Q&A: What’s So Sacred About the Number 108?


Q&A: What’s So Sacred About the Number 108?

Shiva Rea explains the significance of the number 108 in yoga and Hinduism
sun salutation

I’ve read of people doing 108 Sun Salutations (Surya Namaskar A) at the time of the spring equinox. What is the significance of the number 108?

—Linda Burkard, Martinez, California

Shiva Rea’s Reply:

The number’s significance is open to interpretation. But 108 has long been considered a sacred number in Hinduism and yoga. Traditionally, malas, or garlands of prayer beads, come as a string of 108 beads (plus one for the “guru bead," around which the other 108 beads turn like the planets around the sun). A mala is used for counting as you repeat a mantra—much like the Catholic rosary.

Renowned mathematicians of Vedic culture viewed 108 as a number of the wholeness of existence. This number also connects the Sun, Moon, and Earth: The average distance of the Sun and the Moon to Earth is 108 times their respective diameters. Such phenomena have given rise to many examples of ritual significance.

According to yogic tradition, there are 108 pithas, or sacred sites, throughout India. And there are also 108 Upanishads and 108 marma points, or sacred places of the body.

And, yes, one can offer a yoga mala of 108 Sun Salutations. Please take a moment to visit www.globalmala.org for more information on the power of 108 and joining the “mala around the earth" to be formed by the worldwide yoga community on September 21 and 22 of 2007.

Shiva Rea is a leading teacher of prana vinyasa flow and yoga trance dance who teaches all over the world. She is a lifelong student of Tantra, Ayurveda, bhakti, hatha yoga, kalaripayat, Odissi dance, and yogic arts.

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Why Your Downward Dog Isn’t Necessarily Yoga


Why Your Downward Dog Isn’t Necessarily Yoga

Yoga teacher Carola Lovering left YJ LIVE! New York with some existential questions about the practice of asana. Here she breaks down how a modern-day yogi can make sense of what we’re really doing on the mat.
Downward facing dog

So much of the way we think and talk about yoga focuses on the aesthetic. Someone says the word “yoga,” and most people probably envision a fit man or woman contorted into a challenging posture, the physical shape as the thing itself.

The problem with this is that these shapes are not really yoga. I’ve recently come to understand that the distinction between a posture and yoga itself is significant and often overlooked. After practicing yoga for a decade and teaching it for half of one, I’m still grappling with this realization that yoga is not actually the poses.

If Yoga Isn’t the Poses, What Is It?

A collective message from several top instructors at this spring’s Yoga Journal Liveevent in New York City was the importance of seeking transformation through yoga’s internal, more esoteric yogic practices like pranayama and mindfulnessrather than the physical asanas. The takeaway was this: If you want real change, you’ve got to do the inner work—flexibility isn’t yoga.

As Yoga Journal readers know, this idea that yoga extends far beyond the mat isn’t new. The longer I practice, the more this “other” part of yoga seems to matter. I now seek out teachers who are less about bicycle crunches and more about helping me tap into spiritual transformation. Still, I never questioned the necessity of a physical yoga practice. But after spending an entire weekend listening to the wisdom of master teachers, I headed home with my mat tucked under one arm and wondered, for a moment, why I even needed it. A piece of rubber certainly wasn’t going to help me achieve that coveted thing we’re truly after.

And what exactly is that thing? Rod Stryker called it the “limitless manifestation of energy” in his workshop mainly on theory, rooted in principles from traditional hatha yoga texts. Stryker explained that to tap into this limitless energy source we must work to dissolve our identities, attachments, and aversions. Only through mental clarity and learning to understand ourselves—not through asana—will we have the potential to access our limitless energy.

Coby Kozlowski’s workshop about the qualities of consciousness shed light on a similar phenomenon. The conference schedule highlighted Kozlowski’s two-hour class as a mix of lecture and movement, but after 10 minutes of introductory sun salutations, she told us to have a seat. “That’s enough moving for today,” she explained with a radiant smile. “Now we’re going to talk. We’re going to have my favorite conversation in the world.”

Kozlowski went on to describe how yoga is so much more that what we do on the mat, and how she arrived at this transformative understanding. “When I was in my twenties, I got an injury and had to stop my physical yoga practice for a while,” Kozlowski told us. “It turned out to be the greatest gift, because it was when I realized that my yoga was so much more than what I could do with my physical body.”

See also Patanjali Never Said Yoga Is Fancy Poses

According to Krishnamacharya, the father of modern yoga, the purpose of yoga is samadhi, an intense concentration achieved through meditation. He said: “Yoga is an awareness, a type of knowing. Yoga will end in awareness. When the mind is without any movement, maybe for a quarter of an hour, or even quarter of a minute, you will realize that yoga is of the nature of infinite awareness, and infinite knowing.”

Kozlowski takes this idea and breaks it down to make “awareness” more accessible for the modern yogi, who may not have the time or discipline to sit down and meditate at length on a regular basis. Kozlowski’s definition of yoga is relatively simple but strikes a chord: “skillful participation with each moment of life.”

“Yoga is the path on which we come home to what is true and real,” she explained. “It’s learning to see the world clearly—beyond fantasy, fear, and distortion—and it provides infinite inquiries and experiments for each of us to dive into.” The physical practice of yoga is only one of the eight limbs that create the higher definition of yoga. And when Kozlowski was forced to pause her physical practice, her world cracked open. “It was an opportunity for me to discover who I really am, why I’m here and how I want to live,” she said. “I began to see that yoga is about making lifestyle choices to help me see myself and the world more clearly. Yoga is about savoring the rhythm of life—the fluctuation of rest and restlessness and celebrating all of life’s flavors from grief, sorrow, and sadness to bliss, ecstasy, and joy. When I stopped practicing on my mat, I started truly living my yoga.”

See also Daily Practice Challenge: Meaningful Movement & Action

Colby K YJLive

So Why Practice the Poses at All?

Despite the emphasis on asana in many modern yoga classes, movement was not a guiding component of the yoga in ancient India. Renowned yogi and teacher Mark Singleton took an intense look at yoga’s evolution after he discovered what looked like yoga postures outlined in a Danish manual called Primitive Gymnastics. The “yoga poses” were said to be exercises developed by a Scandinavian gymnast in the early 20th century, and Singleton became deeply confused, especially when he learned that Primitive Gymnastics had been one of the most popular forms of exercise in India.

Singleton delved into yoga’s history, scouring ancient texts like Pantanjali’s Yoga Sutras and the Upanishads. “One only has to peruse translations of texts like the Hatha Tattva Kaumudi, the Gheranda Samhita, or the Hatha Ratnavali, to see that much of the yoga that dominates America and Europe today has changed almost beyond recognition from the medieval practices,” Singleton wrote in 2011. “The philosophical and esoteric frameworks of premodern hatha yoga, and the status of asanas as ‘seats’ for meditation and pranayama, have been sidelined in favor of systems that foreground gymnastic movement, health, and fitness, and the spiritual concerns of the modern West.”

See also The Ancient & Modern Roots of Yoga

While it’s true that yoga has morphed into something its forefathers wouldn’t recognize, Singleton and Kozlowski both acknowledge that this evolution, though radical, is only natural and ultimately okay. “There are many doorways to reveal what is true and real,” Kozlowksi explained in our follow-up conversation after the conference. “There is no one path to truth. For some people yoga is doing an asana practice—using the body and breath as a portal into discovering one’s deepest truth.”

Singleton sees yoga as a vast and ancient tree, one with many branches and roots that continues to grow and evolve. And I agree—as long as we remember those roots and come to our mats to practice seeking the truth. Otherwise we’re just doing gymnastics.

See also 10 Things We Didn’t Know About Yoga Until This New Must-Read Dropped


《 Laura Pausini – Mix (50:41)》

《 Laura Pausini – Mix (50:41)》

Yogi Sophie Jaffe Shares Her Inner Beauty Secrets


Yogi Sophie Jaffe Shares Her Inner Beauty Secrets

Sophie Jaffe, yoga teacher, certified raw food chef, superfood entrepreneur, and mom of two boys (with a baby girl due this summer), defines inner beauty as honoring your inner wild woman—all your amazing gifts—and being true to them.

“To me, not being perfect is what’s so beautiful,” she says. Below, Sophie shares her secrets for feeling beautiful every day, with the help of yoga, inspiring mantras, and products that make her feel good from the inside out.

My Daily Beauty Rituals

Morning: I oil pull every morning. It offers me a time to relax and ease into my day, and keeps my mouth clean and fresh. I also feel a little extra confident with a bright, healthy smile. Next, I start my cleansing routine with Weleda Gentle Cleansing Milk. It’s pure and nourishing, and never strips my skin or irritates it. I follow with their nourishing Hydrating Day Cream with jojoba oil and witch hazel, which is a beautiful and balancing combination.

Midday: All day long, I use Weleda Wild Rose 24H Deodorant Spray to help me go from meetings to hot yoga to after-school activities without missing a beat. After an intense yoga session (usually while the kids are at school), I love lathering up with Weleda’s Lavender Creamy Body Wash–it instantly hydrates and relaxes my body. I also apply Weleda’s Muscle Massage Oil all over to help my muscles wind down.

Evening: Weleda’s 2in1 Gentle Shampoo + Body Wash helps us save time at bath time, and it’s delicate enough even for a baby’s sensitive skin. I also can’t wait to try their soothing Calendula Diaper Care Cream on my baby girl! Before I get into bed, I use Weleda’s Relaxing Body & Beauty Oil with lavender oil, which helps me calm down and gets me ready for the deepest night’s sleep.

What Makes Me Feel Beautiful (Inside & Out)

My boys and my husband make me feel beautiful in our day-to-day family dynamic: the good, the bad, and the ugly. Yoga allows me to bring it ALL to the mat and greet every part of my true self. To feel all my woman power and light it. I also meditate and set positive affirmations for my day, such as “I am a goddess.” Since I’ve been pregnant, my daily mantra has been, “I am growing life. I am full of love.” Whenever something comes along that throws off my energy or makes me feel negative, anxious, or upset, I return to these affirmations and reflect on them for a bit before moving forward. I’ve also set an intention to look at life through a positive lens. If you go through life with optimism and sincere gratitude, you’ll see that beauty reflected on the outside.

How I Stay Body Positive

Maintaining healthy body positivity is so difficult in this digital age, and the pressures of social media can make us feel “less than.” It look a long time, but I’m finally in a space where I love the body I’m in. It all came down to finding balance. I can also see beyond the physical and know that I’m not just this body—that it’s actually a spiritual experience to be a parent, a woman, a human being. When I feel frustrated that baby girl is making me sick or tired and so unlike myself that I want to cry and scream, I think, “Wow, I’m growing a baby and a healthy baby at that. Some day she is going to take on this world and I’ll be the one to lead her there, and that’s pretty amazing.”


《 Laura Pausini – Every Little Thing You Do (04:02)》

《 Laura Pausini – Every Little Thing You Do (04:02)》

Technology for Your Bathroom That Will Change Your Life


Technology for Your Bathroom That Will Change Your Life


We all love our gadgets: but do we need them in the bathroom? Really?

The digital age excludes nothing, and our bathrooms should be no exception. Technology exists to make life easier for us, and there are now plenty of ways that it helps us to better enjoy our showers, make things more hygienic, and speed up the process of washing.

So, if you’re looking to update your bathroom and want to bring in some specially-made, water-safe tech, browse our top ideas to help streamline your showers. A musical showerhead is definitely on our must-have list!


Electronic Toilet


Electronic toilets are becoming more and more popular and accessible across the world. Models like the TOTO Neorest range can be found in homes across America, due to the cleanliness and comfort they bring to you and your home!

Here’s just a few features that explains why everyone is after a Neorest:

  • Contains electrolyzed water for self-cleaning – this works basically the same as household bleach, which cleans the toilet and everything in it with effective sanitation. The best part? It’s entirely natural and turns back into ‘normal’ water within about two hours. That equals a sparkling clean commode with no harmful chemicals being flushed into the environment.
  • Spray washer for ultimate freshness (and saving you a ton on toilet roll).
  • Automatic lid, which knows when to close and open without you needing to touch it at all!


Whirlpool Bath

After a long, hard day at work, you deserve more than just a quick soak in a normal tub.

Enter the whirlpool bath: a tub pierced with tiny jet nozzles, turning your bath into a luxury jacuzzi at the touch of a button. Some even come with in-built LED lights to light up the water in any arrangement of the rainbow that you wish. They also usually feature a range of settings, so you can go from ‘bubbling brook’ to ‘river rapids’ depending on your mood.

You’ll never settle for still water again after you’ve tried a whirlpool – install one in your home today! These can come in all shapes and sizes, including regular rectangle, corner tubs, and even circular. You can even go all-out and get one the size of a small swimming pool, if you’ve the money and the space! Get yourself a whirlpool bath from brands like Trojan, Snowden and Verona.


Smart Taps


Smart taps are a great idea not just for convenience and cleanliness, but for conserving water, too. Instead of having to twist a stubborn handle to turn on your taps, you need only wave a hand across it to turn on the stream.

This means no grubby hands need to touch the fixture, meaning less cleaning for you, as it keeps a mess-free sink surface. These are also great for kids, disabled people and the elderly who might struggle with turning on normal taps.

To counteract the problem of the sensor being set off by something other than someone needing to wash their hands, these taps usually have a short timer and automatically shut off, preventing water loss.

They also come with aerated streams – water flow infused with air – making the stream softer to the touch while wasting less water. What are you waiting for? Get a smart tap from brands like Grohe, RAK, Orion and more.


Showerhead Speaker

Music fans will know that unless you have a good-quality speaker, it can be hard to hear your favorite tunes when there’s water running – especially if you have a power shower. Luckily, various brands have come up with an ingenious solution to eliminate this pesky problem: in-built showerhead speakers.

These completely waterproof speakers are set into the actual showerhead where the water flows from and can be connected to any music device that has Bluetooth capabilities. Perform your shower karaoke routine in style, without straining to hear the words! Look to companies like Kohler to purchase your very own showerhead speaker.

Thank you for reading this article!


《 Laura Pausini – One More Time (04:25)》

《 Laura Pausini – One More Time (04:25)》


《天堂異鄉人》是一幅開展畫,在60分鐘內,把歐洲對難民/移民的觀感和現況一覽無遺的攤開在眾人面前。這部紀錄片由荷蘭導演Guido Hendrikx於2016年拍攝製成,並在今年的台灣國際紀錄片影展的5/6、5/10、5/11 上映。

#歐洲難民 #移民 #荷蘭 #天堂異鄉人




一部紀錄片可能是一小時、一天、一個短暫的時刻或是一段生命的旅程。《天堂異鄉人》是一幅開展畫,在60分鐘內,把歐洲對難民/移民的觀感和現況一覽無遺的攤開在眾人面前。這部紀錄片由荷蘭導演Guido Hendrikx於2016年拍攝製成,並在今年的台灣國際紀錄片影展的5/6、5/10、5/11 上映。

《天堂異鄉人》劇照。(圖片來源:TIDF 官方網站)


我在荷蘭讀書時,有過這麼一個小經驗。一日我與一位荷蘭男子兩人在空蕩蕩的大街上等著二十分鐘後將來到的公車,談話緣於打發時間,但一談難民,他整個投入了起來。「就是想來賺錢」、「來了,社會福利都給他們了,荷蘭人要怎麼辦?」、 「帶著自己的宗教和習慣來,卻要我們配合,欠他們的嗎?」、「就是逃避責任的人們」。身為一個極左派的學院出身的我,那個二十分鐘,為了接下來的旅程,勉強地默默聽著。我表面微笑但內心不以為然。然而,那二十分鐘卻是我第一次靜下來聆聽另一端的聲音。聽完了,我也問,難道他說的不對嗎?





《天堂異鄉人》劇照。(圖片來源:TIDF 官方網站)


然而,到底是誰說了算? 在這七十分鐘裡,所呈現的中心觀點是一個以歐洲為主宰的完全視角,這部紀錄片從頭到尾是一個歐洲人對於自己的自嘲?還是一個導演想呈現的歐洲視角?我雖只能後設地在文本之上加以詮釋,但不可忽視的是,我們現今從媒體上看到的,都是由移民接收國–歐洲國家們告訴我們的資訊–如同這部電影一般。在過程中,移民們本身面對這些課堂講述,他們言語雖不多,但面部表情的特寫和微微的肢體回應,讓我看到了他們也有很多自己的話想說。但在課堂上,老師是話語權的決定者,不論第一章或第二章節,移民的說與不說都還是在老師的決定之下。

《天堂異鄉人》劇照。(圖片來源:TIDF 官方網站)




這個問號也衍伸出我自己對於第三幕的移民身份認定標準的批判。第三章節的內容是成為難民身份的模擬考和及戰教學。到底歐洲國家當局怎麼判斷誰是有資格取得歐盟入場券的人呢?當他們說誰是有用、誰是無用,真的是如此嗎? 值得救助的標準是否真的找得出值得救助的人呢?回國後無生命危險者,真的代表回國後能安身嗎?為了賺錢而來是否比因戰亂而來更不值得協助呢?而,為什麼只要國籍是敘利亞就有優先取得國籍的通行券呢?


以荷蘭為例,相比其他西歐國家,荷蘭算是年輕的移民接受國。荷蘭在一戰前大量招募中國水手和殖民地人民來解決他們缺乏人手的問題。在1950年代後期,因為戰後經濟復甦卻缺乏人力,兼之殖民地獨立因素,也大量的招募從南歐和其他地區的移民;這個時候的移民,不論其原因和身份,都是荷蘭求之不得的人力。在1970-1980 年代荷蘭雖停止了招募移民的政策,但也因上一代的移民生根而開始了家庭團聚的接納政策。在1994和1997 年這兩次移民法規越來越明確和加以限制之前,移民者都算是被接納的族群。若以這脈絡來看,國界的開關其實與當權者在經濟需求上是有直接相關的。當權者的要與不要也決定了一個移動者在過程中能接受到的資源多寡。





《 Laura Pausini – It’s Not Goodbye (04:42)》

《 Laura Pausini – It’s Not Goodbye (04:42)》







環安公安漏洞大 經濟部只列管5%中高污染性違章工廠? (2018.5.4)



鹿港水五金田園專區 新訂都計啟動 (2018.5.16)



張景森彰化釋利多 4000家工廠可取得臨時身分  (2018.5.16)






(ง•̀_•́)ง 我們和其他環團夥伴正在討論下一步的行動。如果你有以下專長,願意貢獻一些時間,為台灣找回健康安全的農地齊努力,歡迎和我們聯絡。








張淑貞 守護農地研究員

台灣環境資訊協會 – teia.tw
守護農地行動平台 – farmland.e-info.org.tw

02-2933-2233 *223



《 Laura Pausini – You Are (04:16)》

《 Laura Pausini – You Are (04:16)》

止敬鵬悲劇重演 化學品登錄促業者掌握原料危害性


止敬鵬悲劇重演 化學品登錄促業者掌握原料危害性

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《 Laura Pausini – Sus Mejores Canciones (01:23:46)》

《 Laura Pausini – Sus Mejores Canciones (01:23:46)》

【你來報報】大型活動減廢 借鏡台灣經驗 港府須更爭氣


【你來報報】大型活動減廢 借鏡台灣經驗 港府須更爭氣



青衣戲棚結束 即棄餐具滿山




台設容器租借 增綠色氛圍



自備餐具 無塑兼有購物優惠








※ 本文經作者授權轉載,原刊於《香港經濟日報》,原文標題〈盛事源頭減廢 政府須更爭氣


《 Laura Pausini – The Best Of (01:10:46)》

《 Laura Pausini – The Best Of (01:10:46)》

你吃的米有毒嗎? 社大學員模擬都市規劃 體驗農地工廠問題


你吃的米有毒嗎? 社大學員模擬都市規劃 體驗農地工廠問題

環境資訊中心實習記者 吳容心報導




學員化身市長 規劃都市初體驗




工廠就在農地旁! 從實作帶領學員思考

























【◎心靈研磨坊 - 曼陀羅藏◎】

《心靈研磨坊 ─ 身心體能極限的突破,放慢步調,邁開腳步,輕鬆地悠遊著....》

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