How the Teres Major Can Make or Break Healthy Shoulders in Inversions

How the Teres Major Can Make or Break Healthy Shoulders in Inversions

Start to understand, lengthen, and strengthen your teres major—a little-known muscle that can be the key to protecting your shoulders when you go upside down.
april anatomy

In every inversion, from Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward-Facing Dog Pose) to Salamba Sirsasana (Supported Headstand), you are basically asking your arms and shoulders to act like legs. But there’s a difference: Your legs are well-designed for pushing, resisting gravity, and constantly bearing the weight of your body as it navigates through all types of terrain. Your shoulders, in contrast, are built for pulling and hanging. All the objects that are dear to us—tools, food, loved ones—are held by our hands and carried by our hearts through our shoulders.

When you invert in asana class, you turn that relationship upside down. And doing so safely requires both precision and adaptability. When you ask your very mobile shoulder assemblies to accept the compression of your body’s weight and act like stable legs, then your bone placement, ligament resilience, and muscle balance all play a role in successful, injury-free inversions.

Key to muscle balance in the shoulders is the teres major. (When we refer to any particular muscle, we mean all of its fascial connections and mechanical influences in its area of the body.) So let’s explore the teres major’s entire “zip code.”

To find teres major, reach across and grab the flesh that forms the back of your armpit, with your thumb in your armpit and your fingertips on the outside edge of your shoulder blade. If you slide your thumb back and forth, you can feel the dense and slippery tendon of your latissimus dorsi (or lat) muscle. You can follow it as it curves up around into the humerus (upper arm bone). The lat comes from your lower back, connecting into the fascia of your thoracic and lumbar spine, hip, and even your outer ribs, and eventually winding into a flat, wide tendon that attaches to your upper arm.

Under your fingertips is your lat’s good friend, and our focus: teres major (meaning “big round” in Latin)—a much shorter, square muscle that runs from the bottom corner of your shoulder blade and joins into the humerus right beside, and parallel to, the lat.

What you are holding when you hold the back of your armpit is the control panel for the proper positioning of your shoulder in inversions. The lats and teres major form part of the big X across your back that I call the Back Functional Line. This myofascial (muscular plus fascial) line connects from the end of the lat on your arm, all the way across your back, to your opposite hip and leg.

While your lats are broad surface muscles that usually lengthen and strengthen pretty quickly with initial yoga practice, teres major is, by contrast, not very well known or understood in the context of movement. The myofascial pathway through teres major requires more attention to get balanced. I call this pathway the Deep Back Arm Line—another myofascial line of connection that starts with the little- finger side of your hand and ends at your thoracic spine. The idea is to get even muscular and fascial tone through the whole Deep Back Arm Line. You can do it; it just requires attention.

See also Anatomy 101: Understand Your Quadratus Lumborums (QLs)


Teres major is key to supporting your weight when you move upside down. If teres major is too short, you’ll be setting yourself up for a shoulder injury as you load your shoulder with more weight in increasingly difficult or long inversions.


The Deep Back Arm Lines (yellow) run from the tips of your little fingers up your arms, eventually reaching your shoulder blades and the center of your back to your neck. The Back Functional Lines (blue) connect to the ends of your lats, cross your lower back, and end at opposite hips and legs.


Feel your deep back arm lines and back functional lines

Become aware of these lines when you go upside down. Take any inversion—from simply being on all fours in Down Dog to Headstand or Handstand—that’s easy and non-injurious for you.

Ground through the heels of your hands, or your little fingers and your outer arm bones (ulnas) if you’re in Headstand or Pincha Mayurasana (Forearm Balance), and feel up through the myofascial line outside your lower arms to the olecranon (the point of the elbow). These are your Deep Back Arm Lines. From here, the myofascial connection runs into and up the triceps, which may be insufficiently toned in many beginning yoga students, and unable to sustain balance with the rest of this pathway. (Do your Plank Poses to get those triceps posturally strong!)

From the triceps of each arm, the Deep Back Arm Line runs into the rotator cuff surrounding the scapula. The lats reach far away to the back of the torso, but try to put your mind into the shorter teres major, which links the triceps with the lower tip of the scapula. Can you feel your shoulder blade at the end of your triceps? Can you place your scapula on top of your humeral head (the ball in the ball-and-socket joint), and at the same time pull it down onto your ribs?

See also Anatomy 101: Why Anatomy Training is Essential for Yoga Teachers

The rotator cuff, which I call the “scapula sandwich,” is a thin slice of scapula between the surrounding cuff of muscles. It gets hooked to the spine by the rhomboids and the levator scapulae. In the inversion, can you feel this hook into the upper back and cervical spine?

The rotator-cuff muscles—supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis—surround the ball of the shoulder. Lots of people get into trouble with the rotator cuff (think baseball pitchers and tennis players), but for yoga folks, the trouble spot is often teres major.

So expand your awareness to the whole Deep Back Arm Line. Where does it feel weak? Can you feel it connecting all the way up? Often the triceps are the weak part, and the teres major is the overly short part, creating a short circuit in the whole “using your arm as a leg” thing.

You can sharpen your awareness of teres major by practicing a short vinyasa. In Down Dog: Ground through the outer heel of your hand and little finger, tone your triceps, and feel the connection build up through your Deep Back Arm Lines. Track the lines specifically through the back of your armpits, through teres major, and into the Back Functional Line.

Now move slowly through cycles of Down Dog and Plank Pose. Feel how the shifting angle of your shoulders, and different weight-bearing in your arms, travels through the Deep Back Arm Lines to your mid spine in Plank and extends across your lower back and Back Functional Line as you move into Down Dog. In Plank, these lines act independently, but in inversions, the lines connect through the teres major. The key to sustaining happy inversions lies in allowing teres major to lengthen as you move back into Down Dog. If it can’t lengthen, the foundation of support through your shoulder will be lost. As you extend your elbows, keep your humerus bones and triceps connected to your lower arms, but make sure your scapulae stay connected to your back and ribs. Feel the stretch? That’s your teres major creaking open at last.

Shift onto one arm (you can drop a knee or two to the ground) and grab the back of an armpit to feel your teres major and enhance your awareness of where you need to stretch. Most people need to let this muscle go in order to strengthen the triceps and rotator cuffs. If you can find teres major and let it go, you’ll become more aware of your arm connecting to the outside of your hand, and the tip of your shoulder blade connecting to your ribs. If teres major is too short, it will hook the whole shoulder blade into your arm, setting you up for a shoulder injury as you load it with more weight in increasingly difficult inversions.

See also Anatomy 101: Understand + Prevent Hamstring Injury

Learn More
Join Tom Myers for a seven-week online introduction to anatomy for yoga students and teachers. You’ll learn how to think of movement in holistic, relational, and practical ways, and how to identify common postural patterns—plus strategies for cueing to awaken parts of the body that may need work. Sign up at

About Our Pro
Writer Tom Myers is the author of Anatomy Trains and the co-author of Fascial Release for Structural Balance. He has also produced more than 35 DVDs and numerous webinars on visual assessment, Fascial Release Technique, and the applications of fascial research. Myers, an integrative manual therapist with 40 years of experience, is a member of the International Association of Structural Integrators and the Health Advisory Board for Equinox. Learn more at

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Home perfectly designed for the lovers of the outdoor and of receiving visits

Home perfectly designed for the lovers of the outdoor and of receiving visits

Architects: Eduardo Parra Grave
Location: Hacienda Valle Escondido, Mexico
Year: 2014
Area: 10.549 ft²/ 980 m²
Photo courtesy: César Béjar

“The family that lives in the house, chose this part of the forest seeking direct contact with nature.

Lovers of the outdoor life and of receiving visits, were conditioned terraces, balconies, patios and roofs. At the street level rises a single level, respecting the scale of the neighbors. In the back rise 5 levels, reaching the same height of the trees that existed.

The ground floor is free of walls. At 5 meters under the street is the house entrance, parking spaces and a double height dining room. The kitchen and guest bedroom, with privacy towards the street protected by a green slope and looking for the sun with large windows and open towards the forest. It connects to the wine cellar and access to a covered glass pergola to see trees protected from the rain, with a barbecue for outdoor meals and a pool under the frond of the trees.


The upper floor is the intimate area of the house, the bedrooms have a balcony running over the trees that even cross it.

The roof is prepared as a meeting point, at the height of the treetops and a viewpoint overlooking the forest towards the valley.To avoid the humidity the house does not have contention walls, it displaces on a free platform.

To have privacy the facade facing the street is almost a blind wall, to the sides and back of the house is completely of glass to receive the sun and have a view towards the forest.

Marble and hardwood were used on floors, stone as exterior coatings and wood to cover interior walls to help the fireplace increase the temperature.”

Thank you for reading this article!








——吳秀娟,2018.02.26發表於《2018 Cookmania廚師生態學習》臉書社群










廚師小郭與他的朋友,在環島前,認真研發出好吃美味的野菜蘑菇披薩。(取自《2018 Cookmania 廚師生態學習》臉書社群)







3月8日,阿比野菜環島來到第二站,宜蘭的岳明國小,廚師志工清晨五點就從台北開著車子前往學校,七點半與學校老師及幾位早到的孩子,到海邊進行場地佈置,因為當天陰涼風大,實在無法在海邊進行野宴,孩子原本很失望,但最後大家改成在海岸旁的防風林進行,廚師志工Nicolas Chang紀錄著:











「阿比野菜環島學校」18所,行前拍攝紀錄的影片,秀娟老師也有分享在她自己的臉書上,可以在以下網址上看到: is external)



5 Ways Kundalini Yoga Can Help You Create the Life You Want

5 Ways Kundalini Yoga Can Help You Create the Life You Want

Feel like you need a life change, or to craft better, healthier habits and a more consistent practice? Consider Kundalini. Here’s why it really works.

Are you ready to discover your life’s purpose and activate your fullest potential? Kundalini Yoga is an ancient practice that helps you channel powerful energy and transform your life. And now there is an accessible, easy way to learn how to incorporate these practices into your practice and life. Yoga Journal’s online 6-week online course Kundalini 101: Create the Life You Want offers you mantras, mudras, meditations, and kriyas that you’ll want to practice every day. Sign up now!

Kundalini Yoga is the yoga of deep awareness and transformation. We cannot practice Kundalini Yoga without experiencing magical shifts. I was certified in Hatha yoga before my certification in Kundalini Yoga. I love them both. However, when I need a miracle or the ability to break free of limiting beliefs or fears, Kundalini Yoga is my go-to practice. And here’s why:

1. Kundalini Yoga clears blocks in your energy field.

Kundalini Yoga is a magical science that uses sound, mantra, energy healing, exercises and meditations to release trauma from the energetic body, which surrounds the physical body. It is this field, known as the aura, that holds wounds. When those wounds are healed, radiance can occur. Radiance is the magnetic frequency that draws in beauty, love, and light. Attracting abundance into your life starts in the subtle (energetic) body–not the mind.

Kundalini Yoga helps us recognize that abundance is our birthright and living from our hearts is the surest path to prosperity. When we are able to listen to the whispers of the heart, we are able to tap into the magnetic force of the universe, which is love. When we live in that frequency of love, we feel gratitude. Like attracts like, and therefore gratitude attracts more gratitude.

Many people feel as if they have done everything possible to create the lives they want, however they still feel stuck. Kundalini Yoga is a technological miracle that makes the impossible possible through the laws of quantum physics and energy.

2. Kundalini yoga quiets your mind.

The practice of Kundalini Yoga quiets the thoughts that keep us feeling fearful, stuck, and insecure, so that the heart and soul can flourish. Our heart shows the pathway to our highest potential, not the mind! But our heart’s voice is quiet. It can easily be drowned out by the whirling thoughts of our ego-driven mind. When our heart is in in alignment with our soul’s mission, everything flows. Our sensitivity awakens, and our intuition opens. We can let go of the pain of the past and the fear of the future by being present in the moment.

The breathwork and sacred mantras of Kundalini Yoga are wonderful for quieting our mind. Slowing our breath down puts the brakes on racing thoughts. Next time your mind is really spinning out of control, try playing a sacred mantra. The soothing sound current will shift the vibration to one of peace.

3. Kundalini Yoga gives you confidence.

Kundalini Yoga helps you recognize that you are worthy. In a Kundalini Yoga session, you are likely to come face to face with your self-imposed limitations–your inner walls–but you can miraculously dissolve them with the practice. The iconic Kundalini Yoga quote from Yogi Bhajan, “keep up and you will be kept up,” really works. After meeting the challenge of a Kundalini Yoga exercise, many of life’s challenges seem less overwhelming.

The confidence you get from Kundalini Yoga arises from deep within. It does not depend on external circumstances. It is confidence that comes from having the genuine experience of connection to a reservoir of light and love that is much deeper than your limited sense of self. When we truly feel worthy of happiness and success, we are able to manifest our deepest dreams.

4. Kundalini Yoga connects us with the divine.

Kundalini helps us to let go and live without attachment. We work our body, mind, and soul in a way that integrates oneness with the universe. This allows us to feel a connection to higher realms. The higher realms remind us to trust ourselves and to recognize that our pure essence is one with spirit, and, when we trust ourselves, we let go of attachment. We begin to give and receive energetically.

We learn the beauty of giving by silencing the constant chatter in the mind. We stop “doing” and begin allowing. We learn that our true heart’s desire comes from the Divine, and we stop needing approval from others to honor our inner truth – our Sat Nam. When we free ourselves from the expectations of others, we begin to attract love into our lives by giving love.

5. Kundalini Yoga builds strength and resilience.

Our true strength comes from our core energy, not our muscles. If our energy reserves are low, we feel weak in body and in spirit, and our ability to persevere through the challenges of life diminishes. With regular practice, Kundalini Yoga helps us develop a profound core of prana–or life force–and a reservoir of love inside. We gain the ability to depend on that reservoir to deliver the strengths needed to meet the daily demands of life.

Exercises like Ego Eradicator help to free the flow of energy through our body and mind. An incredible strength becomes tangibly accessible when the energy flows. The energy has always been available to us, but we were separated from our own light.

Life will always mirror the challenges found in our inner energy field. By working through and releasing the inner energy blockage, a corresponding release in our life, thinking, and our spirit also occurs. This parallel of micro and macro is the secret power of how Kundalini Yoga enables us to create the lives we desire. When we are cleared of wounds and vibrating in the frequency of love, we attract more love. This is the law of (Kundalini Yoga) science.

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Refuge characterized by simple features, purity of forms, integration with nature and use of natural materials

Refuge characterized by simple features, purity of forms, integration with nature and use of natural materials

Architects: mf+arquitetos
Location: Franca, Brazil
Year: 2017
Area: 1400 ft²/ 130 m²
Photo courtesy: Felipe Araujo

“The refuge is characterized by simple features, purity of forms, integration with nature and use of natural materials with a color palette of earthy tones, the touch of fabrics, the heat of the wood, the nobility of the marble, the rusticity of the stone and the concrete are mixed with the essential: living, living, coming and going, exploring, knowing, traveling, receiving and appreciating.

The character, who goes in search of moments, eternalizes memories through art, photography, and design that tells a story.”

Thank you for reading this article!









由於一戰時期的穆斯林世界,大量女性加入戰時生產、後援以及技職教育,一戰後的穆斯林世界開始對殖民現代性、以及傳統性別認同產生質疑。以埃及為例,從富裕家庭出身、受過教育的胡達(Huda Shaarawi),不僅能閱讀可蘭經,亦能以阿拉伯文與法語寫詩。

胡達不但在1922-23年前後,成立埃及女性聯盟(Egyptian Feminist Union),長期監督政府推動結婚年齡、女性投票權、反對一夫多妻制、制定對男性嚴格的離婚法、建立診所、提供女性與孩童更多藥物等權益,胡達更在參與國際婦女選舉聯盟在羅馬的會議後(International Woman Suffrage Alliance-IWSA),在公開場所脫下長期包裹的頭巾,激勵與震撼穆斯林世界,不少女權運動研究者,皆定義埃及為穆斯林世界女權的開路先鋒。

就在胡達倡議穆斯林世界女權的當下,土耳其正在進行獨立戰爭。凱末爾曾在戰時提到:「我們的敵人說土耳其不能被認為是文明的國家,這是言之有理的, 因為國家是由男女兩部分人所組成,讓國家的一部分人閉上眼睛,而使另一部分人前進,這能使整個民族進步嗎?前進的道路必須由男女一起踩出来挽臂而行。」



不過, 法律保留了家庭的戶長應該是男性、勞動分工的原則是女主内男主外、妻子外出工作需經丈夫同意。儘管改革鼓勵婦女參與公共領域,但是改革很少涉及私人領域,家父式的威權仍具體影響土耳其。



土耳其女性在國際婦女節高喊自由。(圖片來源: hurriyetdailynews,作者提供)


首先,在公領域方面,女性在凱末爾時期的議會僅佔有4.5%議席;而2002年女性佔有的議席比例是4.4%,女性參政權並未顯著增加。另外,逮捕在國際婦女節遊行的女性,並宣稱遊行者與2016年發動軍事政變的反叛勢力「葛藍運動Gulen movement」,企圖在全國串聯。

在私領域方面,艾爾段曾公開呼籲任何穆斯林家庭都不能接受避孕或計劃生育,土耳其生育更多後代的責任就在女性身上,女性首先應該是一名母親。過去,艾爾段曾意圖修改女性墮胎的合法週期,從合法的十週縮減至四週。綜如上述違反女性身體自主權的行徑,雖終致修法失敗,艾爾段心中所隱藏那晦澀的民族主義,近日更要求一名六歲女童,做好為國犧牲的準備(link is external),招致公民社會的劇烈反感。



[1] 據非官方組織調查,至今仍有很多土耳其女性不知墮胎已合法。另外,全國三十七家公立醫院,僅有三家能協助非緊急的墮胎處理,所以土耳其許多墮胎手術仍是在非法的環境下執行。



《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Wild Heart (05:50) 》

《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Wild Heart (05:50) 》

深澳案續延燒 詹順貴:不滿我的請支持環評修法

深澳案續延燒 詹順貴:不滿我的請支持環評修法

建立於 2018/03/19









「乾淨的煤」說詞惹議 林口、深澳夾擊台北盆地 新北市重批「愚民」










「生態不是比大小」海堤將改變洋流 立委憂掩蓋珊瑚











《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Flirt (06:16) 》

《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Flirt (06:16) 》

深澳爭議 黃國昌批環署:欠缺事實基礎的權力傲慢

深澳爭議 黃國昌批環署:欠缺事實基礎的權力傲慢

建立於 2018/03/19








「卸煤碼頭、防波堤沒有造成影響嗎?」雖然詹順貴表示與前案相比,新案有不需要填海造陸、面積下修的改善,但黃國昌找出當時專案小組兩案併陳中建議重辦環評的理由:「建議重新辦理環境影響評估 本次海域設施調整至深澳灣外布置 I 型堤(A-C 堤)及 L 型堤(H-F-G 堤),將改變灣內水流速度和方向,並改變原始生物自然棲習環境,對深澳灣內原生物生存條件及組成有加重影響之虞,建議重新辦理環境影響評估。」









《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Imagine (06:15) 》

《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Imagine (06:15) 》



建立於 2018/03/20
食品安全議題中,農藥殘留檢驗是各方關注的重要焦點。農委會農業藥物毒物試驗獨家研發FaPEx®(Fast Pesticide Extration)快速農藥殘留萃取淨化技術,比起目前國際上通用的快速農藥殘留萃取淨化技術QuEChERS(音同Catchers)只需要十分之一不到的時間,就可以進行儀器分析400種以上的農藥殘留。
這項獨步全球的台灣驕傲,讓加拿大國際大廠SiliCycle Inc.找上門合作生產,未來將藉由SiliCycle Inc.的全球佈局,將FaPEx®推向國際市場,最快今年5月就能上市。農委會也擬運用新技術,對特定農藥殘留風險較高的紅豆或其它特定作物進行「全面」檢驗。




藥毒所在3年前成功研發出FaPEx®農藥殘留快速萃取淨化套組,將現行萃取淨化的 8-9 個步驟縮短在一個步驟內完成。相較於現行的 QuEChERS需要40分鐘,FaPEx®最快只要3分鐘,不到QuEChERS的十分之一,若加上儀器分析等流程,可省下至少一半的時間,是國際上最快速的萃取淨化技術。



與國際大廠SiliCycle Inc.聯手,台灣驕傲FaPEx®將銷向全球

SiliCycle Inc.總部位於加拿大魁北克,業務遍佈50多個國家,在美洲、歐洲與亞洲都擁有專業夥伴與客戶,包含大型製藥廠、研究中心與大學實驗室,也擁有專業的生產廠房,是化學產業的領頭大廠。

「我們擁有強大的研發部門,從實驗室研發到製造生產的都能全部整合。」來臺參加授權儀式的SiliCycle Inc.銷售業務發展副總裁Raif Kadri表示非常看好FaPEx®的潛力,總部也已反覆測試生產,確定能夠提供質量良好的製造流程。在美國預計跟實驗室產品分銷巨頭VWR合作銷售,亞洲部分,將協同上海分公司,可能優先在中國、南韓或越南推廣,最快今年5月就能上市。

SiliCycle Inc.上海分部的總經理莫林表示,不只在農產品檢驗,未來也期望發展FaPEx®檢驗動物用藥。「舉例來說,像中國、越南出口非常多的蝦子,他們會很需要這個技術。」

臺灣獨步研發的FaPEx®將由SiliCycle Inc.負責推向國際市場,昨舉行境外生產授權儀式。
臺灣獨步研發的FaPEx®將由SiliCycle Inc.負責推向國際市場,昨舉行境外生產授權儀式。



「我們今年就會跟台北農產運銷公司合作。」林韶凱表示,今年會跟北農合作測試使用FaPEx® ,也會研發適合北農的分析儀器,讓儀器可以在3分鐘內分析出320農藥殘留,也將研發人工智慧程式判讀分析數據。



※ 本文經授權轉載自《農傳媒》,不適用CC共創授權條款。



《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Freedom (04:53) 》

《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Freedom (04:53) 》



建立於 2018/03/20












※ 本文經授權轉載自《農傳媒》,不適用CC共創授權條款。



《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Cold Sweat (08:10) 》

《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Cold Sweat (08:10) 》

Deep sea mining could destroy possible source of life on earth, warn scientists

Deep sea mining could destroy possible source of life on earth, warn scientists

Poland wins right to mine area known as the Lost City under the Atlantic Ocean


Deep sea mining could destroy a region on the sea floor that is believed to be a possible site for the source of life on Earth, scientists have warned.

The Lost City, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean remains one of the world’s most important sites of scientific interest.

The area features hydro-thermal vents in which warm alkaline waters from the rocks react with sea water to create hydrocarbons, the building blocks of life.

But after Poland was given the right to explore 10,000 sq km of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge for mining, experts said it could be under threat.

Dr Gretchen Fruh-Green, the scientist who discovered the Lost City, told Sky News that along with her colleagues, she had written a letter to the International Seabed Authority (ISA) about the plans.

But she received no reply.

“We could destroy this place before we’ve understood it – before we can really appreciate the significance of these unique white towers and these very strange fluids that are coming out of the ocean floor,” she said.

An ancient city has been discovered in the middle of the ocean

“The significance of that for understanding the origin of life, for understanding processes in early Earth. It’s our history, it’s the Earth’s history, and if we perturb it we don’t know how fast it will recover, or what influence the perturbation would have on ocean chemistry."

The seabed is thought to be rich in deposits of cobalt, manganese, gold, and other rare elements essential for making smartphones, solar panels, electric cars and many other modern products.

Technology is only now reaching a stage where deep sea mining to extract these materials is becoming a viable commercial option.

The ISA regulates the sea floor within international waters – an enormous expanse totalling nearly 50 per cent of the planet – and decides which corporations and nations have access to exploit it.

Michael Lodge, ISA’s secretary general, told Sky News there was no suggestion mining would damage the site.

“The Lost City is a site of scientific interest," he said. “It’s been explored and studied scientifically for many years. There is no suggestion that Poland is necessarily going to mine the Lost City."

He said the ISA was considering introducing rules to prevent areas of scientific or ecological areas being mined, but that these were still being written.

“We’re actually actively engaged with the scientific community. The major element of exploration which applies to Poland as it does to others is to conduct environmental studies.”


採礦威脅「失落之城」 科學家憂波蘭破壞地球生命發源地

採礦威脅「失落之城」 科學家憂波蘭破壞地球生命發源地

建立於 2018/03/20

位於大西洋中部的海底「失落之城」(Lost City)是世界上最重要的科學研究對象之一。但在波蘭取得大西洋中洋脊1萬平方公里探勘權後,科學家認為這裡可能受到破壞。


IFE, URI-IAO, UW, Lost City Science Party; NOAA/OAR/OER; The Lost City 2005 Expedition.(CC BY 2.0)
北緯30度附近的北大西洋海底,其上聳立著約30個30~60公尺高的白色岩石柱,不知為何被遺棄在深海中,於是被稱為「失落的城市」(The Lost City)。圖片來源:IFE, URI-IAO, UW, Lost City Science Party; NOAA/OAR/OER; The Lost City 2005 Expedition.(CC BY 2.0)

發現失落之城的科學家富格林(Gretchen Fruh-Green)博士向媒體表示,她和同事們已去信國際海底管理局(International Seabed Authority,ISA)了解相關計畫,但並未收到回覆。





ISA秘書長洛奇(Michael Lodge)表示,沒有跡象顯示採礦會破壞失落之城:「失落之城具有科學價值,科學研究在此已經進行多年,沒有任何跡象顯示波蘭必定會開發失落之城。」








《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Pretty Good For A Girl (07:10) 》

《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Pretty Good For A Girl (07:10) 》

有的傷透菜農腦筋、有的受戰火波及 《蝶類誌》細數粉蝶科不凡身世

有的傷透菜農腦筋、有的受戰火波及 《蝶類誌》細數粉蝶科不凡身世

建立於 2018/03/20



菜園中的白粉蝶 上山跟著牠找食物就對了

高麗菜、花椰菜、大白菜、芥菜等,這類十字花科蔬菜,不只是人類愛吃,也吸引粉蝶前來拜訪用餐。白粉蝶(Pieris rapae)、緣點白粉蝶Pieris canidia)是菜園常見的粉蝶,由於將卵產在十字花科寄主植物體上,幼蟲又以寄主植物葉片為食源,十字花科又大多為人類食用蔬菜,而聲名狼籍。




遷移性強 遷粉蝶遷徙路線解密中

遷粉蝶是國際上以遷移性強著稱的蝶種,黃蝶翠谷的淡黃蝶就是遷粉蝶(Catopsilia pomona),由於專吃鐵刀木及阿勃勒這類外來種植物,讓牠與台灣的關係披上神祕面紗。



這類的案例還不少。他舉斑紋隨著乾濕季明顯變化、現在高雄、屏東和台東常見的鑲邊尖粉蝶Appias olferna)為例,日治時代只有一筆紀錄,從此以後銷聲匿跡,直到2002年再度出現高雄小港機場附近。這一次台灣野外有了平伏莖白花菜(又名成功白花菜),1980年代早期,南部發現的新記錄外來植物,後來成為南部常見的野草,是鑲邊尖粉蝶幼蟲的唯一食草,族群從此定居台灣。



目前粉蝶科尚未有保育類物種,不過徐堉峰認為1999年發現命名的「截脈絹粉蝶」(Aporia gigantea)處境堪憂,這幾年由於大武山南橫、小鬼湖一帶崩塌人類進不去,而缺乏調查、目擊紀錄。過去已知的族群數量就不多,主要原因是其食草十大功勞,需與採藥者競爭,又因幼蟲只出現向陽山坡,而這些地方的十大功勞也特別容易發現,因此推測採集壓力可能導致食草減少而影響族群數量。

受戰爭影響? 豔粉蝶半世紀回不來

徐堉峰這幾年試圖解開金門豔粉蝶(Delias pasithoe)、丹心豔粉蝶(Delias acalis)從哪裡來的謎題。以桑寄生為食源的豔粉蝶,這幾年秋冬之際不斷來訪金門。由於金門沒有桑寄生科與檀香科植物生長,艷粉蝶屬蝴蝶在當地沒有幼蟲寄主植物,因此無疑來自其他地方。







喀拉喀托島 啄花鳥來了 等待豔粉蝶











《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Be Beautiful (07:30) 》

《 Mindi Abair & The Boneshakers – Be Beautiful (07:30) 》

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