Is Yoga Enough to Keep You Fit?

Is Yoga Enough to Keep You Fit?

We sent three yogis to the lab to test the theory that yoga is all you need for optimal fitness. See the results.
Giselle Mari near Gandhi Mural graffiti, San Francisco

We sent three yogis to the lab to test the theory that yoga is all you need for optimal fitness.

When it came to the fitness benefits, yoga can or can’t provide, yoga teacher John Schumacher had heard it all. A student of B. K. S. Iyengar for 20 years and founder of the Unity Woods studios in the Washington, D.C. area, Schumacher was convinced yoga provides a complete fitness regime. But many people, even some of his own students, disagreed. Yoga might be good for flexibility or relaxation, they’d say, but to be truly fit, you had to combine it with an activity like running or weight lifting. Schumacher just didn’t buy it.

He knew three decades of yoga practice—and only yoga practice—had kept him fit. He didn’t need to power walk. He didn’t need to lift weights. His fitness formula consisted of daily asanas (poses) and pranayama (breathwork). That’s all he needed.

Four years ago at age 52, Schumacher decided to prove his point. He signed up for physiological testing at a lab in Gaithersburg, Maryland. As he expected, Schumacher tested near the top of his age group for a variety of fitness tests, including maximum heart and exercise recovery rates. His doctor told him that he was in excellent physical condition and estimated that Schumacher had less than a one percent chance of suffering a cardiac event. “I’ve always maintained that yoga provides more than adequate cardiovascular benefits," says Schumacher. “Now I have the evidence that regular yoga practice at a certain level of intensity will provide you with what you need."

See also Yoga Poses for Fitness

Evidence of yoga’s ability to bolster fitness, however, goes well beyond Schumacher’s personal experience. Yoga Journal’s testing of three yogis also yielded impressive results. Even physiologists who don’t do yoga now agree that the practice provides benefits well beyond flexibility and relaxation. Recent research—though preliminary—shows that yoga may also improve strength, aerobic capacity, and lung function.

If you practice yoga, you already knew that. But if, like Schumacher, you’ve been told by friends, family, doctors, or even other yoga students that you need to add some power walking for your heart or strength training for your muscles, here’s evidence that yoga is all you need for a fit mind and body.

What Is Fitness?

Before you can prove yoga keeps you fit, you must first define what “fitness" actually means. This isn’t a simple task. Ask eight different physiologists, and you’ll hear eight different definitions, says Dave Costill, Ph.D., one of the first U. S. researchers to rigorously test the health and fitness benefits of exercise.

Now professor emeritus of exercise science at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana, Costill defines fitness simply as the ability to live your life without feeling fatigued. “For normal daily living you don’t need the strength of a football player or the endurance of a marathon runner, but you’ve got to be able to perform your normal activities and still have a reserve," says Costill.

The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the largest exercise science association in the world, defines fitness as both related to your ability to maintain physical activity and related to your health (for example, people who become more fit reduce their risk for heart disease). According to ACSM, four types of fitness help to bolster health:

1. Cardiorespiratory fitness

This refers to the fitness of your heart, lungs, and blood vessels. The better your cardiorespiratory fitness, the better your stamina, the lower your risk for a host of diseases like heart disease, diabetes, and cancer.

Your ability to move without feeling winded or fatigued is measured by your VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake), a technical term that indicates how efficiently oxygen enters your lungs, moves into your bloodstream, and is used by your muscles. The more fit you become, the more efficiently your body transports and uses oxygen, improving your overall VO2max.

To test VO2max, physiologists ask you to cycle or walk or run on a treadmill with a tube-like mask over your mouth. The mask gathers the carbon dioxide and oxygen you exhale, and the ratio between the two gasses helps to indicate how efficiently your muscles use oxygen.

There are other tests that measure additional aspects of cardiorespiratory fitness, including a lung function test, in which you take a deep breath and then blow into a tube to measure your lung capacity, and heart rate tests, taken both at rest and during exercise. Since equally fit people can vary as much as 20 percent in heart rate, this measure best indicates your own progress: If you become more fit, your heart rate generally drops.

2. Muscular fitness

This refers both to muscle strength (how heavy an object you can lift) and muscle endurance (how long you can lift it). Without exercise, all of us lose muscle mass as we age, which can eventually result in weakness and loss of balance and coordination. Because muscle is such active tissue, it also plays an important role in regulating your metabolism, with every pound of muscle burning about 35 to 50 calories a day.

In a lab, researchers test your muscle strength and endurance on specialized equipment that looks like an exercise machine at a gym but contains sensors that read how much force your muscles generate as they contract.

3. Flexibility

As most people age, their muscles shorten and their tendons, the tissue that connects muscles to bones, become stiffer. This reduces the range of motion, preventing optimum movement of your knees, shoulders, elbows, spine, and other joints. Loss of flexibility may also be associated with an increased risk of pain and injury. Tight hamstrings, for example, pull down on your pelvis, putting pressure on your lower back. In general, tight muscles increase the likelihood you’ll suddenly move past your safe range of motion and damage ligaments, tendons, and the muscles themselves.

4. Body composition

Your body composition refers to the percentage of your body made up of fat instead of muscles, bones, organs, and other nonfat tissues. Though the use of body composition as a fitness and health indicator has come under fire in recent years by those who argue that it’s possible to be both fat and fit, the ACSM and many physiologists continue to assert that too much fat and too little muscle raises your risk for disease and makes movement less efficient.

Physiologists can measure body composition in several ways. The simplest method uses a pair of calipers to pinch the skin and underlying fat at various spots on the body. This method works best for athletes and others with little visible body fat. For those with more body fat, a more accurate method is hydrostatic weighing—being weighed while submerged in water and comparing the result to your out-of-water weight. Because fat floats, the greater the difference between your submerged and dry weights, the higher your body fat percentage.

Experts have long recommended that we do at least three different types of activity to achieve optimum cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, flexibility, and body composition. For example, the ACSM recommends building cardiorespiratory fitness by exercising at an intensity that raises your heart rate to at least 55 percent of your maximum heart rate (the highest rate you can maintain during all-out effort, generally estimated as 220 minus your age); muscular fitness by targeting each major muscle group with eight to 12 repetitions of weight-bearing exercise; and flexibility by stretching.

See also 4 Reasons to Breathe Right

No one argues against yoga’s ability to satisfy the flexibility requirement. But until recently, few scientists had considered whether yoga could improve other aspects of fitness. Now that’s starting to change.

Putting Yoga Fitness to the Test

In one of the first studies done in the United States that examines the relationship between yoga and fitness, researchers at the University of California at Davis recently tested the muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, and lung function of 10 college students before and after eight weeks of yoga training. Each week, the students attended four sessions that included 10 minutes of pranayama, 15 minutes of warm-up exercises, 50 minutes of asanas, and 10 minutes of meditation.

After eight weeks, the students’ muscular strength had increased by as much as 31 percent, muscular endurance by 57 percent, flexibility by as much as 188 percent, and VO2max by 7 percent—a very respectable increase, given the brevity of the experiment. Study coauthor Ezra A. Amsterdam, M.D., suspects that VO2max might have increased more had the study lasted longer than eight weeks. In fact, the ACSM recommends that exercise research last a minimum of 15 to 20 weeks, because it usually takes that long to see VO2max improvements.

“It was very surprising that we saw these changes in VO2max in such a short time," says Amsterdam, professor of internal medicine (cardiology) and director of the coronary care unit at the U. C. Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. He is now considering a longer, larger study to authenticate these results.

A related study done at Ball State University offers further evidence for yoga’s fitness benefits. This research looked at how 15 weeks of twice-weekly yoga classes affected the lung capacity of 287 college students. All of the students involved, including athletes, asthmatics, and smokers, significantly improved lung capacity by the end of the semester.

“The athletes were the ones who were the most surprised, because they thought their athletic training in swimming or football or basketball had already boosted their lung capacity to the maximum," says study author Dee Ann Birkel, an emeritus professor at Ball State’s School of Physical Education.

From the perspective of a Western scientist, the few additional studies that have looked at yoga and fitness all contain flaws in their research design—either too few subjects or inadequate control groups. One study, conducted in Secunderabad, India, compared a group of athletes taught pranayama to another group who were not. After two years, those who practiced pranayama showed a larger reduction of blood lactate (an indicator of fatigue) in response to exercise; in addition, they were more able than the control group to increase their exercise intensity as well as the efficiency of their oxygen consumption during exercise. Other smaller studies also done in India have found that yoga can increase exercise performance and raise anaerobic threshold. (Anaerobic threshold is the point at which your muscles cannot extract enough oxygen from your blood and therefore must switch from burning oxygen to burning sugar and creatine. Unlike oxygen, sugar and creatine are dirty fuel sources, creating lactic acid and other by-products that build up in the blood and make you hyperventilate, “feel the burn," and lose muscle coordination.)

Although the research on yoga is only starting to build, a convincingly large amount of research has been done on tai chi, an Eastern martial art that involves a series of slow, graceful movements. Many studies have found that tai chi helps to improve balance, cardiorespiratory and cardiovascular fitness, ability to concentrate, immunity, flexibility, strength, and endurance of the knee extensor muscles.

Dina Amsterdam, a yoga instructor in San Francisco and graduate student at Stanford University, is one of many researchers conducting a three-year study that compares the psychological and physiological benefits of tai chi as to those of traditional forms of Western exercise such as aerobics. (The daughter of Ezra Amsterdam, Dina Amsterdam was the inspiration behind her father’s U. C. Davis study on yoga and fitness.)

“Though there haven’t been a lot of studies done on yoga that are considered valid, there are numerous studies done on tai chi, with the current Stanford study the largest to date," she says. Because yoga shares many elements with tai chi but can also provide a more vigorous physical workout, Amsterdam expects future yoga studies to produce at least similarly encouraging results. But Amsterdam says she doesn’t need additional research to prove to her that yoga builds fitness. “I haven’t done anything but yoga and some hiking for 10 years," she says. “When I came to yoga, I was 25 pounds overweight and suffering from a compulsive eating disorder. Yoga completely brought me back to physical and emotional health."

Many yoga practitioners echo such thoughts. Jack England, an 81-year-old yoga and stretching instructor at the Club Med in Port Saint Lucie, Florida, says more than 30 years of yoga have kept him flexible, healthy, and strong. He’s the same weight and height as he was in high school, and his stellar health continues to amaze his doctor. He delights audiences at Club Med by practicing Shoulderstand and other poses while balancing on a float board in a water ski show. “I’m an inspiration to people of all ages," he says. “I do things that 14-year-old girls can’t do."

See also Calming Trend To Try: Forest Bathing (Shinrin-yoku)

Stephanie Griffin, a 33-year-old director of business development for a pharmaceutical research company in San Francisco, discovered yoga after years of running marathons, spinning, and weight lifting. Before discovering yoga, she thought her intense exercise habits had turned her into a poster child for health and fitness. During the last four years, however, Griffin began doing more and more yoga and less and less running, weight lifting, and aerobicizing. As she dropped back on her hardcore fitness pursuits, she worried she might gain weight or lose her muscle tone or exercise capacity.

She didn’t. “I have maintained my fitness and even enhanced it through yoga," says Griffin, who no longer has a gym membership. “And I like the way my body looks and feels now better than the way it did before."

Why Yoga Works

Exactly how does yoga build fitness? The answer you get depends on whom you ask. Robert Holly, Ph.D., a senior lecturer in the Department of Exercise Biology at U. C. Davis and one of the researchers on the U. C. Davis study, says that muscles respond to stretching by becoming larger and capable of extracting and using more oxygen more quickly. In other words, side benefits of flexibility include increased muscle strength and endurance.

“My own belief is that the small but significant increase in maximal oxygen capacity was due to an increase in muscle endurance, which allowed the subjects to exercise longer, extract more oxygen, and reach an increased maximal oxygen uptake," says Holly.

Then there’s the pranayama theory. Birkel suspects that yoga poses help increase lung capacity by improving the flexibility of the rib area, shoulders, and back, allowing the lungs to expand more fully. Breathwork further boosts lung capacity—and possibly also VO2max—by conditioning the diaphragm and helping to more fully oxygenate the blood.

Birkel, Dina Amsterdam, and others are also quick to point out that Suryanamaskar(Sun Salutations) and other continuously linked poses increase the heart rate, making yoga aerobically challenging. And many yoga poses—particularly standing poses, balancing poses, and inversions—build quite a bit of strength because they require sustained isometric contractions of many large and small muscles. Of course, holding the poses longer increases this training effect.

Finally, yoga tunes you into your body and helps you to better coordinate your actions. “When you bring your breath, your awareness, and your physical body into harmony, you allow your body to work at its maximum fitness capacity," says Dina Amsterdam. “Yoga class is merely a laboratory for how to be in harmony with the body in every activity outside of yoga. This improved physical wellness and fluidity enhance not just the physical well-being but also permeate all levels of our being."

Are You Fit?

Given all this evidence, can you now confidently tell your nonyogi friends they’re wrong when they insist that you should add other forms of exercise to your practice?

Maybe, maybe not. The answer depends largely on how much you dedicate yourself to yoga. Studies done on yoga have included more than an hour of practice two to four days a week. The yoga sessions included breathwork and meditation in addition to typical yoga poses. Finally, the asanas used in these studies included not just aerobically challenging sequences, like Sun Salutations, but also many strengthening poses, like Virabhadrasana (Warrior Pose), Vrksasana(Tree Pose), Trikonasana (Triangle Pose), Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward-Facing Dog Pose), Navasana (Boat Pose), Sarvangasana (Shoulderstand), Setu Bandha Sarvangasana (Bridge Pose), and Plank.

So if you want to become and stay physically and mentally fit, make sure your yoga practice includes a balance of poses that build strength, stamina, and flexibility, along with breathwork and meditation to help develop body awareness. In particular, include a series of standing poses in your practice. As your practice expands, Schumacher suggests adding more challenging asanas such as balancing poses and inversions. “If you are just doing 15 minutes of gentle yoga stretches three to four times a week, you will also need to do some other form of exercise to stay fit," Schumacher readily admits. “I often tell my beginning students that they will need to do something in addition to yoga for a while until they can practice more vigorously."

Holly agrees. If you practice yoga for less than an hour twice a week, he suggests you either pair your practice with moderate intensity exercise like walking, or increase your yoga time or frequency. “But the best form of exercise is whatever you enjoy most and will continue to do on a regular, almost daily, basis," he says. “Should you do more than yoga if you don’t enjoy other activities? No. Yoga has a lot of benefits, so do yoga regularly and enjoy it."

Beyond fitness, yoga also offers many other gifts. It improves your health, reduces stress, improves sleep, and often acts like a powerful therapy to help heal relationships, improve your career, and boost your overall outlook on life.

All these positives are enough to keep former exercise junkie Stephanie Griffin hooked on yoga for life. Griffin had worried that, unlike her other fitness pursuits, yoga wouldn’t give her the emotional satisfaction of aiming for and meeting goals. Soon, however, she realized that yoga offered her a path to constant improvement. “One day it hit me: I realized that my goal was to be practicing yoga well into my 90s," says Griffin. “For me, that is the new finish line. Practicing with that goal satisfies me more than any marathon."

See alsoTwo Fit Moms: 8 Travel Poses You Can Do Anywhere

Alisa Bauman stays fit through yoga, running, and fitness ball workouts. She lives and writes in Emmaus, Pennsylvania.


Weekend House in Downtown São Paulo by SPBR

Weekend House in Downtown São Paulo by SPBR

Architects: SPBR
Location: Downtown São PauloBrazil
Year: 2013
Area: 1,970 sqft
Photo courtesy: Nelson Kon

Clouds, drizzle, rain, snow or hail, in all its physical states water is related to sky. However, if we are requested to think about a [swimming] pool, our imagination automatically starts to dig into the ground. Seas, lakes, and ponds explain the reason we react in that direction: essentially, a pool fells like a piece of a lake. It makes sense, the image corresponds to the word, water that rests smoothly on the ground. Water defines the surface.


While walking on the ground,we could ask: where is the surface? In the specific sense of the word, surface has no layers or thickness. However, if one walks in a city like São Paulo [or New York], the ground level does not correspond to the surface anymore. There are some pieces of the ground that haven’t been touched by the sunlight for decades since buildings have permanently shaded them.


In this specific site, the neighborhood’s average height is defined by the zoning code: 6 m high. No side setbacks are required. The east neighbor building shades our site the entire morning until noon, when the west neighbor building starts to shade it for the whole afternoon. Therefore, if there is a pool to be built, exposed to the sunlight the whole day, it is crucial to define its surface: six meters above the ground level.



The assumption here is like to swim in a water tower and to enjoy that potential as a design possibility. One more water ‘state’ related to the sky of São Paulo.


São Paulo is a metropolis of 20 million people. It is approximately one hour from the coast. Because of severe traffic jams, its inhabitants spend hours commuting every day. On weekends, especially in the summer, hundreds of thousands drive to the beach causing jams on the roads as well.


In order to avoid being stuck in traffic during weekends, we received an unexpected but rather logical demand as a counterflow action: a weekend house in downtown São Paulo.


As an anti-FAR [floor area ratio] approach, a swimming pool, a solarium and a garden are the main elements of this project. In a properly inverted hierarchy, everything else on this program is complementary: a bedroom, a small apartment for a caretaker, and a space to cook and receive friends.


The site is very central, between an arterial avenue, Avenida Faria Lima, and a metropolitan infrastructural axis [road and railway] built on the Pinheiros river shore. Also, the site is exactly under the airport conical zone, meaning all flights coming from Rio de Janeiro fly over the site about each 7 minutes.


Pool and solarium were displayed as parallel volumes. Two columns were located in the 1 m wide gap between them. The 12 m span is faced on one side by beams supporting the pool and on the other by beams that support the solarium and also hang the floor underneath. Structurally, the mass of the pool counterweights the volume which holds inhabited spaces. In other words, water is balanced by the beach.


The ground level was kept free from any construction in order to achieve the maximum garden area ratio. As a result there are three different layers or three levels for three different moods: ground level [garden – introspective or encompassed by the site limits], apartment level [the only indoor space floating above the ground and underneath the pool], and rooftop [swimming pool and solarium, an extroverted or panoramic space].


This building and its program differs from the focus of traditional architectural projects in two ways: the metropolis becomes a possible place to stay and enjoy during the weekends and elements generally considered secondary in a big house become fundamental components.


Thank you for reading this article!


Two Fit Moms’ Picks: 8 Best Yoga Poses for the Core

Two Fit Moms’ Picks: 8 Best Yoga Poses for the Core

Just in time for summer, here are Two Fit Moms’ top 8 yoga poses to work the core.

At Two Fit Moms, we are frequently asked for recommendations on the best yoga poses to work the core. The following eight-pose sequence will not only make your body stronger but help you stand taller and feel more confident—just in time for summer.

WANT MORE? 7 Poses for Core Strength


《 Beth Hart – Fire On The Floor (05:12) 》

《 Beth Hart – Fire On The Floor (05:12) 》

Woodscape: a breezy, atmospheric habitat in white and wood colors

Woodscape: a breezy, atmospheric habitat in white and wood colors

Architects: RIS Interior Design
Location: Taichung city, Taiwan
Year: 2016
Area: 1.292 ft²/ 120 m²
Photography: ©RIS Interior Design

“Respecting that the homeowner is fond of nature elements and tradition simplicity, we are keen to create a breezy, atmospheric habitat which is close to our subconscious impression of natural woodland. Discreetly set color palette, linear compositions, and combine kinds of materials to avoid visual chaos. While day and night alternate, the interior varies through natural lighting and shadow drifts; home is therefore the most unforgettable landscape that inhabitants long for.

Thanks to great geographical conditions of ventilation and natural day light, every side of elevation is not only individual but also multi-layered with a calm, oriental, composed tone, just like the same as nature forest scenery. Though combining abundantly different materials, the space is tidily arranged and comfortable. Massive white and wood colors adequately set off and contrast to one another, just as the universal balance between human and environment.

The wood grain showcases the best gradation for the space. Most spaces are applied by different species, and gathered various wood colors in multiple finishings, the area is pervading plentiful botanic implication in a peaceful mood. Imposing solid wood-veneered sliding doors represent trees and groves; grey rug and sofa are metaphors of sands and pebbles. Glossy-white tiled flooring refracts the penetration of nature, and white wall is left to a broad extension of long scene.


The reading area can be unfolded by sliding the solid-wood veneered door, an idea of hidden jewelry box in forest in which upholding literary treasury. The door acts as an accordion partition that connects both sides, between media living room, or give privacy to reading area when closure.”

Thank you for reading this article!

《 Beth Hart – Tell Her You Belong To Me (05:56) 》

《 Beth Hart – Tell Her You Belong To Me (05:56) 》

Intro to Anatomy: Piriformis Primer

Intro to Anatomy: Piriformis Primer

The surprising key to soothing sciatica and lower back pain is a muscle you may never have heard of—the piriformis.

In a classroom of wavering Tree Poses, one tree stood tall in the corner. The student’s Vrksasana had some undulation like the rest, but at the center was an unusual steadiness that was more than just concentration: She’d discovered the key that allowed stability and lightness to shine throughout the whole pose. The key—both surprising and underappreciated—is a small muscle that contributes mightily to sacral stability and provides lightness and openness in demanding yoga postures. That muscle is the piriformis.

The piriformis is primarily an external rotator, one of a number of small, deep muscles that rotate the leg outward at the hip. It’s notorious for causing sciatic pain. When the piriformis gets tight, it pinches the sciatic nerve and causes a burning pain at various points along the nerve’s path, which runs from the buttock all the way down to the foot. Tightness in the piriformis also can bring hot pains in the buttock during hip stretches such Pigeon Pose and can afflict forward bending with a feeling of tension in the buttocks around the hip joints and sacrum. Limitations in the piriformis can translate into pain and strain in the lower back, as well—even during everyday activities and bending in poses like Uttanasana (Standing Forward Bend).

For all these reasons, the piriformis can seem like little more than a troublemaker, causing pain far out of proportion to its function. But this muscle serves an important purpose. Its most fundamental job is to provide stability to your sacrum, the triangular bone that connects the back of your pelvis to your spine. To understand just how it accomplishes this feat, it helps to be able to visualize the piriformis. There are two piriformis muscles that sit behind the hip sockets, extending from the upper, outer corner of each femur (thighbone) to the sacrum. The piriformis muscles are joined by a band of connective tissue, or fascia, that stretches across the sacrum just above the tailbone. To picture this, imagine that your leg bones are two trees. The piriformis muscles are two fans of ropes that blend into a fascial hammock that hangs between the two trees. The sacrum sits and rocks in the hammock, adjusting itself as the trees sway and move. This fascial hammock is the piriformis’s secret to regulating movement and stability in the sacroiliac (SI) joints.

And the SI joints are tricky to regulate. The joints have to be loose enough to allow your pelvic bones to move with your legs when you walk or run, yet stable enough to support the spine as it rests on the sacrum. The piriformis helps hold the sacrum together—but it also has to know when to let go.

Walk This Way

When you take a step, a shock wave of force travels up your leg to your hip, and the SI joints have to hold the pelvis together against that pounding. The piriformis assists the ligaments of the SI joint by contracting and hugging the sacroiliac joint even tighter during this phase of putting weight on the leg. But as soon as your weight comes off the heel, the piriformis has to release and allow the pelvic bone to swing with the leg. It’s a finely tuned dance of hug-and-release, and a well-coordinated pair of piriformis muscles makes for a feeling of stability and lightness in your pelvis, which puts a youthful bounce in your step.

But if the delicate balance is thrown off and they become too tight or too loose, you run into problems, including SI joint pain. A tight piriformis can pinch the sciatic nerve, a large and lengthy nerve sandwiched between the piriformis and another external rotator known as the gemellus, causing radiating pain in the buttocks, hamstrings, calf, heel, and even down to the toes. Since these kinds of pain are caused by chronic tightness, asanas that stretch the piriformis to relieve such tightness are the usual cure. And asana can be a way of learning how to reposition the pelvis so that we don’t habitually hang back in the piriformis hammock, tightening and straining the ropes.

The piriformis muscles also can fall short in their task if they are not tight enough to do their job for the sacrum. Sometimes the sacral ligaments are hypermobile, either from heredity or from years of extreme stretching, and this makes it harder for the piriformis to stabilize the SI joints.

One way to assess if you’re hypermobile in your sacral ligaments is by observing your posture. When the pelvis is habitually—and excessively—tilted forward, establishing a deep inward arch in the low back, the sacrum is tilted away from the support of the piriformis hammock that helps keep the SI joints tight and stable. It’s very much like habitually leaning to one side of a hammock, teetering on the edge of falling out. It’s very unstable, and this type of instability can cause stabbing pain in the lower back.

Just Right

To help the piriformis do its job properly, it’s important to establish pelvic alignment that strikes a balance between chronic tightness and laxity. The key to sensing this lies in developing an awareness of your sitting bones. Try this: Sit upright on a firm chair and feel your sitting bones beneath you. From there, tilt your pelvis back in a slump. Feel your sitting bones slide forward as you lean back, curling your tailbone under. This drops you back into the hammock of the piriformis and the ligaments of the low back, and you may be able to feel a tightening or grabbing of the piriformis and the other deep muscles surrounding the sitting bones.

Next, tilt your pelvis in the other direction, arching your back inward and drawing your sitting bones back and apart so that you’re resting on their front edges. Notice how your lower back and groins start to harden. At the deepest level, the hip flexormuscles shorten as part of the action of tipping your pelvis forward. And notice how the muscles at the outer edges of the sitting bones and behind the hip joints, including the piriformis, are inactive. The low back will feel tight because of the forward tilt of the pelvis, but the sacral joints will feel unstable and unsupported.

After moving your pelvis between these two extremes, try to find some middle ground. Allow your tailbone to get heavy and descend so that your weight comes to the center of your sitting bones. When you do this, you invite the tailbone and sacrum to descend into the fascial hammock of the piriformis, which provides greater support and stability to the SI joints. It should also feel like you are standing tall on your sitting bones, which creates tone and lift in your lower belly and also tones and supports the muscles across the sacrum, just below your waistline. This type of awareness exercise will help train you to hold the pelvis in a healthy alignment, and it will balance the tone of all the muscles involved, especially the piriformis. Yet, notice how the instruction is to let the tailbone get heavy, not “scoop." At some point in your yoga career, you may have heard the instruction to “scoop" the tailbone down and forward to prevent pinching in the low back and sacrum, especially during backbending actions. But if you focus on this action alone, it actually destabilizes the sacrum by tipping it backward. It also tightens the piriformis at the hip joint—just where you don’t want it to tighten. Simply shifting your focus away from the “scooping" action and toward properly grounding through the legs will allow the piriformis to do what it does best: provide stability to the SI joints by supporting the sacrum in its hammock. This is especially helpful in deeper movements of forward bending and backbending, as well as for releasing the torsion in the SI joints during twists.

You can cultivate this awareness of pelvic alignment when you’re standing, too. You may notice that, instead of having a well-balanced pelvis, you find yourself standing with your tailbone scooped, your groins pushed forward, and your feet turned out. Standing like this turns the tops of the thighs out and shortens the piriformis. The sacrum sits too heavily in its hammock, tightening the piriformis at the outer hip just behind the head of the thighbone. This tightness shows itself as a deep dimpling in the outer flanks of the buttocks. In this case, the tightness of the piriformis particularly affects the outer hips and compresses the SI joints and lumbar spine.

Just as you found optimal pelvic alignment while seated, you can find it when standing. This sweet spot in your posture, where the piriformis muscles are best situated to stabilize the sacrum without over-tightening in the buttocks or hip joints, brings a feeling of lightness and energy. When you find it, you feel truly grounded through the legs without a feeling of hardness or excessive effort.

To find optimal alignment for the piriformis in your normal standing position, bend your knees slightly to unlock them, tilt your pelvis forward a little—just enough to deepen the inward arch in your lower back and soften your groins—and then shift your hips backward until you feel your weight become more grounded through the center of your heels. At the same time, spread your toes and bring equal weight and contact to all four corners of your feet. Then, as you straighten your legs, let your tailbone descend while gently toning and lifting through the pit of your abdomen.

Imagine the tailbone sitting lightly in the hammock of the piriformis; any extra effort to scoop the tailbone takes you out of this sweet spot, hardening the groins and hip flexors. When you feel grounded through the bones of your legs and experience a lightness and lift in the arches of your feet and your pelvic floor, you’ve found the sweet spot where your hips are aligned and your piriformis is supporting your sacrum.

Powerful Ally

The path to making the piriformis your friend lies in this subtle practice of realignment, using the feeling of weight and alignment in your sitting bones and feet as a guide. But taken by itself, this can seem too subtle. There is a third player that helps steady and center you while exerting a calming influence upon the piriformis: the gluteal muscles.

The gluteals provide powerful support to the piriformis’s secondary actions of external rotation and abduction, which allows the piriformis to better perform its primary function of stabilizing the SI joints. The main focus in working with the gluteals to relieve the piriformis is the action known as abduction. In the case of the legs and hips, abduction refers to taking one leg out to the side, away from the centerline of the body. Abduction can be an actual movement or an isometric action. When it’s an isometric action, abducting the gluteals stabilizes the hip joint. For instance, when you balance on one leg, the gluteals contract the same way as when you lift your leg out to the side. But since the standing leg cannot move, the effect is to lift and level the pelvis on the hip. The more efficiently the gluteals do this, the more the piriformis is free to stabilize the SI joints. But if the gluteals fail, the pelvis wobbles and tips sideways at the hip, causing the piriformis to contract in the absence of its helper.

When you work on optimal pelvic alignment in your everyday sitting and standing postures, you can imprint the sensations of proper alignment and apply them to your yoga poses, too. There, the benefits of enlisting the gluteals to take on the work of abduction and relieve the piriformis to do what it does best will be all the more evident. You’ll feel ease and spaciousness in your low back during forward bends and backbends and find greater lightness and stability at your very center during standing and balancing poses.

Practicing Abduction: Uttanasana (Standing Forward Bend)

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When you practice abduction in Uttanasana, you use the gluteals to center and stabilize the thighbones in the hip joints. This helps you to overcome the habit of hanging back into the hammock of the piriformis for support, and it brings greater ease to your forward bend while reducing strain on your low back.

Begin standing with your feet hip-distance apart. Microbend your knees and draw your thighs and feet apart, as if you were trying to stretch the sticky mat between your feet. Keep the knees facing straight forward to make sure you’re not rotating your thigh out. Don’t pull the feet apart so strongly that you feel your buttocks tighten inward, but rather feel how the muscles above the hip joints are drawing the tops of the thighs laterally outward, away from the hip joints. That expansion at the hips is abduction. You’ll also feel a subtle broadening or release across your sacrum, at or below your waistline and in your low back. It’s up to you to calibrate just how much abduction is enough to create this feeling of release. If you tend to be tight in your low back and hamstrings, give extra attention to isometrically pulling your heels apart without turning your knees inward.

From this engaged standing position, move into the forward bend. First tip your pelvis slightly forward, increasing the inward arch in your low back, and shift your hips back until you feel your weight come into the centers of your heels. With your knees slightly bent and your thighs abducting, fold forward at your hips to touch the floor, yoga blocks, or a chair. You can straighten your legs to complete the hamstring stretch, but continue to isometrically draw your inner heels apart to increase the stretch to the outer edges of your legs and hips. This action releases the piriformis, along with the other rotators. If you are very flexible, ground through your outer heels while maintaining the abduction. This action engages the hammock of the piriformis, steadying the sacrum while reducing the extreme forward tilt of the pelvis that tugs at the hamstring attachments. To come up without straining your lower back, microbend your knees and isometrically draw your thighs apart laterally.

Creating Stability: Vrksasana (Tree Pose)

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Balancing poses challenge the piriformis in the standing leg to work strongly in order to stabilize the SI joint while at the same time enlisting the aid of the gluteals to hold the pelvis level. Tree Pose challenges you to use the gluteals to abduct and open the hip of the lifted leg while teaching you not to overuse the piriformis by tucking or scooping the tailbone.

Stand in Tadasana (Mountain Pose) next to a wall on your left side. With your feet hip-distance apart, turn your right foot out slightly so you can more easily ground your outer heel to activate the piriformis. Shift your weight onto your right foot, bringing weight to your outer heel. Balance your weight evenly between your big toe mound and outer heel, and spread your toes.

As you extend down into the earth through the bones of your right leg, you will feel the gluteals at your outer hip activate in order to keep the pelvis steady and level. Lift your left foot, turning your thigh out to the side, and place the heel at your inner right thigh, just behind the thighbone. Your left knee will be in contact with the wall to help you balance. Keep your hip points and torso facing directly forward.

Firm and press your right thigh in against your left heel while continuing to ground down through the right leg. At the same time, press your left heel into your right thigh, which will keep the right leg from excessively rotating out. It’s the slight inward rotation of the thigh that keeps the piriformis from tightening.

To open the left thigh, inhale and firm your lower belly, drawing the pit of your abdomen in toward the spine and up. Press the left knee into the wall as you extend down through your standing leg and up through your head. From the combination of all of these forces, your left thigh will open naturally without a feeling of pinching or gripping in your left piriformis (which you would feel deep in your left buttock, just behind the hip joint).

Press your palms together in front of your heart. Then release the pose and repeat on the other side.

Stretching a Tight Piriformis: Pigeon Pose

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Pigeon Pose stretches the part of the piriformis that causes the most problems. The gluteals provide some abduction to moderate the intensity of the stretch. From Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward-Facing Dog Pose), bring your right leg forward, your knee toward the outer edge of your mat, and your heel in line with your left hip, with your shin at about a 45-degree angle to the front of the mat. Lean forward and extend your left leg back. To go more deeply into the right piriformis stretch, turn your left toes under, lift your left knee, and walk your hips back. Your right thigh should rotate out, and your right hip should descend toward the floor. If your hip doesn’t fully reach the floor, support it with a block or folded blanket. From there, lean forward to further deepen the stretch to the piriformis.

Next, point through the left big toe and spiral your thigh inward so that the center of your thigh muscle faces the floor. Your left hip point will turn more toward the floor, increasing the stretch to the right piriformis muscle. If the stretch is too intense or causes a twisting in your right knee, sit up higher on a prop. To incorporate gluteal abduction, bring your torso upright and lift your hips slightly up and away from the floor. Firm the pit of your abdomen back toward the spine and isometrically draw your thighs apart, engaging the outer hips much like you did in Uttanasana. Then descend your pelvis into the space between, allowing your pelvis to tip forward slightly as needed. The piriformis will get an intense stretch, but notice how the abduction of the thighs spreads the stretch throughout the hip, opening up a space of ease in the area of the sacrum.

Doug Keller teaches yoga worldwide.


《 Beth Hart – Am I The One (09:55) 》

《 Beth Hart – Am I The One (09:55) 》

Modern weekend house designed to integrate the natural surroundings

Modern weekend house designed to integrate the natural surroundings

Architects: Dellekamp Arquitectos
Location: Valle de Bravo, Mexico
Year: 2017
Photo courtesy: Sandra Pereznieto

“Patios are inserted into the longest volume, preserving pre-existing trees on site, allowing vegetation to take over the project, and creating a house-in-a-courtyard (but a house without courtyards).

In these ways, the house interweaves vegetation and explores the patio typology. The distribution of the house gives the guests and owners total independence.

A terrace mediates privacy, and an internal corridor connects the different rooms with movement like in a cloister. With the characteristic door-windows, the house is always opens up to the garden and forest, and allows views from interior volumes out tu the Lake of Valle de Bravo.


The patios at the ends of the house are left open to the landscape, and -not being covered- evoke the feeling of ruins.

The covered terrace being the most public area of the house, becomes the main space of interaction between owners and guests. Visible upon entering, it invites newly arrived guests to rest.”

Thank you for reading this article!


《 Beth Hart – I Love You More Than You’ll Ever Know (07:06) 》

《 Beth Hart – I Love You More Than You’ll Ever Know (07:06) 》

Environment Scores Big Win With Zero-Waste Legacy Project at Super Bowl LII

Environment Scores Big Win With Zero-Waste Legacy Project at Super Bowl LII






NFL, PepsiCo and U.S. Bank Stadium Partners including Aramark, SMG

and Minnesota Sports Facilities Authority Hit Ambitious Waste Diversion Target

The NFL, in partnership with PepsiCo, Aramark, U.S. Bank Stadium, SMG and the Minnesota Sports Facilities Authority, scored a zero-waste legacy project at Super Bowl LII, with 91 percent[ii] of all trash generated on gameday from 67,612 fans responsibly recovered through composting, recycling and reuse. The landmark project marks the highest diversion rate achieved at U.S. Bank Stadium and at any previous Super Bowl, and aims to serve as the benchmark for future large-scale events.

The results are in following the big game: nearly 63 tons of the 69 tons of gameday waste were recovered through recycling or donation for reuse (62 percent) and composting (29 percent). Recovering waste through composting and recycling reduces waste disposal costs and provides several environmental benefits including reduction of landfill use and reduction of the greenhouse gas generated by the landfill process, gasses which contribute significantly to global warming.

“The zero-waste legacy project is a testament to teamwork, with multiple partners coming together to achieve an ambitious environmental goal," said Director of the NFL’s Environmental Program JACK GROH. “The NFL is proud that this program was not only successful at Super Bowl LII, but will also serve as a permanent installation at the stadium and leave a lasting impact on the community."

U.S. Bank Stadium partners, including the Minnesota Sports Facilities Authority, stadium operator SMG, and Aramark, kicked off the effort to achieve a zero-waste operation in 2017, and were joined by the NFL and PepsiCo in the lead-up to Super Bowl LII.

“SMG is always striving to raise industry standards through our operation at U.S. Bank Stadium and our commitment to sustainability is no different. In our first season, we produced a waste diversion rate of 20 percent. Over the course of our second season our team increased that diversion rate to 91 percent," says PATRICK TALTY, SMG General Manager at U.S. Bank Stadium. “Developing a successful and long-term zero-waste program has always been our goal. The diversion improvement we have seen to date is rare in the world of facility management and is a testament to the dedication of all of our stadium partners."

“U.S. Bank Stadium’s journey to the zero-waste threshold has been demanding, and we couldn’t have gotten here without the commitment of our stadium partners," said MICHAEL VEKICH, chair of the Minnesota Sports Facilities Authority, owner of U.S. Bank Stadium. “We look forward to sharing our experiences with other facilities who are interested in this important sustainability program."

Ahead of gameday, PepsiCo launched the Rush2Recycle campaign to show fans how to make recycling fun and easy in the stadium and at in-home Super Bowl parties across the country. Fans attending the Super Bowl were greeted by a team of uniformed zero-waste ambassadors who helped identify the correct bins for recycling, composting and waste-to-energy. Super Bowl XL MVP and Pittsburgh Steelers Legend HINES WARD helped lucky fans recycle with his own end zone dance, the Rush2Recyle Shuffle, available at, along with tips and resources.

“To tackle waste and boost recycling rates, each of us needs to do our part," said ROBERTA BARBIERI, PepsiCo’s vice president global environmental sustainability. “While we’re working to make PepsiCo’s packaging increasingly sustainable and investing in recycling programs in communities around the world, we also want to find new ways to make it fun and simple for consumers to participate—like Rush2Recycle."

Critical to hitting the initiative’s goals was removing items from stadium inventory that could not be either recycled or composted. Aramark, the food and beverage partner for U.S. Bank Stadium, replaced nearly its entire inventory of food vessels, service products and utensils handed to fans with compostable alternatives.

“The successful implementation and results of this historic waste reduction project reflect the partners’ collective commitment to delivering innovative sustainable solutions that will endure beyond Super Bowl LII," said CARL MITTLEMAN, President of Aramark’s Sports and Entertainment division. “Aramark is incredibly proud to have contributed to this milestone and we look forward to utilizing our insights from this effort to further reduce the environmental impact of our operations at U.S. Bank Stadium and across all the venues we serve."

Other pre-game steps were essential to achieving the zero-waste goal. U.S. Bank Stadium, home of the Minnesota Vikings, working with Recycle Across America, designed all illustrated signs for the stadium’s new three-bin waste stations to show fans exactly how to sort items. Recycling and compost bins were made larger and more accessible, while trash bins were made much smaller, encouraging fans to make the right choices for disposing items. In addition, a comprehensive LEED-certification level waste audit was performed in October 2017 to identify specific materials for recovery in the stadium waste stream. A “zero-waste trial run" was performed at a December 2017 Minnesota Vikings home game to encourage fans to properly dispose of waste and to refine gameday practices for Super Bowl LII.

Post-game steps to achieve the 91% resource recovery rate at Super Bowl LII were led by SMG and the NFL. The SMG team sorted all fan-generated waste into the correct waste compactors. The waste hauling partners then collected and provided weight-tickets at each destination including the recycling facility, the composting facility and the waste-to-energy facility. This data was reviewed by SMG and combined with the reuse and donation data collected by the NFL from their community partners. When the recycling, composting and donation/reuse data is combined, the total resource recovery rate for gameday waste is 91%.

For more than 25 years, the NFL has been the leader in sports event sustainability; creating the first significant stadium solid waste recycling project in America at Super Bowl XXVIII in Atlanta in 1994. The NFL and the Minnesota Super Bowl LII Host Committee developed a series of initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of Super Bowl LII activities and leave a “green" legacy throughout the area. Through the NFL Environmental Program, leftover décor and construction materials from Super Bowl was donated to local organizations for reuse and repurposing. More than 150 thousand pounds of unserved, prepared food and beverages from Super Bowl events was distributed to local shelters and community kitchens. U.S. Bank Stadium, the site of Super Bowl LII, and several other major NFL Super Bowl event venues were powered using “green energy" to reduce the climate impact of Super Bowl events. A Super Bowl E-waste event held in October 2017, diverted 42,081 pounds of E-waste from the landfill for responsible recycling. The NFL’s Super Bowl urban forestry program planted more than 12,000 trees, 4,000 native plants and 8 pollinator gardens in Minnesota. On Thursday, Jan. 18, more than 100 local schools and YMCAs joined in a community initiative called Super Kids-Super Sharing which put 46,000 donated items (books, sports equipment and school supplies) into the hands of local children in need.

# # #

About the NFL Environmental Program: As a leader in the community, the NFL is a responsible steward of the environment in all business areas, using resources efficiently and minimizing waste. The NFL Environmental Program focuses on greening NFL tentpole events and facilities and provides resources for NFL clubs to help them operate their business in sustainable, eco-friendly ways. The NFL was the first professional sports organization to take on full programming for environmental impact at large-scale sporting events such as Super Bowl.

About PepsiCo: PepsiCo products are enjoyed by consumers more than one billion times a day in more than 200 countries and territories around the world. PepsiCo generated approximately $63.5 billion in net revenue in 2017, driven by a complementary food and beverage portfolio that includes Frito-Lay, Gatorade, Pepsi-Cola, Quaker and Tropicana. PepsiCo’s product portfolio includes a wide range of enjoyable foods and beverages, including 22 brands that generate more than $1 billion each in estimated annual retail sales. At the heart of PepsiCo is Performance with Purpose – our fundamental belief that the success of our company is inextricably linked to the sustainability of the world around us. We believe that continuously improving the products we sell, operating responsibly to protect our planet and empowering people around the world is what enable PepsiCo to run a successful global company that creates long-term value for society and our shareholders. For more information, visit

About U.S. Bank Stadium: U.S. Bank Stadium, owned by the Minnesota Sports Facilities Authority, is a multi-purpose stadium and home to the Minnesota Vikings. The 66,400+ seat stadium is located in the heart of Minneapolis, Minnesota. This state-of-the-art facility hosts prominent national and international programming including the Minnesota Vikings, concerts, family shows, college and high school sporting events, conventions, trade/consumer shows, and corporate or private meetings and other community events. U.S. Bank Stadium opened on July 22, 2016 and has been chosen as the site of the Summer X Games (2017 and 2018), Super Bowl LII (2018) and the NCAA Men’s Final Four (2019).

U.S. Bank Stadium is an SMG managed facility. M Hospitality, a division of Aramark, is the official food and beverage provider for U.S. Bank Stadium. For More Information:

About Aramark: Aramark (NYSE: ARMK) proudly serves Fortune 500 companies, world champion sports teams, state-of-the-art healthcare providers, the world’s leading educational institutions, iconic destinations and cultural attractions, and numerous municipalities in 19 countries around the world. Our 270,000 team members deliver experiences that enrich and nourish millions of lives every day through innovative services in food, facilities management and uniforms. We operate our business with social responsibility, focusing on initiatives that support our diverse workforce, advance consumer health and wellness, protect our environment, and strengthen our communities. Aramark is recognized as one of the World’s Most Admired Companies by FORTUNE, as well as an employer of choice by the Human Rights Campaign and Diversity Inc. Learn more at or connect with us on Facebook and Twitter.

Media Contacts:

Ana Blinder, NFL,

Jack Groh, NFL Environmental,

Carrie Ratner, PepsiCo,

Dave Freireich, Aramark,

Jenn Hathaway, MSFA,

Lisa Niess, SMG,

[i] “Zero waste" refers to the productive reuse, recycling or composting of at least 90% of all gameday solid, non-hazardous waste,

a commonly recognized zero-waste certification rate.

[ii] All gameday waste recovery calculations have been provided by NFL & SMG following review of weight tickets from waste hauling scales.


How this year’s Super Bowl stadium managed to dramatically reduce waste

How this year’s Super Bowl stadium managed to dramatically reduce waste

zero waste Super Bowl Minneapolis Kirkos nccorig_00005918

Play Video

Minneapolis wants a ‘Zero Waste’ Super Bowl 01:08

Minneapolis (CNN)After the Eagles and Patriots squared off in Super Bowl LII, another battle got started inside US Bank Stadium.

On Monday, hundreds of stadium employees, food vendors, sustainability experts and volunteers worked together to sort about 60 tons of waste, marking it to be recycled, composted or reused.
The stadium had set a goal for itself to put on a “Zero Waste" Super Bowl — meaning that 90% of all waste generated on Super Bowl Sunday stays out of landfills. The remaining 10% will be sent to a waste-to-energy incineration plant where it will be burned to create electricity.
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Bradley Vogel, the stadium’s sustainability coordinator, stood over a small mountain of trash bags filled with empty beer cups and cheese-stained nacho trays, and placed a sign in the middle designating it ready for sorting. The average Vikings game generates about 40 tons of waste, he said, but the Super Bowl brings in more sales and more trash.
“This is my dream job," he said as he supervised a team of 10 sorters sifting through the garbage bags.
US Bank Stadium Sustainability Coordinator Bradley Vogel places a sign in the middle of a pile of trash bags for sorting on Monday. Green bags were for composting and white bags for waste.

“I’m very confident we will at least get very close to 90%," said Vogel, though it will be a few days before the sorting is finished and they’ll know for certain how close the stadium came to meeting its goal.
Vogel is one of the people leading the push to make US Bank Stadium the first permanent “Zero Waste" stadium in the NFL. He says other stadiums may claim to be “Zero Waste" but are not, because they send more than 10% of their waste for incineration.
The NFL says it’s a big priority to hold more “Zero Waste" Super Bowls in the future, and for the stadiums to commit to implementing “Zero Waste" policies in the long term. But the infrastructure at the host stadium is key.
“Most stadiums won’t try and do this when they’re first built," Vogel said. “They just want to get the operations down… they want to make sure they get the food out before they worry about what happens on the back end."
Workers sort waste at US Bank Stadium.

The 2015 Super Bowl in Phoenix succeeded in diverting 90% of its waste from landfills, but didn’t manage to maintain that standard after the day itself, NFL environmental director Jack Groh says.
The needed infrastructure wasn’t in place to properly turn food waste, cups and those grease-stained pizza boxes into compost, which can then be used in fertilizing soil.
“Each year we kind of start with an empty slate and look at each community," he said.
In Atlanta, which will host next year’s Super Bowl, there isn’t a commercial composting facility within a reasonable distance of the stadium, Groh said.
Minneapolis is already known for having stronger sustainability programs than many other large cities, but the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, Hennepin County and the city all supported and pushed for the effort, Vogel said. “Since (the stadium) is partly publicly funded, they wanted it to be sustainable."
About 50,000 thousand Minneapolis homes participate in a composting program, according to the Hennepin Recovery Energy Center. “That’s probably better than most other (similar-sized) US cities," says Dave Newport, director of the Environmental Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder.
“All our other stadiums in Minneapolis are super sustainable," Vogel said. “Target Field, where the Twins play, has a monthly diversion rate of around 70%."
US Bank Stadium in Minneapolis is aiming to become the first permanent "Zero Waste" NFL stadium.

“This is a whole new level for us and the stadium," Groh said.
Back in September, US Bank Stadium was only diverting about 24% of its waste, Vogel said. Increasing the waste diversion rate in such a short period of time isn’t always easy. Convincing Aramark to spend more money on compostable cups and food items was a huge part of the process. Getting the food vendor and Pepsi on board was also key to the putting the plan into place.
Vogel is convinced that going “Zero Waste" will save money in the long run. “A lot of our start-up costs are one-time purchases, like our organics compactor." He says the reduction in trash hauling payments will eventually cut the stadium’s costs by as much as half.
Of equal importance will be continuing to educate and convince the public. Pepsico brought in hundreds of volunteers, some of them paid, to monitor every waste, recycling and composting bin in the entire stadium during the Super Bowl to help fans find the right bins to throw away their trash.
One of those volunteers, Steven Whiting, came with about a dozen other students from the University of Louisville. “Being part of trying to make this stadium realize 90% waste diversion is pretty exciting," he said.
Getting enough of the general public excited about it will also be a factor in whether fans will help permanently make the stadium a “Zero Waste" facility.


超級盃吹起低碳風 69噸廢棄物回收達九成

超級盃吹起低碳風 69噸廢棄物回收達九成


NFL美式足球聯盟向來是美國最受歡迎的職業運動,每年球季末舉辦的冠軍戰「超級盃」(Super Bowl)不僅收視率可觀,更是各家廣告商的兵家必爭之地。







不僅如此,NFL要求飲料供應商PepsiCo(百事)減少使用紙杯,改以鐵/鋁罐為主;負責熱食的Aramark(愛瑪克),餐具則採用可回收、易分解的紙盤,吃不完的廚餘跟食材都要回收。主辦單位還邀請前明星球員Hines Ward擔任宣傳大使,拍攝搞笑宣導影片。去年12月,NFL更在決賽場館──美國銀行體育場 (U.S. Bank Stadium) 選定一場例行賽,作為Rush2Recycle的熱身賽。






本屆超級盃決戰地—美國銀行體育場,未來打算成為NFL第一個「零廢棄」綠色場館。圖片來源:Tony Webster(CC BY 2.0)



※ 本文轉載自低碳生活部落格



《 Beth Hart – I’d Rather Go Blind (08:13) 》

《 Beth Hart – I’d Rather Go Blind (08:13) 》



【編按】以下為日本福島縣富岡町避難居民M的演說稿,由福島避難災民組織Go West Come West發刊及中譯。原文經長期關注福島核災的公民記者宋瑞文略為修整、配圖,並經Go West Come West授權轉載。

























核電賠償兵庫(ひょうご)訴訟抗議照片,爭取避難權利。(出自「原発賠償ひょうご訴訟 ぽかぽか★サポートチーム」官網)
核電賠償兵庫(ひょうご)訴訟抗議照片,爭取避難權利。(出自「原発賠償ひょうご訴訟 ぽかぽか★サポートチーム」官網)











民眾到被棄置不管的、破損的除染袋旁,測出超標的高線量輻射、4.22微西弗 / 小時。


民間土壤檢測數據圖,超過車諾比標準(3萬7000貝克 / 平方公尺),為放射線管理區域的部份,用黃色以上來表示。關東不少地方皆是如此。



[1] 關於福島核災後除染的問題,可參考文章:〈福島媽媽:「在黑色金字塔前,無法育兒」〉。







《 Beth Hart – The Best (01:31:18) 》

《 Beth Hart – The Best (01:31:18) 》

礦業修法爭議法條全保留 立委批經部強硬不溝通

礦業修法爭議法條全保留 立委批經部強硬不溝通

環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導








礦區外違法盜採 礦務局坦言無人管、無法管









原民自用非營利除罪 待設法防堵漏洞









《 Beth Hart – Caught Out In The Rain (07:13) 》

《 Beth Hart – Caught Out In The Rain (07:13) 》

Hope for critically endangered Mekong river dolphins as population increases for first time

Hope for critically endangered Mekong river dolphins as population increases for first time

Posted on 23 April 2018

Phnom Penh, Cambodia, April 23, 2018 – After decades of seemingly irreversible decline, results from a WWF and Government of Cambodia census released today show that the population of critically endangered river dolphins in the Mekong has risen from 80 to 92 in the past two years – the first increase since records began more than twenty years ago.

Effective river patrolling by teams of river guards and the strict confiscation of illegal gillnets, which accidentally trap and drown dolphins, are the main reasons for this historic increase. Over the past two years 358 km of illegal gillnets – almost double the length of the dolphins’ remaining home range – have been confiscated from core dolphin habitat.

“After years of hard work, we finally have reason to believe that these iconic dolphins can be protected against extinction – thanks to the combined efforts of the government, WWF, the tourism industry and local communities,” said Seng Teak, Country Director, WWF Cambodia. “The tour boat operators are the secret ingredient in this success story as they work closely with law enforcement to report poaching and help confiscate illegal gillnets.”

The first official census in 1997 estimated that there were 200 Irrawaddy dolphins in the Mekong, a figure that fell steadily due to bycatch and habitat loss until there were only 80 left in 2015. But now the decline appears to be on the mend.

Along with the 10 per cent increase in dolphins, the surveys also point toward encouraging signs for the long-term health of the population, with an improvement in the survival rate of dolphins into adulthood, an increase in the number of calves and a drop in overall deaths. Two dolphins died in 2017 compared with nine in 2015, while nine new calves brought the number of dolphins born in the past three years to 32.

“River dolphins are indicators of the health of the Mekong River and their recovery is a hopeful sign for the river and the millions of people who depend on it,” said Teak. “We celebrate this good news, but now is not the time for complacency. As threats to their survival persist, we need to re-double our efforts to protect the dolphins both for their future and that of the river and communities that live alongside it.”

“The Mekong dolphin is considered our country’s living national treasure and the results of this census reflect our many years of continuous efforts to protect this species,” said His Excellency Eng Cheasan, Director General of Fisheries Administration, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. “We will continue our conservation efforts to rebuild its population by eliminating all threats to the survival of this species.”

The surveys covered 190 km of the main channel of the Mekong River from Kratie in Cambodia to the Khone Falls complex in Laos. Surveys were done in both directions with teams photographing dolphins and comparing the distinctive marks on their backs and dorsal fins against a database of known dolphins.

Notes to Editors:
Photos available here:

For more information, please contact:
Un Chakrey, Communications and Marketing Manager, WWF-Cambodia; +855 17 234 555;
Lee Poston, Communications Advisor, WWF-Greater Mekong; +66 9188 32290;

About WWF-Cambodia
WWF was established in Cambodia in 1995 as a part of the WWF Greater Mekong Programme. WWF’s mission in Cambodia is to ensure that there will be strong participation and support from all people to conserve the country’s rich biological diversity. Through the encouragement of sustainable use of natural resources, WWF-Cambodia promotes new opportunities for the benefit of all people, enhancing local livelihoods and contributing to poverty reduction in the Kingdom of Cambodia. Go to for more information.


柬埔寨的活國寶 極危湄公河短吻海豚數量增至92隻

柬埔寨的活國寶 極危湄公河短吻海豚數量增至92隻

環境資訊中心綜合外電;姜唯 編譯;林大利 審校


Irrawaddy Dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris);圖片來源:WWF-Cambodia
伊洛瓦底江豚(Orcaella brevirostris);圖片來源:WWF-Cambodia


WWF柬埔寨分會主任提克(Seng Teak)説:「遊船業者是取得如此成果的幕後推手,他們與執法部門密切合作,舉報盜獵活動並協助沒收非法刺網。」




Irrawaddy Dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris)
短吻海豚是湄公河環境健康的指標生物。圖片來源 / Roland Seitre / WWF。

柬埔寨農林漁業部漁業管理局長Eng Cheasan表示:「短吻海豚是我們國家的活國寶,這次普查的結果反映了我們多年來不斷努力保護這個物種的成果。我們將持續努力,消除這個物種所有的生存威脅來重建其族群。」









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