Yoga Girl’s 5 Tips for Cultivating a World-Changing Spirit Within


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/yoga-girls-5-tips-cultivating-world-changing-spirit-within

Yoga Girl’s 5 Tips for Cultivating a World-Changing Spirit Within

Rachel Brathen says you can let your personal challenges and trauma obscure the big picture or use them as motivation to create change.
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Rachel Brathen says you can let your personal challenges and trauma obscure the big picture or use them as motivation to create change.

Even Rachel Brathen (aka, “Yoga Girl”), the 27-year-old Instagram star and best-selling author who amassed 1.8 million loyal followers in just a few short years has setbacks. In 2014, Brathen lost her best friend, dog and grandmother, all in a matter of months, which left her rethinking her purpose, she says. “I had an existential crisis. I was questioning everything—the reason for the online world, social media and the point of it all. There was soul searching, and I arrived knowing that the influence and power I’ve attained should be dedicated to creating a better world,” Brathen says. When personal trauma hits, “you can go in one of two directions: It either sparks you to do something bigger and use your pain to make a change, or you go in the opposite direction and lose sight of its purpose in the big scheme of things.”

To put such defining thoughts in to action, Brathen recently launched oneOeight.tv,a partially crowd-funded digital wellness platform with a foundation in yoga. Through the subscription-based site, viewers can access video content focused on yoga, meditation, food, and travel, hosted by experts specializing in areas like body imageeating disorders, and psychology.

She also co-created 109world.com, a non-profit foundation dedicated to change-making worldwide through social mission trips and campaigns that target pressing issues, including the environment, female empowerment, world hunger, animal rescue, wildlife conservation, education, the well-being and safety of children, and clean water.

Slated to lead the organization’s first do-gooder expedition to Nicaragua this April, Brathen and participants will set up a sustainable water system in an area severely lacking this natural resource. Keenly aware of such global disparity and suffering worldwide, Brathen keeps her soul from deflating and stays motivated by allowing herself to internalize the harsh realities she encounters.

“We run an animal rescue organization and find homes for fifty-plus dogs. I’ve lost dogs in my arms and have been completely overwhelmed,” Brathen says. “I have to take a day or two off to let myself feel sadness. It’s important to bear that pain, as opposed to soldiering on. It’s why you got involved in the first place. It’s why we do what we do. I end up much more empowered.”

If building a change-making empire like Brathen’s is out of your scope, don’t be discouraged. “We each have the power to change the world,” she says, echoing her non-profit’s tag line. “Find what your true passion is—what makes you angry—and identify an issue to get involved with. Making a change takes a bit of work. Many of us are so content having a comfortable life, but even at your local community level there are people struggling, too.”

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How to Cultivate a World-Changing Spirit

1. Take care of yourself.

People worry about their family, work, abundance, money. Knowing that you’re okay and cared for is comforting and will allow you to come to a place where you want to make a positive change in the world around you.

2. Get outside.

During very busy days, we sometimes forget about the bigger picture, as we get caught up in our to-do lists or problems and issues at hand. Spending time outside connects us to nature and mother earth and reminds us that we are part of a whole planet; a planet that in many ways needs support and healing that we have the ability to offer.

See also 4 Ways Practicing Yoga Outdoors Enhances It 

3. Open your heart.

Engage with your community. Make connections at a local yoga studio that offers opportunity to do seva (selfless service). Meditations for the heart can also help foster feelings of love and compassion that are greater than on a personal level.

Try a guided meditation:

A Meditation on Giving and Nurturing
Deepak Chopra’s 7-Step Meditation to Open Your Heart
Deepak Chopra’s 2-Minute Meditation for Love + Forgiveness
10-Minute Guided Meditation for Self-Compassion

4. Establish a loving intention.

Whatever you set out to do—whether it’s starting a new business or healing the world—a loving intention should inspire the project. There’s a lot of hard work involved as well; stay on course and don’t forget why you started out in the first place.

5. Tap in to your inner child.

As a kid, I wanted to be a Doctor Without Borders and travel the world to make a difference. As a teenager, I traveled to South Africa to visit orphanages for a school project. I have always been drawn to wanting to make a change.

See alsoYoga Girl’s Spring Break Core + Balance Sequence

 

Kundalini 101: Try This Game-Changing Golden Milk Recipe at Home


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/kundalini-yoga-golden-milk-recipe

Kundalini 101: Try This Game-Changing Golden Milk Recipe at Home

The traditional Ayurvedic beverage is celebrated by the Kundalini Yoga community for its detoxifying, healing properties.
turmeric

Are you ready to discover your life’s purpose and activate your fullest potential? Kundalini Yoga is an ancient practice that helps you channel powerful energy and transform your life. And now there is an accessible, easy way to learn how to incorporate these practices into your practice and life. Yoga Journal’s 6-week online course, Kundalini 101: Create the Life You Want, offers you mantras, mudras, meditations, and kriyas that you’ll want to practice every day. Sign up now!

Golden milk, the magic beverage of Kundalini Yoga, always makes me happy. This cozy drink reminds me of being cuddled and comforted as a little girl. Not only is it delicious and restorative, but in a world where everyone is longing for calm amidst the chaos, it has powerful healing components.

You can thank golden milk’s main ingredient—turmeric—for its medicinal properties. It helps heal stiff joints and relax connective tissue. It is also helpful for anyone with digestive issues. Consumed after a meal, it can act as a digestive enzyme, kind of like a baby’s last bottle of the evening. The benefits don’t stop there: Turmeric is a tonic for the liver. It also purifies the skin, lubricates the joints and ligaments, and detoxifies the bloodstream.

This recipe is based on the drink Kundalini Yogis have been consuming for years, especially after consecutive days of deep seated meditation. Personally, I love a mug of golden milk in the evening, when I am curled up in front of the fire with candles, soft music playing, and a good book. My inner child feels cozy, healed, and loved. We all need more of that these days, so make this at home, enjoy it, and share it with those around you.

Golden Milk Recipe

Step 1: Make a turmeric paste.

INGREDIENTS

  • 4 tbsp ground turmeric
  • 1 cup water

INSTRUCTIONS
Add turmeric and water to a saucepan or skillet. Simmer and stir until it forms a yellow paste. Continue stirring once it starts to thicken so it does not burn. If it gets too thick, add a little more water. Note: Heating activates the healing qualities of the turmeric.

You can keep the paste refrigerated and use a few spoonfuls whenever you would like to make golden milk. (Do not store it in a plastic container or use plastic utensils, as the mixture will start to soften the plastic.)

Step 2: Make the magic milk.

INGREDIENTS

  • 1 mug of milk of your choice. Cow, goat, almond, hemp, oat, macadamia, and soy are all great options. (I always use sweetened almond milk.)
  • 1/2 tsp turmeric paste, adjust to your taste
  • 1 tbsp sesame or coconut oil, not the toasted kind
  • Honey, or other sweetener, to taste. (I add local honey during allergy season, which eliminates my allergies.)

INSTRUCTIONS
For each serving, combine all ingredients in a saucepan. Heat gently, just up to the boiling point. Use a whisk or beater to froth it up.

Voila—you have it! Pour into a mug, get cozy, and enjoy one of the healthiest, and most delicious drinks around.

Want to learn how to tap into your innate kundalini energy to transform your practice and life? Join Karena in Kundalini 101 today!

Kundalini 101 with Karena Virginia: About Our Expert

Karena Virginia has 20 years of experience as a powerful healer and highly acclaimed yoga instructor. Based in the New York City area, she conducts workshops in the United States and Europe and is a pioneer in bringing positive change to the world through fierce love. She’s co-author of the 2017 book Essential Kundalini Yoga and released the DVD The Power of Kundalini in 2015. Her app, Relax and Attract with Karena, has helped thousands of people around the world to find inner peace and healing. Karena’s work has been featured in the Huffington Post, Bravo TV, and the Oprah Winfrey Network.

 

Live Be Yoga: 12 Takeaways from the New York City Yoga Scene


https://www.yogajournal.com/livebeyoga/livebeyoga-12-takeaways-from-the-new-york-city-yoga-scene

Live Be Yoga: 12 Takeaways from the New York City Yoga Scene

It seems like just about everyone is practicing yoga in the Big Apple. Here, Jeremy and Aris reflect on the diverse ways ancient tradition has evolved in one of the most modern cities in the world.

Live Be Yoga ambassadors Jeremy Falk and Aris Seaberg are on a road trip across the country to share real talk with master teachers, explore innovative classes, and more—all to illuminate what’s in store for the future of yoga.

It’s called the city that doesn’t sleep, and turns out that with all that extra time New York City residents are practicing a lot of yoga. As they wrap up their whirlwind exploration of the yoga scene in their first destination, Jeremy and Aris look back—on meeting yogis (literally) everywhere, the work of renowned yoga teachers, the ongoing debate about hands-on assists, and so much more—to shine a light on yoga’s trajectory.

See also Introducing the 2018 Live Be Yoga Tour Ambassadors

 

How to Free Yourself from Avidya & See Yourself for Who You Truly Are


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/who-do-you-think-you-are

How to Free Yourself from Avidya & See Yourself for Who You Truly Are

See through your thought patterns and perceptions and discover the freedom to be your Self.
woman smiling, mirror

Lauren, a Los Angeles yoga teacher, slipped in a lunge while teaching and injured her ankle. Because she’s a practice-through-the-pain kind of yogi, she didn’t even stop to assess the injury before continuing her class. When she finally got to the doctor, she discovered she would have to stay off the ankle for at least a month.

For Lauren, this triggered a deep identity crisis. Since her teens, her strong body has been the source of her well-being, her self-esteem, and, in adulthood, her income. She can still teach, and her injury may even turn out to be an incentive to deepen her understanding of alignment. But because the “me" she has always felt herself to be is so tied to her physicality, the accident has left her deeply disoriented. Of course, she tells me impatiently, she knows she’s not her body. But knowing that doesn’t seem to cure her feelings of self-doubt and fear.

George has a different issue. His wife has told him she’s involved with another man and wants to have an open marriage. George feels shocked, abandoned, and insecure, which leads him to thoughts like “I’m not good at relationships" and “I’m not lovable." Essentially, he feels the same disorientation that Lauren does. “I don’t know who I am when the person I love doesn’t want me," he says.

Both these people have suffered a wound to their sense of self. A psychologist might say that the external blow cracked open some of the fissures in the fabric of their identity, bringing up feelings that probably stem from their childhoods. But from a yogic point of view, this feeling of groundlessness is actually an invitation to each of them to look seriously at the question: “Who do I think I am?"

See also Awaken to Your Potential for Change: The 5 Kleshas

Avidya: An Identity Crisis

Deeper than the trauma itself, deeper even than the memories that may be contributing to their feeling of personal derailment, Lauren and George are both suffering from the core misunderstanding that the yogic texts call avidya—a basic ignorance of who we are and of the underlying reality that connects everything in the universe. Their current situation is an opportunity for each of them to recognize this fundamental misperception—to look into the nature of identity itself.

When everything you have relied on seems to dissolve, you get not only a glimpse of the cracks in your psychological infrastructure but also a chance to examine the source of the problem, which gives you a better shot at getting free of it.

The Sanskrit word vidya means wisdom or knowledge—the wisdom earned through deep practice and experience. The prefix a indicates a lack or an absence. In the yogic sense, avidya means something that goes far beyond ordinary ignorance. Avidya is a fundamental blindness about reality. The core ignorance we call avidya isn’t a lack of information, but the inability to experience your deep connection to others, to the source of being, and to your true Self. Avidya has many layers and levels, which operate in different ways. We see it threaded through every aspect of our lives—in our survival strategies, our relationships, our cultural prejudices, the things we hunger for and fear. All forms of cluelessness and fogged perception are forms of avidya. But behind each of avidya’s manifestations is the failure to recognize that essentially you are spirit, and that you share this with every atom of the universe.

See also How to See Your True Self

For instance, one common way you can see avidya in action is in the habit of thinking that other people should treat you better or that you need someone’s approval to feel good about yourself. You might “know" that this isn’t true—that people often act without regard for the welfare of others and that making your self-esteem contingent on how others feel about you is a bit like trying to buy zucchini at the Gap. If someone points out to you that you are responsible for your own inner state, you might think, “I know!" But knowing that truth intellectually doesn’t change your feelings or behavior. It doesn’t stop you from trying to cajole or manipulate your friends and partners and children into acting the way you think you “need" them to act—perhaps demanding continual reassurances of love from a partner, or looking for constant evidence of being needed. Intellectual knowledge alone doesn’t have the practical power to help you. For that knowledge to become vidya, or true wisdom, you need to understand it on a visceral level. Until you do, you are suffering from avidya on the level of relationships, with all of the attendant discomfort and pain. And the same goes for every other type of avidya.

Identifying Avidya

In Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra II.5, we are given four useful clues for identifying when we have slipped into avidya. Each clue points to a particular way in which we take surface perceptions for reality. It cautions us to look deeper—to inquire beneath what our physical senses or cultural prejudices or egoic belief structures tell us. “Avidya," the sutra says, “is to mistake the impermanent for the eternal, the impure for the pure, sorrow for happiness, and the not-Self for the true Self."

If you explore this sutra, it can lead you to a profound reflection on the illusory nature of perception. Even a casual look at history reveals that each advance in science and culture has called into question beliefs that our ancestors took for granted—everything from the idea that Earth is the center of the solar system to the notion that matter is solid. The primary purpose of the sutra is to question our notions of identity. But, at the same time, it offers a window into some of our garden-variety forms of cluelessness.

Notice how Patanjali’s definition applies to so many levels of ignorance. Mistaking the perishable for the imperishable? That’s the everyday denial that keeps people believing they can depend on fossil fuels indefinitely, or jog on asphalt without damaging their cartilage. It’s that hopeful belief that your romantic passion will last forever, or that another person’s love will give you security. On a deeper level, it’s what keeps you from seeing that your conception of “me"—"my personality," “my self"—is not stable and is certainly not permanent, that just as your body is an ever-shifting configuration of atoms, so your internal sense of self consists of thoughts about who you are (as in “I’m pretty" or “I’m confused"), feelings like happiness or restlessness, and moods such as depression or hopefulness—all of which are subject to change.

See also 6 Steps To Channel Envy + Fulfill Your Greatest Potential

Mistaking the impure for the pure? That could apply to our misperception about the purity of bottled water, or to an unconscious spiritual attitude, like believing that being a vegetarian or a Buddhist or a yogi will protect you from the inevitable suffering of life. But when you apply the sutra on a deep level, you see that it is describing the ignorance that makes you mistake what is a passing state—a complex of thoughts and emotions and bodily sensations—for the pure consciousness that is your true Self.

Believing that sorrow is happiness? That misperception has been kicking our butts since the first time we longed for a toy—believing that having it would be the best thing ever—and then grew bored with it. Real joy is the natural delight that arises spontaneously from within us, the delight in life itself. It’s not that a good date or a powerful yoga session or a delicious meal can’t trigger joy. But the kind of happiness that depends on something else, even something as subtle as a session of meditation, always ends, and when it does, it leaves an emptiness in its wake.

Mistaking the false self for the true Self? This is the essence, the linchpin, of the whole structure of avidya. It’s not just that you identify with the body. You identify with every passing mood or thought about yourself, without recognizing that within you there is something unchanging, joyful, and aware. Thus, someone like Lauren, whose true Self is vast, brilliant, and made of love, comes to feel that her life is in ruins when a torn ligament keeps her from practicing Warrior Pose II.

See also Yoga and Ego: Sophisticated Ego, How to Face Your Inner Self

Practicing Awareness of Avidya

Taken together, these flavors of avidya cause you to live in a kind of trance state—aware of what’s obvious on the surface but unable to recognize the underlying reality. Since this personal trance is fully supported by the beliefs and perceptions of the culture around you, it’s difficult for most of us even to recognize the existence of the veil. To fully dismantle avidya is the deep goal of yoga, and it demands a radical shift of consciousness. But the good news is that just recognizing that you’re entranced is to begin to wake up from the dream. And you can begin to free yourself from its more egregious manifestations by simply being willing to question the validity of your ideas and feelings about who you are.

Avidya makes you believe that the way you think or feel things are is the way they actually are. You can step past this misperception by looking at what your mind habitually tells you and questioning its conclusions about reality. Then, go a step further and notice how feelings create thoughts, and thoughts create feelings—and how the reality they construct for you is exactly that: a construct!

One of the great moments for catching your own avidya is to tune in to the first conscious feeling that surfaces as you wake up in the morning. Then, notice where it takes you. For several days recently, I woke up feeling lonely and slightly sad. This is not usual for me, so it caught my attention. I would emerge from the prewaking state and open my eyes to a gray sky (we were having a lot of morning fog on the California coast that week). I’d feel a dull, sinking energy in my body. Within seconds, something would grab hold of that feeling, identify with it (“I’m sad"), and expand it into a dulled, gray inner landscape. This automatic process is the action of what in yoga is called the “I-maker," or ahamkara—the mechanical tendency to construct a “me" out of the separate components of inner experience. The inner dialogue ran something like this: “Oh, no, another gray day. Gray skies make me feel depressed. I need to get out of this climate. No, I shouldn’t blame the weather. It’s me. I have these depressed family genes. It’s hopeless!" Before I even got out of bed, I had written off my entire day.

See also Who Was Patanjali?

Because the thought stream is so pervasive and the habit of identifying with it is so deeply ingrained, it takes some initial effort to recognize what is going on at a moment like that. But if you look carefully, you’ll notice that these mechanisms of identification and self-definition run on autopilot. They’re like the crawl on CNN. The mood, the thought, even your feeling of “me" is a loop. It may be a repetitive loop, but if you look closely, you see that, like the crawl, it’s just passing through. The problem—the avidya— occurs because you identify with it. In other words, you don’t think, “Here’s some sadness," but, “I’m sad." You don’t think, “Here’s a brilliant idea." You think, “I’m brilliant." Remember, avidya is “to mistake the impermanent for the eternal, the impure for the pure, sorrow for happiness, and the not-Self for the true Self." In your internal universe, that means habitually mistaking an idea or feeling for “me" or “mine." Then you judge yourself as good or bad, pure or impure, happy or sad.

But none of these feelings are you. They are just passing through. True, they may have deep roots—after all, you’ve been identifying yourself as this or that for years. Nonetheless, to let that sad feeling define you is as nutty as it would be for the actor playing Julius Caesar to come offstage and issue commands to the stagehands as if they were his soldiers. But we do it all the time.

That morning, I remembered to work with the feeling (something I might not have done had I woken up feeling more positive). I closed my eyes and breathed into the lower belly, felt the sensual bliss of the breath inside my body, and watched the feelings. I remembered that I am not my thoughts. I also noticed how my sadness acted like a pair of blue-tinted glasses, coloring everything, so that a friend’s failure to call me back looked like rejection (she was only busy with a deadline) and even the branches on the oaks outside my window seemed to droop (in another mood, I might have noticed their leaves sprouting toward the sky).

And then the sun came out. Within seconds the sadness had dissipated. Now, the self-identification mechanism was busily saying, “I’m happy! That was just a reaction to the weather. I’m fine. I’m a joyful person! My practice worked!" In fact, my mind was engaging in the same process—grabbing the mood, identifying and “describing" it as happy, then identifying myself as “happy." To free myself from avidya demanded that I free myself from identifying with the happy mood, too.

What you’ll notice here is how the basic misperception—taking the non-Self (that is, a mood) for the Self—leads inexorably to feelings of aversion (“I can’t stand being depressed") or attachment (“I feel so much better now that the sun is shining"). And these feelings bring up fear—in this case, fear that the sadness would be permanent, or that I was trapped by my genetic predispositions, or that I needed to change where I was living.

See also The Yoga Sutra: Your Guide To Living Every Moment

How to Free Yourself from Avidya

Dismantling avidya is a multilayered process, which is why one breakthrough is usually not enough. Since different types of practice unpick different aspects of avidya, the Indian tradition prescribes different types of yoga for each one—devotional practice for the ignorance of the heart, selfless action for the tendency to attach to outcomes, meditation for a wandering mind. The good news is that any level you choose to work with is going to make a difference.

You free yourself from a piece of your avidya every time you increase your ability to be conscious, or hold presence during a challenging event. You can do this in dozens of ways. For instance, you can increase your consciousness about your connection and responsibility to the planet by sensitizing yourself to the energy in the natural world, in wind and water and trees. You can increase your awareness of your connections to others by listening better and by practicing kindness—but also by sinking your awareness into the heart center and trying to tune in to others from that interior place. You increase your consciousness of yourself by noticing your blind spots, or by noticing your emotions and their effect in the body.

Meditations to Dismantle Avidya

Meditations that tune you into pure Being will begin to remove the deeper ignorance that makes you automatically identify “me" with the body, personality, and ideas. On a day-to-day, moment-to-moment level, you burn off a few layers of avidya every time you turn your awareness inward and reflect on the subtle meaning of a feeling or a physical reaction.

These types of interventions are not just key spiritual practices. They are also practical self-help techniques. When George asks himself, “Is it really true that my wife’s involvement with another man damages my sense of self?" he has a chance to recognize that his wife’s choices are not statements about who he is. This calms his anxiety, which gives him some leverage for moving forward. Noticing where the sadness and disorientation sit in his body, feeling his way into the sensations around the sadness, might lead him to look for the root feeling behind the fear and disorientation. He might notice that he has a hidden belief about himself, like “I’m unlovable," and recognize that it comes from childhood and is not really related to the current situation. He could then practice with the sad feeling, maybe breathe it out, or substitute a positive thought for the painful belief, and notice how either practice changes his mood. In this way, his self-inquiry practice gives him support and clarity as he decides how to handle his wife’s request for an open relationship.

See also How to See Your True Self

Avidya is a deep habit of consciousness, but it’s a habit that we can shift—with intention, practice, and a lot of help from the universe. Any moment that causes us to question our assumptions about reality has the potential to lift our veil. Patanjali’s sutra on avidya is not just a description of the problem of ignorance. It’s also the key to the solution. When you pull back and question the things you think are eternal and permanent, you begin to recognize the wondrous flux that is your life. When you ask, “What’s the real source of happiness?" you extend your focus beyond the external trigger to the feeling of happiness itself. And when you seek to know the difference between the false self and the true one, that’s when the veil might come off altogether and show you that you’re not just who you take yourself to be, but something much brighter, much vaster, and much more free.

About Our Expert
Sally Kempton is an internationally recognized teacher of meditation and yoga philosophy and the author of Meditation for the Love of It.

 

4 Ways to Improve Your Drishti (Gaze) and Deepen Your Practice


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/4-ways-to-improve-your-drishti-gaze-and-deepen-your-practice

4 Ways to Improve Your Drishti (Gaze) and Deepen Your Practice

Improve your drishti (gaze) and deepen your practice with these 4 simple steps.
figurefourchair-balance-dristi

Balancing poses can be challenging; a truth I often encounter when I’m about halfway through my Ashtanga practice. Standing Half Bound Lotus comes through as a wobbly, unsteady posture that requires all the determination I can muster—especially when I attempt to fold forward. My teacher reminds me that the remedy to my swaying is drishti (gaze or visual focal point).

See also See More Clearly by Practicing Drishti

Between holding the physical pose and getting my breath right, sustaining a single-pointed gaze never feels quite as pressing. But there’s a reason drishti is revered as a core yogic principle. After focusing on your physical posture and breath, it’s a finishing touch that locks in the pose, improving your balance and so much more.

“When you’re gazing at one focal point, it helps calm the breath, the nervous system, and the heart rate," says Miranda Mitchell, Mysore teacher and founder of Daily Drishti Health and Wellness in Tarpon Springs, Florida. “A lot of people overlook these benefits altogether."

This is precisely why the power of drishti can extend to your entire practice. Whether you’re settling into Downward-Facing Dog or flowing through a vinyasa, wrangling in your attention from start to finish is vital.

“When you have a concentrated gaze on a still point, you create a strong sense of being fully present in the moment," adds Mitchell. “That’s where all our focus is, which takes us away from the noisy, internal mind."

Drishti is what helps us block out external distractions and deepen our practice by directing our attention inward. Here are 4 ways to make it work even better for you:

4 Ways to Improve Your Drishti

1. Keep your gaze soft.

Drishti is woven into a number of yoga styles. The Ashtanga tradition, for instance, embraces nine specific points of focus with each posture linked to a corresponding gaze, such as the fingers during Extended Side Angle Pose or the ceiling during Upward-Facing Dog Pose. But regardless of the style of yoga that you practice, it’s important to take a gentle approach to drishti, since too much intensity makes it more difficult to calm the mind, says Lara Land, an Ashtanga Yoga teacher and owner of Land Yoga in Harlem, NYC. She likens it to a sense of surrender where you allow it to happen naturally instead of forcefully.

“It’s not a strenuous, intense sort of staring, but rather a soft gaze where your eyes are resting gently on one spot," she says, suggesting you hold your gaze while simultaneously focusing on the sensation of your body in the posture itself, as well as your breath. When all taken in together, the result is a soft gaze.

You can start by trying to look gently down the angle of your nose to a point on the floor or wall in front of you. Relax your eyes so that the surrounding area also comes into your awareness.

“Being able to pull in our senses is key to reining in our monkey mind, and we practice this on the yoga mat by keeping our eyes on one spot in a soft gaze," says Land. “It’s as essential as the breath and the posture in allowing us to come into a moving meditation, which is what asana really is."

2. Resist the urge to close your eyes.

When I find a pose difficult, I often find myself closing my eyes—something Land identifies as a form of escapism.

“It’s that urge to turn away from a challenging experience, like when your teacher has you stay in Warrior Pose just a little bit beyond your comfort zone," she says. “But instead of running away from the moment, what if you maintain your gaze and simply sit with the discomfort?"

Drishti, in other words, trains us to navigate difficult situations with the light of our awareness.

3. Shift your focus slowly.

Drishti becomes increasingly trickier when you’re asked to shift your gaze dramatically to one side or up above, which challenges your sense of balance. A fuller expression of Extended Hand-to-Big-Toe Pose, for example, actually puts your gaze over your opposite shoulder. To stay grounded, Land suggests taking baby steps.

“Once you feel stable in the pose while looking forward, move your gaze just one foot to the side," she says. “Again, the idea is to go to the edge of your comfort zone, because growth happens when we’re a little bit uncomfortable."

Drishti also evolves as we go deeper into the asana. Land points to Marichyasana Ias a prime example. When first learning this challenging seated position, you’re told to simply look down the tip of the nose. Gradually, with practice, you’ll eventually extend your spine until your chest rests on your leg.

“If you can do this without straining, you can move your gaze to your big toe," says Land.

4. Cut yourself some slack.

There’s no such thing as mastering drishti. Like physical poses and pranayama, it’s a practice that gets stronger with each repetition.

“It’s like a muscle you’re building where you’re being observant but not judgmental," says Land. “Be gentle with yourself. Sometimes we want so badly to be a good yogi that we skip the part of honoring what the body is doing naturally and just learning from it."

 

《 Sophie Zelmani – Time (03:56) 》


《 Sophie Zelmani – Time (03:56) 》

Freshly refurbished Shoreditch Loft by Day True in London


https://www.caandesign.com/freshly-refurbished-shoreditch-loft-by-day-true-in-london/

Freshly refurbished Shoreditch Loft by Day True in London

Architects: Day True
Location: LondonUnited Kingdom
Year: 2018
Photo courtesy: Day True
Description:

“This freshly refurbished loft represents many of Day True’s values: a progressive and simple design that blend in the environment and enhances its architecture.

This was part of a full house project renovation and the client wanted to completely re-organize its structure. The large open space presented dual height aspect windows and a huge amount of natural light.

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《 Sophie Zelmani – I’m The Rain (03:53) 》


《 Sophie Zelmani – I’m The Rain (03:53) 》

【日晷之南】在文字的晴空下


二戰期間響徹東京天空的戰爭恐怖已然結束,如果我們想暫時離開劍拔弩張的政治生活,卻可以藉由快樂閱讀,讓文字消除我們深沉的疲乏。
#閱讀 #七零年代 #二戰 #鎌倉文庫
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6953

【日晷之南】在文字的晴空下

友善列印版本

一九四五年八月十五日,對於這個日子有深刻體驗的日本國民而言,內心遭逢到兩種極端力量的撕扯,而且情感上的震撼多於悲泣的纏繞——昭和天皇宣詔戰爭結束。這一天,日本的各大報紙上,紛紛以醒目的版面篇幅,並以崇高的悲劇性的詞語,又不失莊嚴立場來呈示這個嚴酷的歷史事實。每次讀到這段歷史,我愈發覺得日本語的修辭真是深奧,它宛如迷宮般的曲折難測,若沒有全面掌握真正的歷史狀況,以此作為辯證的基礎,僅依憑字面的意思去理解,有些時候往往看不清實相,最後順乎自然地被帶往沒有價值判斷色彩的中性詞義的地帶了。相較於「終戰」和「戰敗」這兩個名詞,對於語言機敏的人都看得出,前者在努力維持著敗者的尊嚴形象,而一旦明確承認戰敗,等於對全體國民的心理給予更大的打擊,還必須肩負起更龐大的道德責任。因此,基於日本傳統的語法習慣,這樣的措辭自然能獲得正當性的身分,留給眾多的敗者們自我療傷的空間。而即使在最私密的領域裡,這個中性的修辭在日本作家的日記裡,同樣沒有逾越這個界限。儘管如此,當我們努力走出那片由修辭構築出來的密林曲徑,我們仍可看見日本戰敗後的社會場景,尤其是日本作家的讀書狀態,他們在艱困危險的戰爭時期,如何歡快地煮字療飢,如何用文字溫潤苦悶的靈魂。

來源:Pixabay

日本戰敗那天,日本作家高見順的日記向認真閱讀的我們透露了這則訊息。在這套七卷本的《高見順日記》第五卷中,他真切感性地寫道:「戦争終結の聖断.大詔渙発さる ……放眼看去,幾乎每個報攤亭前都大排長龍。這些等著買報紙的人群,情狀顯得有些激昂,但沒有人敢於表露自己的真實心聲,全都保持著沉默。平常民眾們對於軍人是反感至極的。當我看到士兵和軍官默然地買著報紙。或許是我心理因素使然,那些軍人垂頭喪氣的神情,使我不禁暗自為他們抱以同情。」其中,他還描述在鎌倉車站前目睹神情茫然的新入伍的海軍士兵,身穿髒污皺巴巴軍服的情景,在他看來簡直與戰俘營的俘虜沒有兩樣,令他不忍直視。

然而,對於愛書人而說,他來到鎌倉文庫探望圖書這段記載更吸引我們的關注。他說:「今天,鎌倉文庫沒有營業。在裡面的房間,堆疊著品相如新的《世界文學全集》和《西洋大眾文學全集》。我打量了一下,果然是剛剛送抵的新書。在此以前,要租借《世界文學全集》需要二十圓押金,可是即使這樣,也幾乎全被愛書的同行迅速帶走,只留下戲劇集而已。直到現在,我不知道到底有多少圖書上架出租,但它們很快地就被搬走了。剛開始,《世界大眾文學全集》只需五圓的押金,後來,我留了字條,說要提高圖書的押金。有些時候,我心想售價一圓的書籍,卻需付二十圓的保證金,實在有點過意不去,但租書者似乎全不放在心上。最先提供圖書出租的是作家林房雄(其《大東亞戰爭肯定論》一書,引發了激進左派作家批判)。這些全是他在牢獄中所讀的書籍,已經被他翻閱得舊污斑斑,因此我認為五圓保證金即可。後來,作家大佛次郎帶來了一本嶄新的書籍,我心想這本書的售價,原本只有五十錢,若以五圓押金計之,未免有失公平,但幾番思量,最後仍維持原來的打算。大佛次郎也說,租金五圓也無不可。於是,那天所有的租書全被搬空,之後我又把押金調高到七圓,同樣地悉數被愛書人接引到謐靜的晴空下繼續閱讀。

示意圖。來源:Pixabay

上述這種特殊的人文風景,確實引起我們對鎌倉文庫的好奇,這是怎樣的民間書店和組織?據出版史料指出,鎌倉文庫是於第二次世界大戰晚期,由居住在鎌倉的文人雅士們設立的圖書出租店。他們考量戰事的日益逼近嚴重影響到出版業的發展,許多作家的生活因此陷入困難,連一般讀者都跌入了無書可讀的陰霾廢墟中,為了挽救這種精神與物質的雙層困境,1945年5月1日,住在神奈川縣鎌倉市的文學家們,率先募集到數千冊的藏書,置放在鎌倉八幡宮的鳥居(國家神道教入口)附近,開始啟動圖書的出租業務。這項計畫最初是由久米正雄和川端康成提案,小林秀雄、高見順、久米正雄、里見弴、中山義秀等作家協助,由漫畫家橫山隆一繪製讀書券,小島政二郎、大佛次郎、永井龍男、林房雄捐出自己的藏書響應。平時,川端康成、久米正雄、中山義秀和高見順及其妻子們輪流照料店內的業務,這吸引許多渴望閱讀的民眾前往租書,除了遇到空襲之外,幾乎每日開門營業,為困頓的戰爭時期注入了溫暖的人性光輝。

在此,我要援引一個相似的場景。在那個時期,同樣因戰火席捲而無法繼續安靜閱讀的不止日本作家或知識人,生活在戰爭時期的德意志帝國的大學教授和學生們,同樣面臨聚散無常的死亡威脅。1943年12月,從法蘭克福大學來到萊比錫大學哲學系任教的古典語文學家萊因哈特,在其〈我與古典學〉一文中,對這場時代劫難有詳細的描述。據他回憶,當時許多研究所和教學大樓以及圖書館都遭到了英國空軍的炸毀,他們為此感到無限的惋惜,因此,只能在空襲警報一解除,到附近的舊貴族學校散步,藉此紓解緊張的情緒。依我看來,他們到郊外透透氣,還有個感傷的目的,亦就是向葬身烈焰中的圖書的哀悼。在面對圖書的無辜消亡,全世界的愛書人所發出的嘆息都是同樣的沉重。

高見順在這天的日記裡,還提及他看到的歷史性的奇特景象。他打算前往大佛次郎的家裡,然後順便到佐藤君家閒坐半晌。他在半路上看見了人聲鼎沸,有許多人駐足圍觀。他趨前一看,有個中年的醉漢,正與一名身材高瘦的男子猛力拉扯。只見那高個子直喊:「我們到警局去,找警察評評理!」從他濃重的口音聽來,他應當是在日本的朝鮮人。路人詢問他們為什麼爭吵。原來是醉漢故意向這名年輕的朝鮮人找碴,於是他盛氣凌人地高喊著到警局請警察主持公道云云。事實上,真正的原因在於,根據今天的消息報導,朝鮮就要從日本的手中獲得解放了。不過,他對於那個無端惹事的醉漢和氣勢洶洶的朝鮮青年的反應,同樣不能認同。他覺得今天遇到許多不愉快的事情。他回到家裡看了報紙,決定把這天的報紙保存下來。最後,他在文末寫道:「嗚呼、八月十五日。」

如今,二戰期間響徹東京天空的戰爭恐怖已然結束,以美國為首的占領軍,為戰敗國日本所建構新的政治秩序,在歷經五年八個月間接統治結束後,日本慢慢從精神廢墟中站了起來。其後,日本跟隨美國的腳步往現代化的道路前進,戰爭期間受盡軍部政府言論壓制的出版業亦隨之蓬勃發展起來。換句話說,七〇年代的日本讀者,比他們的前行者幸運多了,他們不必躲避可怖的空襲,就可在文字的晴空下,盡情享受閱讀樂趣。至於二戰以後,日本知識人爭論不休的命題——「近代的超克」=克服現代性,超越西方的挑戰,似乎尚未得出結論。這相似的困難在於,如持「戰後時期尚未終結」的觀點那樣,只要日本政府仍然附隨美國的亞洲戰略格局,這個問題就不會劃下句點。但是,如果我們想暫時離開劍拔弩張的政治生活,卻可以藉由快樂閱讀,讓文字消除我們深沉的疲乏。

 

《 Sophie Zelmani – Memory Loves You (02:58) 》


《 Sophie Zelmani – Memory Loves You (02:58) 》

【我們的島】涌翠閣的地方創生 美食、老屋、藝術


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211672?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=bc67344b41-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-bc67344b41-84956681

【我們的島】涌翠閣的地方創生 美食、老屋、藝術

2018年05月21日
公視記者:郭志榮 張光宗

日本興起地方創生思維,以地方人力結合在地產物,透過創意巧思,提升地區的文化與經濟。在雲林虎尾,一間保留下來的歷史老屋,成為地方創生平台,將文化與農作進行連結,開展屬於台灣的地方創生。

955-3- (27)雲林虎尾涌翠閣,一間保留下來的歷史老屋,成為地方創生平台
雲林虎尾涌翠閣,一間保留下來的歷史老屋,成為地方創生平台

雲林涌翠閣的小庭園,正在舉辦藝術開展的茶會,藝術家與遊客齊聚一堂。涌翠閣有著氣派的建築風格,彎繞的屋身和漫長的通廊,過去成為虎尾郡高級招待所,戰後接收做為宿舍,住滿十幾戶居民,直到道路建設計畫,老屋面臨拆除,2010年被搶救下來。

涌翠閣指定為歷史建物,並且修復完成,計畫找尋新的經營者,蔣耀賢、商毓芳夫婦,結束過去在高雄歷史建築的經營工作,來到雲林生活,一年前接手承租經營。他們過去推動過藝術村計畫,希望讓老屋成為一個地區沙龍,成為藝術家聚集、展示的地方。

955-3-1 (31)_0老屋大廣間裡,藝術家鄭元東透過絹絲畫,以輕柔姿態,訴說不同的愛情故事。
老屋大廣間裡,藝術家鄭元東透過絹絲畫,以輕柔姿態,訴說不同的愛情故事。

在老屋大廣間裡,藝術家鄭元東透過絹絲畫,以輕柔姿態,訴說不同的愛情故事。在老屋小浴室,展出小小藝術家的畫展,呈現多元的文化風格。涌翠閣開幕後,吸引許多遊客,就連家住附近,從未看過老屋原貌的年輕人,也慕名前來。

蔣耀賢希望獨立進行老屋經營,擔心過多公費補助,反而妨礙自主性。他建議不能全部當成營利空間,而是恢復老屋的生活態樣,讓更多喜歡老屋的朋友,感受舒緩的老家感覺。經過一年營運,涌翠閣計畫在週年慶時,舉辦一場宴會,除了重現過去招待所空間的使用樣貌,也結合在地農業的地方創生精神。

雲林是地瓜生產大縣,產量全台第一,許振興專門租地生產地瓜,品質優良。租地面積高達一百多公頃,為的就是能穩定貨源,提供大企業使用。許多食品加工業者,成為許振興的固定客戶,讓他可以專心生產農作。

955-3-1 (60)雲林是地瓜生產大縣,地瓜食品業者,希望透過食品加工技術,提升地瓜的食用價值。
雲林是地瓜生產大縣,地瓜食品業者,希望透過食品加工技術,提升地瓜的食用價值。
955-3-1 (66)雲林是地瓜生產大縣,地瓜食品業者,希望透過食品加工技術,提升地瓜的食用價值。
雲林是地瓜生產大縣,地瓜食品業者,希望透過食品加工技術,提升地瓜的食用價值。

林進誠是雲林知名地瓜食品業者,希望透過食品加工技術,提升地瓜的食用價值。切開地瓜蛋糕,以不同品種地瓜,發揮巧思,構成美麗色澤,呈現不同口感味覺。希望以地瓜為本,創作更多食品,為雲林農作找尋出路。

雲林農友蔡綉佳的溫室中,有著不同品種的番茄。為了照顧家人,選擇回鄉務農,接受政府輔導訓練後,已經務農十年。一開始,農園以慣行農法種植,後來漸漸轉為友善農法,透過照顧土地,培養地力,讓農作自然生長。賣相不好的番茄,她也發揮創意,加工成特色食品。

955-3-1 (72)蔡綉佳的溫室中,有著不同品種的番茄,友善農法,照顧土地,培養地力,讓農作自然生長。
蔡綉佳的溫室中,有著不同品種的番茄,友善農法,照顧土地,培養地力,讓農作自然生長。

涌翠閣週年慶開始,在舞蹈家吳文翠的舞作下,參與賓客陸續進場。茶點時間的食品,有林進誠提供地瓜蛋糕。蔣耀賢以產地酒精神,介紹雲林的甘蔗酒,表達土地復耕精神。

晚間,舉辦老屋宴會,金黃燈光下的美麗光影,再現過去風華,晚宴的餐飲,都是當地餐飲業者與在地農民提供,有創意西點、美味頭,特別是前菜就送上蔡綉佳的冰心番茄,用酸甜滋味,打開賓客味蕾。涌翠閣的老屋美食盛宴,吸引許多慕名者前來,覺得歷史空間與在地食物結合,相當有意義。

955-3-1 (82)舉辦老屋宴會,餐飲都是當地餐飲業者與在地農民提供。
舉辦老屋宴會,餐飲都是當地餐飲業者與在地農民提供。
955-3-1 (87)舉辦老屋宴會,餐飲都是當地餐飲業者與在地農民提供。
舉辦老屋宴會,餐飲都是當地餐飲業者與在地農民提供。

夜色中,老屋散發溫馨光,傳出優美琴聲,訴說著一棟老屋的新生力量,一群人以多元思維,結合在地力量,為土地找尋生機,開創屬於雲林的地方創生之路。

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本文轉載自:【公視《我們的島》節目—涌翠閣的地方創生】
05/21(一) 22:00首播
05/26(六) 11:00重播

 

《 Sophie Zelmani – I Can’t Change (04:12) 》


《 Sophie Zelmani – I Can’t Change (04:12) 》

【我們的島】海上實驗室 TARA號的太平洋遠征


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211673?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=bc67344b41-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-bc67344b41-84956681

【我們的島】海上實驗室 TARA號的太平洋遠征

2018年05月21日
公視記者:陳寧 陳慶鍾

1831年,英國科學家達爾文乘著小獵犬號,歷經五年航行全世界,觀察記錄不同的物種,揭開了生物演化之謎。事隔100多年,一群科學家,展開一次又一次的海洋遠征冒險,他們的任務,是在汪洋大海中,帶回氣候變遷的警訊…

955-1-189一群科學家,展開海洋遠征冒險,他們的任務是在汪洋大海中,帶回氣候變遷的警訊。
一群科學家,展開海洋遠征冒險,他們的任務是在汪洋大海中,帶回氣候變遷的警訊。
955-1-177一群科學家,展開海洋遠征冒險,他們的任務是在汪洋大海中,帶回氣候變遷的警訊。
一群科學家,展開海洋遠征冒險,他們的任務是在汪洋大海中,帶回氣候變遷的警訊。

小橡皮艇在漆黑的高雄港,引導著一艘長36公尺的帆船,緩緩轉向離開碼頭,準備駛出港外。船長站在駕駛艙旁,屏氣凝神,注視周遭,一邊用對講機,指揮位在橡皮艇和甲板上的水手們。船出港,風浪明顯變大,船身開始搖晃顛簸。

沒有龍骨,降低了舒適度,卻讓船身吃水淺,可以在離岸非常近,布滿珊瑚淺礁的地方進行調查。這艘來自法國的帆船TARA,每個設計都是為了海洋研究量身打造。高27公尺的船桅,讓她能靠著風力航行,節省能源,有如一座海上實驗室,為了將船上的科學家,送往大海的各個角落,再艱鉅的挑戰都難不倒她。

經過一夜航行,TARA抵達屏東墾丁。一大清早,研究人員已經整裝完畢,準備潛水探索後壁湖的珊瑚礁群,並進行採樣。

TARA的最新任務,是調查太平洋海域的珊瑚礁生態。計畫主持人,任職於法國國家科學研究中心的海洋生物學者Serge Planes,為此號召超過100位科學家,共同完成這個龐大計畫。

位在太平洋西側的台灣,溫暖的黑潮孕育著豐富的珊瑚物種,在海洋大學校長張清風邀請下,TARA在2018年3月來到台灣,分別在屏東墾丁、台東蘭嶼和綠島三個地點進行採樣。

955-1-65在2018年3月TARA來到台灣,分別在屏東墾丁、台東蘭嶼和綠島三個地點進行採樣。
在2018年3月TARA來到台灣,分別在屏東墾丁、台東蘭嶼和綠島三個地點進行採樣。
955-1-76在2018年3月TARA來到台灣,分別在屏東墾丁、台東蘭嶼和綠島三個地點進行採樣。
在2018年3月TARA來到台灣,分別在屏東墾丁、台東蘭嶼和綠島三個地點進行採樣。

為了進行全球性的比較,TARA選定在太平洋廣泛分布的鹿角珊瑚、微孔珊瑚、火珊瑚三種珊瑚,和綠刺尾鯛角蝶魚兩種珊瑚礁魚類,作為目標物種,同時也採集生活在珊瑚礁周圍的浮游生物,從微觀角度,來觀察三者間的互動。

歷經上億年的演化,珊瑚礁生態系裡居住著數量龐大的物種,形成緊密交織的生物網。但人類使用化石燃料,使得海水溫度上升,過量二氧化碳進到海中,導致海洋酸化,這些改變,都在擾動這張生物網的平衡。

氣候變遷和人類活動對海洋所造成的影響,一直是TARA基金會關注的焦點。2003年開始,TARA已經進行過十一次全球性大型海洋研究。2006年,她曾經深入北極海,連續航行500天,調查北極冰層融化的情形,她也曾經在2009至2012年,耗費三年研究浮游生物的生態。2014年,則於地中海調查微塑膠污染問題。2015年TARA航行到巴黎塞納河畔,參與聯合國氣候變化綱要公約締約方第21次大會。

955-1-962015年TARA航行到巴黎塞納河畔,參與聯合國氣候變化綱要公約締約方第21次大會。
2015年TARA航行到巴黎塞納河畔,參與聯合國氣候變化綱要公約締約方第21次大會。

2015年冬天,法國巴黎街頭,來自全球各地的公民團體高聲吶喊,希望正在進行中的聯合國氣候變化綱要公約締約方第21次大會,能決議將持續上升的全球氣溫,控制在攝氏1.5度之內。TARA也航行來到塞納河畔,參與這場盛會。

今年5月,TARA發布太平洋調查的初步成果。研究人員發現,位在西南太平洋的薩摩亞群島,其中一個主要島嶼烏波盧島,儘管人口稀少,珊瑚幾乎不受人為活動影響,整體珊瑚覆蓋率卻已經低於10%,而且嚴重白化,兩種珊瑚礁魚類,體型也比其他島嶼小了10%,研究人員判斷,氣候變遷是主要因素。

在TARA的研究計畫中,浮游生物一直是重點調查項目。色彩和外表多變,種類成千上萬,至今仍有許多物種尚未被發現,牠們是海洋生態系的基礎。但對於浮游生物,人們所知甚少。透過顯微鏡,才得以進入這個奇妙的微觀世界。

TARA設置了兩間實驗室,採集浮游生物樣本,除了甲板上的濕式實驗室,船艙裡還有一間乾式實驗室,裡面的儀器連續記錄各個採樣點的海水溫度、鹽度、含氧量等基礎資料。

955-1-74TARA設置了兩間實驗室,採集浮游生物樣本,並且送回法國實驗室進行分析。
TARA設置了兩間實驗室,採集浮游生物樣本,並且送回法國實驗室進行分析。
955-1-144TARA設置了兩間實驗室,採集浮游生物樣本,並且送回法國實驗室進行分析。
TARA設置了兩間實驗室,採集浮游生物樣本,並且送回法國實驗室進行分析。
955-1-134TARA設置了兩間實驗室,採集浮游生物樣本,並且送回法國實驗室進行分析。
TARA設置了兩間實驗室,採集浮游生物樣本,並且送回法國實驗室進行分析。

預計在兩年半內,採集3萬5000份樣本,送回法國實驗室進行分析,研究成果則會回饋給各地科學家和政府部門,促成跨國學術交流。在鄰近東南亞和中國的部分海域,採樣工作受到阻礙,台灣的參與,等於為TARA的太平洋調查,拼上了一塊重要的線索。

面對全球氣候變遷威脅,TARA團隊始終抱持一個信念,只要越多人能感受海洋的美,更多科學家願意一同投入探索海洋的冒險旅程,孕育著無數生命的海洋,就會擁有不同的未來。

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本文轉載自:【公視《我們的島》節目—海上實驗室-TARA號的太平洋遠征】
05/21(一) 22:00首播
05/26(六) 11:00重播

 

《 Sophie Zelmani – Oh! Dear (07:15) 》


《 Sophie Zelmani – Oh! Dear (07:15) 》

【我們的島】拉瓦克的城市家園 產業交替中飄搖


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211674?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=bc67344b41-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-bc67344b41-84956681

【我們的島】拉瓦克的城市家園 產業交替中飄搖

2018年05月21日
公視記者:郭志榮 張光宗

怪手剷倒一棟棟民宅,高雄拉瓦克部落因為占用國有地,面臨政府強拆。拉瓦克族人來到高雄60多年,一路艱辛,最早為了賺錢謀生,現今希望原地安居,建立一個城市部落。

955-2-1怪手剷倒一棟棟民宅,高雄拉瓦克部落因為占用國有地,面臨政府強拆。畫面提供:陳庭旭。
怪手剷倒一棟棟民宅,高雄拉瓦克部落因為占用國有地,面臨政府強拆。畫面提供:陳庭旭。

高雄市中華五路上,鄰近五號船渠大排附近,住著一群原住民,外界稱為建隆部落,族人早期住在運河旁,用族語取名拉瓦克,自稱是住在河邊的部落。王美金是第二代,從小就跟著雙親,移居拉瓦克。

1950年代,部落族人大都在復興木業工作,後來南亞塑膠成立,附近成為石化工業區,部落被包圍在工廠中。將近40年光陰,工廠污染造成環境問題,也讓部落深陷惡化的生活環境。

1997年運河填平,興建中華五路,拉瓦克從住河邊,變成住路邊。因為占居國有地,政府要求拆屋還地,在多次陳情協調下,部落獲得門牌,居民從此有了戶籍,但是土地問題未能解決。

955-2- (10)高雄前鎮原本的傳統石化工業在陸續關廠後,遺留大片土地,市政府推動亞洲新灣區計畫。
高雄前鎮原本的傳統石化工業在陸續關廠後,遺留大片土地,市政府推動亞洲新灣區計畫。

高雄市前鎮區原本的傳統石化工業,在陸續關廠後,遺留大片土地,市政府推動亞洲新灣區計畫,建造濱海新城區。許多土地進行重劃開發,開發價值都是百億利益,拉瓦克部落就位在95期市地重劃區邊緣。

在重劃區開發的環評說明會中,拉瓦克居民與聲援人士表示,園區將建立台塑企業紀念公園,為何不能同時保留一樣來到高雄打拼的部落家園,希望政府出面協商,聆聽部落訴求。

955-2- (38)重劃區開發的環評說明會,拉瓦克部落就位在95期市地重劃區邊緣。
重劃區開發的環評說明會,拉瓦克部落就位在95期市地重劃區邊緣。

高雄市原民會面對拉瓦克的迫遷問題,過去曾幫助十多戶搬遷,進行安置,強調未來將持續推動。高雄市原民會副主委陳幸雄表示,有為拉瓦克在小港三民國宅,買了14戶國宅,設置娜麓灣社區,接受安置的族人就在那邊,最長有安置到八年之久。

拉瓦克族人陳英雄接受安置,分配到台電宿舍居住,但是到了宿舍,不習慣公寓的孤單生活,還是懷念群體相處,於是將宿舍當倉庫,自己還是回部落住。而且族人也擔心宿舍只是提供暫時居住,最後還是會流離失所。

955-2- (49)陳英雄接受安置,分配到台電宿舍居住,但是不習慣公寓的孤單生活,還是會回部落住。
陳英雄接受安置,分配到台電宿舍居住,但是不習慣公寓的孤單生活,還是會回部落住。

面對拉瓦克的迫遷爭議,高雄市政府以監察院指責未妥善處理,導致占用情形日益嚴重為理由,計畫加速處理。部落居民與反迫遷團體來到監察院,舉行記者會,對外界說明,並向監委陳情。台灣人權促進會林彥彤表示,希望社會了解拉瓦克部落的困境,居住的不只有部落族人,還有五戶平地人,他們成為城市發展的基層勞力,卻在年老時,面臨失去家園。

4月2日,高雄市政府以清理簽署搬遷同意戶為名,派出怪手來到拉瓦克,總計有五戶平地人房舍和七戶原住民房舍,遭到拆除,剩下13戶未拆除。拆除後的平地居民,無處可去,就在舊家前的人行道,搭塑膠棚居住。

955-2- (56)部落居民與反迫遷團體來到監察院,舉行記者會,並向監委陳情。
部落居民與反迫遷團體來到監察院,舉行記者會,並向監委陳情。

面對都市原住民占用國有地的迫遷問題,新北市溪洲部落也曾遭遇,但是經過抗爭與協商後,以333方案,由族人負擔部分重建經費,部落原地安置。溪洲部落族人指出,政府有很多政策工具,能積極處理,解決都市原住民占地居住的問題。像新北市就以變更地目方式,劃出河岸的安全土地,提供族人安居。

拉瓦克族人希望高雄市政府,能參照其它縣市的處理方式,讓高雄唯一的城市部落,能有安居的家園。4月強拆後,引發社會關注,市政府承諾提供協商平台,討論解決拉瓦克的問題。

955-2- (66)4月2日,高雄市政府派出怪手來拆除房舍,無處可去的漢族居民,就在舊家前搭塑膠棚居住。
4月2日,高雄市政府派出怪手來拆除房舍,無處可去的漢族居民,就在舊家前搭塑膠棚居住。

部落族人陳英雄因為已經簽署搬遷同意書,搬進宿舍,拉瓦克的房舍,在4月2日拆除。但是他希望退還宿舍,住回部落,於是每天晚上帶著寢具,開車回部落,睡在車上,不想和部落分離。

60年前,拉瓦克族人來到高雄,希望謀求更好生活,但是歷盡艱辛,付出勞力,最後家園被拆除,未來何去何從,成為族人傷心迷惘的困境。

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本文轉載自:【公視《我們的島》節目—拉瓦克的城市家園】
05/21(一) 22:00首播
05/26(六) 11:00重播

 

《 Sophie Zelmani – Waiting For The Miracle To Come (07:01) 》


《 Sophie Zelmani – Waiting For The Miracle To Come (07:01) 》

Mapped: African heatwaves could increase ‘five-fold’ with 3C of global warming


https://www.carbonbrief.org/mapped-african-heatwaves-could-increase-five-fold-with-3c-of-global-warming

HEATWAVES

27 April 2018  11:22

Mapped: African heatwaves could increase ‘five-fold’ with 3C of global warming

Daisy Dunne

DAISY DUNNE

27.04.2018 | 11:22am

HEATWAVESMapped: African heatwaves could increase ‘five-fold’ with 3C of global warming
 

The number of heatwaves affecting the African continent every year could be five times higher by 2050 as a result of climate change, a new study finds.

Global warming of 3C above pre-industrial levels could also alter rainfall patterns across the continent, the research says, which could bring droughts to some countries and an increase in flood risk to others.

However, limiting warming to 1.5C – the aspirational goal of the Paris Agreement – could greatly reduce the risk of heatwaves and other climate extremes in Africa, the lead author tells Carbon Brief.

Continental countdown

The new study, published in Earth’s Future, focuses on how global warming could impact a range of climate variables that tend to have a large effect on human life, including heatwaves, “hot nights” and rainfall intensity.

The research finds that any degree of global warming is likely to drive an increase in the number of heatwaves and hot nights across much of Africa by 2050.

However, the impact of climate change on rainfall patterns across Africa is less clear, says lead author Dr Torsten Weber, a scientist at the Climate Service Center Germany. He presented his research results at this year’s European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly earlier this month. In an interview with Carbon Brief at the conference, he describes the main findings of the new study:

For the study, the researchers used a group of regional climate models developed by the CORDEX Africa initiative. The models were developed to help scientists address how climate change could impact the diverse climates found across Africa.

The research uses three scenarios of global warming out to the end of the century: the two long-term goals of the Paris Agreement – 1.5C and 2C – and a third scenario of 3C. This last scenario assumes that the Paris targets are missed, but that current national pledges to cut emissions are achieved.

Heating up

Heatwaves can cause severe heat stroke, which can lead to immediate deaths and exacerbate long-term health problems. Heatwaves can also have a negative impact on work productivity, especially for labourers and farmers, and cause crop failures.

The research finds that, in today’s climate, the average African region experiences one to three “heatwaves” per year. A heatwave is here defined as a period of three or more days where daily temperatures are in the top 5% of the 1971-2000 average for the region.

The number of heatwaves per year is expected to more than double by 2050 under the 1.5C warming scenario, the research finds. However, under the 3C scenario, heatwaves could increase five-fold by the middle of the century.

The maps below show projected changes to the average number of heatwave days per year across the continent under warming of 1.5C (left), 2C (middle) and 3C (right). On the charts, pink shows a small increase in the number of days while dark red shows a large increase in the number of days.

Projected changes in the number of heatwave days per year across the African continent in 2050 under warming scenarios of 1.5C (left), 2C (middle) and 3C (right). Pink shows a small increase in the number of days while dark red shows a large increase in the number of days. The dotted areas show where the results exceed a single standard deviation, while the hatched lines show where the results exceed a double standard deviation. Source: Weber et al. (2018)

The charts show that the greatest increase in heatwaves days could occur in countries in the Horn of Africa, including Somalia and Ethiopia, as well as along countries along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, such as Gabon and Cameroon.

However, the results also show that the risk of heatwave increase could be minimised in many countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Africa, if global warming is limited to 1.5C, says Weber:

“Although we can expect an increase in heatwaves under any degree of global warming, the pattern becomes more prominent towards higher global warming scenarios.”

Hot nights

The research also looked at how warming could influence the frequency of “hot nights” across the continent. “Hot nights” were defined as nights where temperatures are in the top 10% of the 1971-2000 average for the region.

Long, hot nights are known to exacerbate respiratory and other existing health problems, and have previously been linked to increased death rates.

The study finds that under 1.5C of warming, the African continent could experience an additional 20 to 150 hot nights each year. However, under 3C of warming, many parts of Africa could face an additional 300 nights where temperatures are in the top 10% of the historical average.

The maps below show the projected change in the number of hot nights per year under warming of 1.5C (left), 2C (middle) and 3C (right). On the charts, pink shows a small increase in the number of days while dark red shows a large increase in the number of days.

Projected increase in hot nights per year across Africa in 2050 under 1.5C (left), 2C (middle) and 3C (right) of warming. Pink shows a small increase in hot nights while dark red shows a large increase. Source: Weber et al. (2018)

The maps indicate that countries closest to the equator could experience the largest increase in the number of hot nights per year by the middle of the century. However, under 3C, large increases in hot nights are expected across much of the continent, Weber says:

“Concerning the temperature-related indices like hot nights, the region close to the equator will be especially affected. However, in the 3C scenario, many other countries, including South Africa, could be affected.”

Rainfall risks

The researchers also explored how climate change could impact rainfall intensity across the continent. In the study, an “extreme rainfall intensity” event was defined as a day where total rainfall is in the top 1% of the 1971-2000 average for the region.

Previous research shows large increases in rainfall intensity can increase flood risk, whereas large decreases can cause droughts, which can affect water availability and crop yields.

The maps below show the expected changes in the number of days with extreme rainfall intensity across Africa in 2050 under warming of 1.5C (left), 2C (middle) and 3C (right). On the charts, orange is used to show decreases in days with extreme rainfall intensity while blue is used to show increases.

Projected changes to the number of days with intense rainfall per year across Africa in 2050 under 1.5C (left), 2C (middle) and 3C (right) of warming. Orange shading shows decreases in days with extreme rainfall intensity while blue shows increases. Source: Weber et al. (2018)

The results suggest that increases in rainfall intensity are most likely to affect coastal countries, such as Madagascar, the Ivory Coast and Ghana.

Yet under the 3C scenario, a number of landlocked countries, such as the Central African Republic and Zambia, could see a moderate increase in days with intense rainfall.

Some regions could experience an overall decrease in days with intense rainfall, including parts of Morocco and South Africa.

However, the model projections for rainfall are less certain than those for temperature, notes Weber. This means the researchers cannot be certain whether the changes are driven by climate change or are just a consequence of natural climate variability. Weber explains:

“Concerning the precipitation-based indices, we have to say that the changes are not robust and within the natural variability, but I think it’s worth discussing potential tendencies which are becoming recognisable.”

Although the effect of climate change on rainfall in Africa may be still unconfirmed, the study does highlight that limiting global warming to 1.5C would “make sense” for African nations, he adds:

“There is a large difference between the scale of impacts expected at 1.5 and 2C, especially for temperature. Therefore it makes sense to strengthen the efforts to limit global temperature increase as much as possible.”

Weber, T. et al. (2018) Analyzing Regional Climate Change in Africa in a 1.5, 2, and 3C Global Warming World, Earth’s Future, doi/abs/10.1002/2017EF000714

Sharelines from this story
  • Mapped: African heatwaves could increase ‘five-fold’ with 3C of global warming
  • Limiting global warming to 1.5C could cut heatwave risk across Africa, study says

 

非洲暖化模式預測 熱浪、夜間高溫都增強


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211639?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=bc67344b41-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-bc67344b41-84956681

非洲暖化模式預測 熱浪、夜間高溫都增強

2018年05月21日
環境資訊中心綜合外電;姜唯 編譯;林大利 審校;稿源:Carbon Brief

熱浪、夜間高溫和強降雨的頻率近幾年皆有提高趨勢,而在全球暖化1.5°C、2°C和3°C的不同情境下,這些潛在的天氣災害又會如何變化?《Carbon Brief》網站報導,一份新研究發現,氣候變遷可能使非洲大陸每年熱浪次數在2050年時增加高達五倍;若全球升溫超過工業化前水平的3°C,更可能改變整個非洲大陸的降雨模式,使部分國家苦於乾旱,部分國家則遭洪水肆虐。

圖片來源:Gareth Beynon(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
在全球暖化的不同情境下,天氣災害也隨之改變。圖片來源:Gareth Beynon(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

然而本研究第一作者、德國氣候服務中心科學家偉伯(Torsten Weber)表示,若限制升溫在1.5°C,也就是巴黎協定的理想目標,可以大大降低非洲熱浪和其他極端氣候事件的風險。

這篇發表在《地球的未來》期刊的新研究探討全球暖化如何影響一系列對人類生活有重大影響的氣候參數,包括熱浪、過熱的夜晚和強降雨。研究發現,任何程度的全球暖化都可能使2050年非洲大部分地區的熱浪和過熱夜晚增加。不過偉伯說,氣候變遷對非洲降雨模式的影響還不是很清楚。

暖化3°C  非洲熱浪次數增五倍

這份研究使用了由非洲CORDEX計劃開發的一組區域氣候模型。這個模型的目的是幫助科學家研究氣候變遷如何影響非洲各地的各種氣候類型。

該研究使用三種本世紀末全球暖化可能情境,分別是巴黎協定的兩個長期目標——1.5°C和2°C,以及第三種情境——升溫3°C。最後一種情況是假設巴黎協定目標沒有實現,但目前的國家減排承諾有實現。

研究發現,在目前的氣候之下,非洲地區平均每年經歷一至三次熱浪。這裡的熱浪定義是,每天氣溫在該地區1971-2000平均的前5%,連續三天或以上。

Projected-changes-in-the-number-of-heatwave-days-per-year

在暖化1.5°C情境下,預計在2050年每年熱浪次數將增加一倍以上。但在3°C情境下,到本世紀中葉,熱浪次數可能會增加五倍。如果全球暖化在1.5°C內,許多國家(如剛果民主共和國和南非)的熱浪增加風險可降至最低。

暖化3°C將多300天高溫夜晚  增加致死率

這份研究還探討暖化如何影響整個非洲大陸夜間高溫的頻率。夜間高溫的定義是當日最低溫超過該地區1971年至2000年間之90百分位的日數。

漫長、炎熱的夜晚會加劇呼吸系統疾病和其他現有的健康問題,過去研究也發現夜間高溫與死亡率增加有關。

研究發現,暖化1.5°C情境下,非洲大陸每年的過熱夜晚會增加20至150天。然而在3°C情境下,非洲許多地區的過熱夜晚可能會增加300天。

Screen-Shot-2018-04-26-at-12.49.06

某些國家強降雨增加 氣候變遷影響尚不明顯

此研究也探討氣候變遷如何影響整個大陸的降雨強度。本研究中,極端強度降雨事件的定義是,日雨量超過該地區1971年至2000年間之99百分位。

過去研究指出,降雨強度大幅增加會增加洪災風險,大幅減少會導致乾旱,進而影響水資源利用率和作物產量。

結果顯示,降雨強度增加最可能影響沿海國家,如馬達加斯加、象牙海岸和迦納。但在3°C情境下,一些內陸國家,如中非共和國和贊比亞,可能會出現強降雨天數中等幅度增加。部分地區的強降雨天數整體下降,包括摩洛哥和南非部分地區。

Screen-Shot-2018-04-26-at-14.08.14

不過偉伯強調,在強降雨的預測上,研究人員比較不能確定這些變化是氣候變遷造成還是自然的氣候變異。

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作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。

 

《 Sophie Zelmani – Stay With My Heart (04:02) 》


《 Sophie Zelmani – Stay With My Heart (04:02) 》

Unforgettable visit to the world’s ‘floating’ lake


https://www.newsday.co.zw/2017/12/unforgettable-visit-worlds-floating-lake/

Unforgettable visit to the world’s ‘floating’ lake

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THERE is no doubt that if opportunities would permit, it will be everyone’s desire to visit some of the best places in the world — be it for shopping or vacation.

BY WINSTONE ANTONIO RECENTLY IN IMHAL, INDIA

I had never in my life imagined that one day, I would cross the Indian Ocean flying to India and later visit the only “floating” lake in the world, Loktak Lake, also known as the Jewel of Manipur, located in Bishnupur district of Manipur State.

I had only known India from afar as it is portrayed through its vibrant film industry, Bollywood, the Indian version of America’s heart of film production, Hollywood, and as a renowned cricket-playing nation, with its team, the Men in Blue, having won three major world championships.

I had never imagined that one day, I would set my foot in the vast South Asian country, but dreams do come true.
What made my trip special was that it came on my birthday! I enjoyed a special treat courtesy of the Zimbabwe Tourism Authority and the Indian Embassy in Harare.

I was part of the Zimbabwean delegates who attended the annual 10-day Sangai Festival in Manipur State, organised by Manipur Tourism Department.

It showcases the rich culture and heritage of the State making its significant on the world tourism map.

This cultural extravaganza portrays various forms of art, tradition and culture of Manipur, which is a blend of music, dance and other traditional forms of art that are unique to the State.

I was in the company of fellow journalists Prince Mushawevato and Vasco Chaya.

I welcomed the invitation to visit the lake located near Moirang. It was unforgettable, almost ethereal experience for me.

Covering an area of 300 square metres, with its shimmering blue waters and the colourful water plants that make it look beautiful, indeed Loktak Lake is a place to visit if one gets the chance to be in Manipur State.

The lake known for its circular floating swamps (called phumdis in the Indian language) and with its diverse species of flora and fauna, it has earned the praise of being the wetland of international importance.

The most important feature of the lake is the phumdis or the floating organic matter including the soil that one can see dancing on the water’s surface.

After visiting the lake, I came to appreciate why India, under the leadership of President Ram Nath Kovind, is described as a nation of attractive water bodies.

It is home to countless lakes, rivers, streams and wetlands with their own ecological significance.

The staffs who drove and escorted me to the scenery told me that the lake is considered to be the Jewel of Manipur state, and for sure, it is a jewel of the state, as it has an important role in the economy of Manipur.

Just like our own Lake Kariba, Loktak Lake plays an important role in the economy of the state as the main source of water for hydropower generation.

It also serves as a source that drives the irrigation and drinking water supply.

The lake is also said to be a source of livelihood for the rural fishermen who live in the surrounding areas and on phumdis, also known as phumshongs.

After the afternoon visit, later on that night I was privileged to be among the guests to attend Lakeview Cultural Show at Takmu, Loktak where the stage for the concert was erected on a piece of land that floats on water.

Apart from the music and dance performances at the cultural show, boat rally with torches highlighting the daily lifestyle of the fishing community of Loktak drew the attention of the audience.

The seventh-largest country by area and the second-most populous, India has a population of over 1,2 billion.

It is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast.

It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the northeast, and Myanmar (Burma) and Bangladesh to the east.

In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. India’s Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Let is make a date next week as I take a peep into the Indian cuisine, festivals which are celebrated in India more than probably any other nation in the world and among other subjects.

 

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