract a few blankets. You might even prefer the less-supported version of the pose, in which the hips rest on the heels in the traditional version of Balasana and just the upper body rests on a bolster.

Second, consider shifting the upper blanket stack either closer to or farther away from your pelvis until you find the position that’s most comfortable for your abdomen.

Third, make sure your head is well supported and not dangling off the front edge of the blankets. If the head isn’t resting comfortably, slip another blanket or a firm pillow beneath the far end of the stack until the chin and forehead are level and even.

And finally, if as you rest here, you feel like any part of your front torso is unable to fully surrender, consider wedging a small blanket or a towel between that part of your body and the support beneath. I often roll up a thin blanket and slip it just beneath my collarbones, so my throat and heart are able to release evenly. You may find a part of your own body that responds well to additional support.

Step Three: Settle In and Surrender

You’ll know you’ve found just the right arrangement when you feel yourself dropping into the blankets or bolster with a blissful smile and a gigantic sigh of relief. Once this happens, your only job is to settle in and surrender. Encourage every cell in your body to soften and unclench, so with each breath, you feel yourself melting farther into the cushion of support beneath you.

As you rest here, invite gravity to pull the legs deeply toward the earth to release any lingering tension in the hips and thighs. Soften the muscles of the lower back and release the tailbone toward the heels. At the same time, spread your shoulder blades apart as your arms dangle like vines toward the floor.

See also 4-Step Bedtime Restorative Practice for Better Sleep

Unwind, soften, and let go. Close your eyes, unfurrow the brow, and release the jaw. Unclench your hands and feet. Dissolve the armor around your back so the skin feels soft and unwrinkled, forming a blanket of comfort around your body. Encourage your entire body to feel tender, spacious, and at ease.

After a few minutes in the pose, your torso may have relaxed so much that it needs more space to lengthen. If so, press your hands into the ground, lift the torso a few inches away from the support, and slip the belly toward the heart, the heart toward the head, and the head toward the front of the stack. Then slowly release the torso back down onto the blankets, letting the spine elongate forward.

Step Four: Balasana Breathing

Now consider your breath. For the first few moments in Salamba Balasana, your inhalations and exhalations may feel choppy and short, since the front body is so deeply supported that it isn’t able to participate as fully as usual in the breathing process. But after resting quietly for several minutes, your body will likely discover new breathing patterns that encourage the back to expand to more completely accommodate the ebb and flow of the breath.

Every time you inhale, let the shoulder blades and the back of your waist rise and spread like a dry sponge absorbing water. Every time you exhale, envision the fibers of the back melting toward the cushion of support. The inhalations should be long and wide, filling out the nooks and crannies of your back. The exhalations should feel warm and endless. Enjoy the ease and tranquility that the gentle, undulating rhythm of the breath evokes.

Rest in Supported Child’s Pose for at least three to five minutes, or for as long as you feel comfortable, turning the head to face the opposite direction when you’re halfway through your time in the pose. Relax the head, relieving your shoulders of the burden of holding it up high. Encourage the heart to melt into the support beneath. Unclench the belly and let the outer world dissolve away as you draw your awareness inward toward the center of your being.

See alsoHappiness Toolkit: Two-Minute Restorative Poses

Now envision your back as a soft blanket surrounding you that offers shelter from the troubles of the world. Notice how the vital organs of the front of your body are well protected by the soft shell of the back, and allow any feelings of safety this creates to melt into the marrow of your bones.

Enjoy this sense of letting go, feeling every last ounce of tension drain from your body into the earth. Release every muscle in your body and experience how there is no place to fall. In a sense, you’ve already fallen—into a deep and soulful space with no threat and no fear. All that is left is an ocean of tranquility.

About our writer
Claudia Cummins teaches yoga in central Ohio.


Melt Tension with Pigeon Pose


Melt Tension with Pigeon Pose

Find proper alignment in Pigeon Pose, then practice it often, and those stiff, tight hips will start to feel open again.
Chelsea Jackson Pigeon

Dive into the fundamentals of asana at Yoga Journal LIVE! Colorado on the uniquely curated Beginners Path with Rina JakubowiczRegister now to join us in Colorado Sept 27–Oct 4, 2015.

Whenever I ask my students before class if they have any requests, I’m greeted with a chorus of “Hip openers!" At first I was puzzled: My students always looked so tense—tight jaws, fierce eyes, rigid necks—while practicing these poses. But as I paid more attention, I began to notice a universal look of relief on their faces by the end of class. Hip openers may be challenging, but they can also be incredibly satisfying, both physically and emotionally.

If you’re like most students, you probably feel as though someone poured superglue into your hip sockets. There are perfectly good reasons for this. First, modern life requires sitting all day, which keeps your hips from the rotation, flexion, and extension they need to remain agile. Second, common sports such as running and cycling—and even an everyday activity like walking—demand hip strength but not flexibility. The third culprit is stress, which creates tension in your body, especially in your hip area, which is a complex cluster of powerful muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Even a little bit of stress-induced clenching can really lock them up.

So, short of tossing out your chair (which could lead to other physiological problems), and entirely eliminating stress from your life, what can you do to unstick your hips and get them gliding freely again? For starters, you can start to incorporate Pigeon Pose into your daily routine.

This pose is perfect for tight hips because it stretches the hip rotators (the buttocks area) and the hip flexors (the long muscles that run along the front of your thighs and pelvis). It also requires substantial external rotation in the front leg and substantial internal rotation in the back leg. If you practice it consistently, you’ll notice an increased suppleness throughout your practice. You may also find that your body moves more easily even after class, since your pelvis is the central hub of movement.

Sounds easy, right? Well, sort of. If you’ve ever tried Pigeon Pose, you know how challenging it is. It’s effective because it’s so good at isolating certain muscles in the hips, ultimately softening stiffness and rigidity and making you feel lighter and more flexible. But isolating those muscles is the very thing that can make Pigeon Pose grueling. So just be aware that you might taste some bitterness before getting to the pose’s sweet spot.

All you have to do is be attentive to the many—and sometimes difficult—physical sensations that arise. Your ability to observe and be with these sensations and the accompanying cacophony of thoughts and feelings may be just as rewarding as the physical benefits of the pose.

Keep Your Waist Long

The first stage of the pose elongates the hip flexors of your back leg and creates a mild backbend. It’s also the time to establish stability in your pelvis before moving into the second stage.

Start on all fours, placing your hands directly below your shoulders, and your knees below your hips. Bring your right knee forward until it touches your right wrist, keeping your right thigh parallel to the sides of your mat. Slowly inch your right shin and foot (hereafter referred to as your “front leg") toward the midline of your body until your foot is directly below your left hip. Now straighten your left leg (hereafter referred to as your “back" leg) toward the back of your mat.

Instead of leaning forward, walk your hands back and lower both sides of your pelvis toward the floor. As your pelvis releases, be sure your hips don’t lean to the right. You’ll know this is happening if your left hip lifts higher than your right. You need to keep your hips as level as possible to get the full effects of the pose and to keep your lower back safely aligned. If you’re not able to lower the hips evenly (join the club!), sit on a folded blanket or a block before starting the pose.

As your hips continue to settle, press your fingertips firmly into the floor and lengthen the sides of your waist to help keep your lower back long and free from strain. Using your arms this way allows you to modify the intensity of the stretch.

Fold Into the Stretch

Image placeholder title

Walk your hands forward, inhale deeply as you lengthen your torso, and exhale as you fold forward, lowering your elbows to the floor (pictured right). Again, use your arms to adjust the weight you release into your hips. If the stretch feels too intense, lift away from the floor and use your arms to support more of your weight. If you have space to spare in your hips, lower your torso and let your weight settle onto the floor.

As you come into the second version of the pose, you might feel sensations shift from your back leg to your outer front hip and buttock. The sensations that flood your hips might feel great or slightly unnerving—or a combination of the two. In any case, it’s important to refine your alignment again to ensure that you’re peeling away layers of tension rather than stressing any of your joints.

Start by making sure your hips are level. If you were meticulous about this in the first stage, you are probably in good shape. If not, then any imbalance will increase as you come forward. So if necessary, place a folded blanket under your right buttock so your pelvis isn’t off kilter.

Look at your front thigh. Make sure it’s parallel to the sides of the mat and that your front foot is directly beneath your back hip. Breathe into the sensations rumbling in your hips. Observe the reactions in your mind and try to let go of them by relaxing your eyes, jaw, and throat. Continue to breathe into your hips and allow your belly to melt toward the floor. Feel your hips and your mind soften as you allow waves of feelings to wash over you.

After 5 to 10 breaths in the forward bend, inhale to come back up. Press down through your fingertips as you lift your hips away from the floor and transition all the way to Downward Dog. Take five deep breaths and observe how your hips feel—lighter? clearer? achy? There’s no need to attach any meaning to the sensations. No need to worry or judge yourself. Strong as these sensations are, they’ll soon morph into different feelings as you switch to your second side.


《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Piano Melodies Collection (50:49) 》

《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Piano Melodies Collection (50:49) 》

House Zeist finished inside and out in exposed concrete by Bedaux de Brouwer Architects


House Zeist finished inside and out in exposed concrete by Bedaux de Brouwer Architects

Architects: Bedaux de Brouwer Architects
Location: ZeistThe Netherlands
Year: 2016
Area: 4.327 ft²/ 402 m²
Photo courtesy: Michel Kievits, Peter Keijsers

“The house is situated on the edge of a village in a natural setting where forest meets heathland. Distinctive features of the house are the raised patio and living area, the large overhanging roofs and the generous picture windows. The house is finished inside and out in exposed concrete. The straight lines and subdued detailing go to make up a striking design by Bedaux de Brouwer Architects.

The living area, which is raised above the forest floor, has the appearance of a pavilion and feels like a lookout post in the forest. At the back it runs into the patio, which overlooks the heath. The large glass panels and sliding door at the back provide views of the surrounding countryside. Further to the front, the rooms are more enclosed to provide a safer and cosier feel. Access to the living area and patio is via a concrete path and outside stairway. A concrete wall guides the visitor to the front door, which is sheltered by a thin steel canopy.

The main structure of the house consists of inner and outer concrete shells, poured on site, which required careful detailing and intensive coordination with the structural engineer and contractor.

The aluminium panorama facades are finished cleanly and merge unobtrusively into the walls and floors. Mullions have been minimised to ensure the least possible hindrance to the influx of light. As a result, the outer and inner spaces appear to flow seamlessly into each other. The aluminium louvres can be used to ensure privacy when desired.

The raw concrete gives the house a pure and basic appearance, which contrasts handsomely with the refined and restrained detailing of the frames, louvres and interior. The connection with the natural outdoor environment, the subdued design language and the use of materials give the house its striking character and provide an exceptional living experience.”

Thank you for reading this article!


《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – First Love (05:45) 》

《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – First Love (05:45) 》


#風水學 #堪輿學 #占星學 #傳統習俗














事實上,科學(如物理學)預測的最大特色不在於「準確」而在於「精確」,也就是說,一個科學預測可以精確地預測發生時間、持續的時間長短、多少量(依被預測的對象而定)等等。「準確」和「精確」是兩個不一樣的概念和標準,「準確」只是「吻合」,某事會發生而且真地發生就算準確,但是「精確」是除了「準確」外再加上其它性質變化量的預測,如上述所言。因此,想訴諸於「準確」或「準確率」來「科學化」命相與風水,恐怕是徒勞的。何況,對人們「命運」的描述或認定,容許很大的詮釋空間,也就容許從業者進行特置性的調整(ad hoc revision)(這是一個重要的科學哲學概念,可以參看本人的《科學哲學:理論與歷史》第三章和第五章)──你總是可以把一個人的「命運」(遭遇)詮釋(引入特置條件)得符合你的預測,因此可以宣稱你很準確。對人們命運的詮釋也有價值觀的問題:什麼是好運?什麼是不幸?人生起起伏伏、福禍相倚,對於自己遭遇的態度和描述,受到價值觀的影響更深遠。如果一個人的價值觀與風水預設的價值觀不同,如何談論風水預測的準確或不準確?




本文原載於「陳瑞麟的科哲絮語(link is external)」,經作者授權轉載。


《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – 真夏の通り雨 (05:45) 》

《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – 真夏の通り雨 (05:45) 》















《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Greatest Hits New 2018 (01:40:48) 》

《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Greatest Hits New 2018 (01:40:48) 》

Global Energy & CO2 Status Report


Global Energy & CO2 Status Report

The latest trends in energy and emissions in 2017

Download the report

The IEA’s first Global Energy and CO2 Status Report – released in March 2018 – provides a snapshot of recent global trends and developments across fuels, renewable sources, and energy efficiency and carbon emissions, in 2017.


Global energy demand grew by 2.1% in 2017, according to IEA preliminary estimates, more than twice the growth rate in 2016. Global energy demand in 2017 reached an estimated 14 050 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), compared with 10 035 Mtoe in 2000.

Fossil fuels met over 70% of the growth in energy demand around the world. Natural gas demand increased the most, reaching a record share of 22% in total energy demand. Renewables also grew strongly, making up around a quarter of global energy demand growth, while nuclear use accounted for the remainder of the growth. The overall share of fossil fuels in global energy demand in 2017 remained at 81%, a level that has remained stable for more than three decades despite strong growth in renewables.

Improvements in global energy efficiency slowed down. The rate of decline in global energy intensity, defined as the energy consumed per unit of economic output, slowed to only 1.7%* in 2017, much lower than the 2.0% improvement seen in 2016.

The growth in global energy demand was concentrated in Asia, with China and India together representing more than 40% of the increase. Energy demand in all advanced economies contributed more than 20% of global energy demand growth, although their share in total energy use continued to fall. Notable growth was also registered in Southeast Asia (which accounted for 8% of global energy demand growth) and Africa (6%), although per capita energy use in these regions still remains well below the global average.

MtoeAverage annual growth in energy demand by fuel2006-2015201620170300-1001002000%3%-1%1%2%CoalOilGasNuclearRenewablesNet growth rate (right axis)© OECD/IEA2006-2015● Net growth rate (right axis): 1.7%

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Global energy-related CO2 emissions grew by 1.4% in 2017, reaching a historic high of 32.5 gigatonnes (Gt), a resumption of growth after three years of global emissions remaining flat. The increase in CO2 emissions, however, was not universal. While most major economies saw a rise, some others experienced declines, including the United States, United Kingdom, Mexico and Japan. The biggest decline came from the United States, mainly because of higher deployment of renewables.

Latest findings on CO2 emissions

200020022004200620082010201220142016-10010203040CO2 EmissionsYearly Increase 2000-2016Increase 2016-2017© OECD/IEA200023.01 Gt CO2Global energy-related CO2 emissions

Gt CO2


World oil demand rose by 1.6% (or 1.5 million barrels a day) in 2017, much higher than the annual average rate of 1% seen over the last decade.** An increasing share of sport utility vehicles and light trucks in major economies and demand from the petrochemicals sector bolstered this growth.

Latest findings on oil

mb/dAverage annual growth in global oil demand1985-20052006-201520162017020.511.50%2%0.5%1%1.5%Oil demand growthNet growth rate (right axis)© OECD/IEA

Natural gas

Global natural gas demand grew by 3%, thanks in large part to abundant and relatively low-cost supplies. China alone accounted for almost 30% of global growth. In the past decade, half of global gas demand growth came from the power sector; last year, however, over 80% of the rise came from industry and buildings.

Latest findings on natural gas

bcm/yearAverage annual growth in global gas demand52 %15 %48 %85 %2000-201620170255075100125Power generationIndustry, buildings, transport, oil and gas own use© OECD/IEA


Global coal demand rose about 1% in 2017, reversing the declining trend seen over the last two years. This growth was mainly due to demand in Asia, almost entirely driven by an increase in coal-fired electricity generation.

Latest findings on coal

MtoeAverage annual growth in global coal demand2005-2014201520162017-160-80080160-4%-2%0%2%4%Coal demand increaseNet growth rate (right axis)© OECD/IEA


Renewables saw the highest growth rate of any energy source in 2017, meeting a quarter of global energy demand growth. China and the United States led this unprecedented growth, contributing around 50% of the increase in renewables-based electricity generation, followed by the European Union, India and Japan. Wind power accounted for 36% of the growth in renewables-based power output.

Latest findings on renewables

TWhAverage annual growth in global renewables generationhistorically and in the Sustainable Development Scenario(SDS)SDS – 2017-4020172000-1606001202403604807200%150%30%60%90%120%1…Solar PVWindHydroOtherShare of net growth (top axis)© OECD/IEA


World electricity demand increased by 3.1%, significantly higher than the overall increase in energy demand. Together, China and India accounted for 70% of this growth. Output from nuclear plants rose by 26 terrawatt hours (TWh) in 2017, as a significant amount of new nuclear capacity saw its first full year of operation.

Latest findings on electricity

TWhChange in electricity generation by source 2016-2017CoalGasOilNuclearRenewa…-1000100200300400© OECD/IEA

Energy efficiency

Improvements in global energy efficiency slowed down dramatically in 2017, because of weaker improvement in efficiency policy coverage and stringency as well as lower energy prices. Global energy intensity improved by only 1.7% in 2017, compared with an average of 2.3% over the last three years.

Latest findings on energy efficiency

Average annual change in energy intensityhistorically and in the Sustainable Development Scenario(SDS)2014201520162017SDS 2017-40-4%-3%-2%-1%0%© OECD/IEA

Energy intensity is per unit of economic output in purchasing power parity terms

*Corrected 23 March 2018 from 1.6% to 1.7%
** Corrected 20 April from “double" to “much higher than"

This analysis uses the latest monthly and annual data available from national statistical offices, energy ministries and international organisations to build full energy balances by region. Where complete 2017 data is unavailable, this report uses market data and analysis by fuel and sector. For questions and comments, please contact weo@iea.org.


Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2017


Renewable Power Generation Costs in 2017

January 2018
ISBN : 978-92-9260-040-2

Renewable energy has emerged as an increasingly competitive way to meet new power generation needs. This comprehensive cost report from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) highlights the latest trends for each of the main renewable power technologies, based on the latest cost and auction price data from projects around the world.

Download the Executive Summary.

Broadly, the study finds:

  • Renewable power generation costs continue to fall and are already very competitive to meet needs for new capacity.
  • Competitive procurement – including auctions – accounts for a small fraction of global renewable energy deployment. Yet these mechanisms are very rapidly driving down costs in new markets.
  • Global competition is helping to spread the best project development practices, reducing technology and project risk and making renewables more cost-competitive than ever before.
  • In developed countries, solar power has become cheaper than new nuclear power.
  • The levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) from solar photovoltaics (PV) decreased by 69% between 2010 and 2016 – coming well into the cost range of fossil fuels.
  • Onshore wind, whose costs fell 18% in the same period, provides very competitive electricity, with projects routinely commissioned nowadays at USD 0.04/kWh.
  • As installation accelerates, the cost equation for renewables just gets better and better. With every doubling of cumulative installed capacity for onshore wind, investment costs drop by 9% while the resulting electricity becomes 15% cheaper.
  • Solar PV module costs have fallen by about four-fifths, making residential solar PV systems as much as two-thirds cheaper than in 2010.

The IRENA Renewable Cost Database includes 15000 data points for LCOE from projects around the globe, representing over 1000 gigawats (GW) of power generation capacity. An additional auctions database encompasses over 7,000 projects with nearly 300 GW of capacity.


Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition


Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition

April 2018
ISBN : 978-92-9260-061-7

Spurred by innovation, increased competition, and policy support in a growing number of countries, renewable energy technologies have achieved massive technological advances and sharp cost reductions. Renewables have come to the forefront of the global energy transition, with nearly every country adopting a renewable energy target.

Yet progress has been uneven in different countries and sectors. Technology and financial risks still hamper the expansion of renewables into new markets. As the power sector develops further, the increased adoption of variable renewables like solar and wind requires more flexible systems. Compared to power generation, the regulatory framework for end-use sectors lags behind.

This report, prepared jointly by the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), identifies key barriers and highlights policy options to boost renewable energy deployment.

After reviewing current policies and targets worldwide, it examines sector-specific policies for heating and cooling, transport and power, as well as measures for integrating variable renewables. An updated policy classification and terminology list can serve as a global reference for renewable energy policy instruments.

Among the key findings:

  • Renewable energy policies must focus on end-use sectors, not just power generation;
  • The use of renewables for heating and cooling requires greater policy attention, including dedicated targets, technology mandates, financial incentives, generation-based incentives, and carbon or energy taxes;
  • Policies in the transport sector require further development, including integrated policies to decarbonise energy carriers and fuels, vehicles and infrastructure;
  • Policies in the power sector must also evolve further to address new challenges.
  • Measures are needed to support the integration of variable renewable energy, taking into account the specific characteristics of solar and wind power
  • Achieving the energy transition requires holistic policies that consider factors beyond the energy sector itself.

The report provides a comprehensive overview of policy measures available to address such challenges.


綠能不只是發電 「供暖、製冷」也通吃


綠能不只是發電 「供暖、製冷」也通吃


2018年4月,專門研究能源議題的國際三大權威智庫:國際再生能源總署(IRENA)、國際能源總署(IEA)、21世紀再生能源政策網(REN21),聯手發表了一份新報告〈轉型時期的再生能源政策〉〈Renewable Energy Policies in a Time of Transition〉,對於當前的全球綠能政策及推廣概況,進行了一次完整盤點。




論及再生能源的用途,大部分人都會直接聯想到「發電」,但〈轉型時期的再生能源政策〉提醒,再生能源的用途不僅於此,還可用於供暖、製冷(Heating & Cooling),為一般家戶提供冷氣、熱水、暖氣等生活服務。

太陽能集熱板可替冷水加溫減少熱水器用電。圖片來源:P. A. H(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

舉例來說,太陽能集熱板可替冷水加溫,以減少熱水器的用電,台灣盛行的「太陽能熱水器」就是最好示範。與太陽能熱水器這種單一設備相對的,是集中型的「區域供熱」(district heat)系統,主要盛行於北歐一帶,當地人用太陽能、地熱、或將生質能燃燒產熱,再以水為介質傳遞熱能給區域內所有用戶,一來毋需投入額外電力產生暖氣或熱水,二來更減少了能源轉換過程(熱→電→熱)的浪費。





現階段各國政府常見作法,不出「法定義務」(obligation/mandate)和「經濟誘因」(fiscal/financial incentive)兩種,前者是透過法令要求能源供應商及交通載具,使用的燃料要有一定比例來自再生能源和生質燃料,後者則是在生質燃料的製造和使用上,給予減稅優惠和財務誘因,試圖把再生能源從電力部門導向運輸用途。近來許多國家極力扶植的電動車,未來也需要由再生能源產製的綠色電力,才能符合減碳、擺脫化石燃料等環保目的。



※ 本文轉載自低碳生活部落格



《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Kremlin Dusk (05:15) 》

《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Kremlin Dusk (05:15) 》

民眾健康風險為限值 「有害空污物」排放標準重新公聽


民眾健康風險為限值 「有害空污物」排放標準重新公聽

環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導




有害空污物受重視 環署推三策略管制



先訂容許環境濃度限值 再量身打造各廠排放量






求地方實際執法 環署收回重新預告











《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Passion (04:40) 》

《 Hikaru Utada(宇多田光) – Passion (04:40) 》

Giant predatory worms invading France and threatening local wildlife


Giant predatory worms invading France and threatening local wildlife

Creatures that grow up to 40cm have been living virtually unnoticed across the region for decades

Giant predatory worms from tropical parts of Asia that have stealthily invaded French gardens pose a threat to local wildlife, scientists are warning.

The voracious creatures have infiltrated gardens across the country and also French territories.

A new study has collected reports of the unusual creatures, which are known to grow up to 40cm in length.

Despite their size, these unusual creatures would have gone completely unnoticed were it not for the efforts of amateur naturalist Pierre Gros who took a photograph of an unidentified worm in 2013.


“This photograph was sent from email to email to email and finally it came to me,” Professor Jean-Lou Justine, a zoologist at the French National Museum of Natural History told The Independent.

“I looked at it and said ‘Well, this is not possible – we don’t have this kind of animal in France’.”

At first he thought it was a prank, especially when weeks later Mr Gros sent him images of a second and third exotic flatworm species, all allegedly found in his garden.

Bipalium kewense killing an earthworm (Pierre Gros)

However, having verified the images Professor Justine decided to assess the scale of the invasion.

Over five years he gathered recorded sightings from over 100 contributors based around the country, as well as some in tropical French territories including Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana. The oldest sightings dated back to 1999.

“What we know now is that there are invasive flatworms almost everywhere in metropolitan France,” he said.

The study published in the journal PeerJ and co-authored by Mr Gros looks specifically at the presence of hammerhead species – a group with shovel-like heads that have been known to grow up to one metre in length.

All of these flatworms are predators, which means the pose a serious threat to other small creatures that inhabit the soil, as well as ecological processes in general.

Though the researchers did not conduct a full evaluation of the threat posed by these animals – a process which requires costly and complex ecological surveys – Professor Justine pointed to the example of the New Zealand flatworm in the UK.

Hammerhead worm species Diversibipalium ‘blue’ from Mayotte, a French island off the African East Coast (Laurent Charles)

These large invasive worms now thrive in wetter parts of Britain, and are known to decimate local earthworm populations. As a result, measures are now in place to control their movements between countries.

This is easier said than done, and Professor Justine explained that most of the Asian species currently on the loose in Europe are likely to have originated from populations transported over in tropical plants.

One of the species identified in the new study, Bipalium kewense, actually takes its name from London’s Kew Gardens. The first specimen identified by scientists was found in one of the botanical garden’s hothouses, having presumably arrived in one of the tropical plant deliveries.

As for how the monster hammerhead worms have managed to take up residence for decades without being noticed by the wider population or scientific authorities, Professor Justine is baffled.

“I am still amazed – I don’t understand how this is possible in a developed country,” he said.


Previous Older Entries

【◎心靈研磨坊 - 曼陀羅藏◎】

《心靈研磨坊 ─ 身心體能極限的突破,放慢步調,邁開腳步,輕鬆地悠遊著....》

%d 位部落客按了讚: