Healing Foods: How to Treat Colds with Ayurveda


Healing Foods: How to Treat Colds with Ayurveda

Ease cold and flu symptoms and restore your body’s balance with natural Ayurvedic recipes.

More than 5,000 years ago, the great seers of ancient India studied the fundamentals of life and organized them into a healing system called Ayurveda. This system—which in Sanskrit means “science of life"—is essentially an operating manual for the body, mind, and spirit, says Cynthia Copple, an Ayurvedic practitioner and president of Lotus Herbs and the Lotus Ayurvedic Center in Capitola, California. This operating manual shows how the body, mind, and spirit are interconnected by providing a map of their characteristics. According to the Ayurvedic system, people are born with a particular constitution (or prakruti) that defines their baseline of health. An individual’s constitution is made up of a delicate balance of three vital energies, or doshas, known as vata (air), pitta (fire), and kapha(water). These doshas govern all the psychological, physiological, and patho-physiological functions of mind and body and are the basis for diagnosing illness.

The three doshas are really three processes," explains Copple. “Vata is the process of movement, and its catabolic energy breaks down matter. Pitta is a process of metabolism that creates heat and energy in much the same way that fire breaks down a log. Kapha is dense, heavy matter that stores energy, like the fat and padding in our bodies."

Why is the Ayurvedic Diet Healing?

Foods are also classified as vata, pitta, and kappa, and they either decrease or aggravate a person’s doshas. The aggravation of the doshas goes along with ill health, as either cause or result. The healing properties of an Ayurvedic diet can be summarized in three basic principles:

1. Food should have a neutralizing effect on the doshas and not aggravate them.

2. Food affects the body differently depending on when it is eaten.

3. How you eat food is just as important as what you eat.

See also Doshas Decoded: Learn About Your Unique Mind & Body Type

“If you are late for work, driving in traffic, worrying about getting back on time while you are eating a sandwich, your body is not going to respond the same way to the food as if you were sitting in the backyard looking at the flowers while you were eating," says Copple.

Eating foods that complement your constitution helps to maintain the body’s balance. An illness, whether a common cold or a serious disease, indicates that the doshas are out of balance, a condition that is exacerbated by eating foods that clash with your dosha.

According to Ayurveda, you are ingesting more than just food when you eat. Judith H. Morrison, author of The Book of Ayurveda: A Holistic Approach to Health and Longevity, explains it this way: “As you eat, you take into yourself the subtle influences attached to the food and prana as well as the physical form of the food. Even the stages of production to which food is subjected affect its qualities. Food is part of the dynamic dance of life, and its qualities, both obvious and subtle, affect your well-being."

The basic Ayurvedic diet consists of whole, fresh foods in season, with vegetables forming between 20 and 40 percent of the diet. Usually only a quarter of the foods are eaten raw; the rest are cooked. An ideal Ayurvedic diet is different for each person, based on the individual’s own blend of vata, pitta, and kapha. The process of constructing a personalized diet is best done under the guidance of a qualified Ayurvedic physician.

“But Ayurveda is not intellectual," stresses Copple. “It is a practice that uses your intuition, the creative aspect of your mind, your own body knowledge. The bottom line in Ayurveda is relying on what your body tells you, not what a theory or a book or a practitioner tells you. Ayurveda is just a framework for understanding your own body."

When a person is cold and has congestion in the chest, that congestion is kapha, explains Copple. In order to reduce the kapha, pitta needs to be increased. Pitta is heat, so eating hot foods, like ginger, will reduce the congestion. Continuing to eat kapha foods, like ice cream, will increase the congestion.

Amadea Morningstar, a nutritionist who teaches polarity nutrition at the New Mexico Academy of Healing Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico, considers the Ayurveda diet a constant source of inspiration. She recommends the following Ayurvedic recipes for cold symptoms.

See also Know Your Stress Type + How to Balance It

3 Healing Ayurvedic Recipes

1. Tea for Colds

1 tablespoon grated fresh ginger root

1 tablespoon dried hibiscus flowers (from a health food or herb store)

1 to 2 sticks of cinnamon

Put ginger, hibiscus flowers, and cinnamon sticks in 3 cups of boiling water. Simmer for several minutes, then turn off heat and cover. Sweeten with fresh orange juice or honey.

2. Sore Throat Gargle

This very traditional remedy is less palatable and more antiseptic than the tea, but it strengthens throat tissue.

1 teaspoon of turmeric powder

Dissolve turmeric in hot water. Gargle with it, then swallow.

3. Kitchari

Cynthia Copple says kitchari is the best food for those recovering from illness, as it is very healing and easy to digest.

1 tablespoon ghee
6 ounces basmati rice
3 teaspoons cumin
3 teaspoons coriander
3 teaspoons fennel seeds
1/2 teaspoon turmeric
3 ounces split yellow mung beans (dal)
vegetables appropriate to your doshas

Wash rice and beans together under cold water. Melt ghee in a pan, then add fennel seeds. Cook for one minute. Add cumin, coriander, and turmeric, and the rice and beans. Stir so the mixture is coated with ghee. Then cover the mixture with hot water by about two inches. Bring to a boil, then lower the heat and simmer, stirring occasionally. Add more water as needed—you don’t want the pan to dry out.

Add diced vegetables, starting with root vegetables. Leafy vegetables, like spinach, should be added toward the end of cooking time. The dish is cooked when most of the water has evaporated and the grains are soft and slightly mushy.

See also The Ultimate Guide to Energy Healing


Brick and wood work of art of the Shatura House locate near Moscow


Brick and wood work of art of the Shatura House locate near Moscow

Architects: Le Atelier
Location: Shatura, Moscow Oblast, Russia
Year: 2016
Area: 2.357 ft²/ 219 m²
Photo courtesy: Ilya Ivanov

“The house located in a 30 000 populated town 150 km from Moscow. The private houses in such places are highly diversified. There are no rules or limitations. Surroundings full of “architecture without architects”, everything is always in process: if you need new room you construct it, without any project and with the materials that you have for in that moment.

The square one-storey house was constructed in the basement where the client made it without any project and only after building it, he decided to find an architect. One-storey square block divided into 3 parts to make the scale closer to environment. In the central “house” we placed a living room. The block which is closest to the entrance contain master-bedroom, hall and maintenance spaces. The block with kid’s rooms situated deeply inside the plot. The Ventilation and other maintenance we placed in the side blocks above the bedrooms. The living room has nearly 2-storey height to make you feel spatial experience.”

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What Your Asana Practice Can Tell You About Your Life


What Your Asana Practice Can Tell You About Your Life

Need a New Year’s resolution—or a fresh intention any day of the year? YJ Influencer and psychologist Lauren Taus suggests looking to your practice to identify personalized goals that are also applicable to the rest of life.

However you usually prepare (or don’t) for January first, there is an energy of renewal in the air that you can leverage into authentic empowerment and purpose. While you likely have a great deal of clarity around the personal spaces and places that require refinement or improvement in your life, you may not realize that your asana practice is full of hidden direction and deep wisdom. While I realize that no body is the same, in more than a decade of teaching yoga, I have noticed some general movement types. And as a clinical therapist, I’ve also noticed that they tend to correlate with certain personalities. Read on to see if you identify with one or more of them below and which simple changes to your patterns might open up more joy and fullness in your life.

See also 10 Things Burning Man Taught This Yogini About Life

Want to practice with YJ Influencer Lauren Taus? Direct message her @lauren.taus to secure your spot to #BendinBliss February 15–19 @habitastulum.


38 Newbury St by Touloukian Touloukian


38 Newbury St by Touloukian Touloukian

Architects: Touloukian Touloukian
Location: BostonMassachusettsUSA
Year: 2013
Area: 3000 sqft
Photo courtesy: Anton Grassl

Previously an existing storage space for a tailor, an open office plan on the third floor of a historical building along Newbury Street in Boston was designed for a real estate development company. The inspiration for this renovated office suite was discovered when the existing ceiling was removed and a panel formed vaulted concrete structure was revealed. This moment of realization focused the ceiling as a main design feature and evoked an architecture of connectivity between spaces.


At any point within the office suite, one remains visually connected to the design feature as well as the individuals utilizing the space. Both clerestory glass partitions and select glass openings between floating casework walls allow for visual awareness of the entire interior while still preserving necessary scales of programmatic and acoustic privacy. The overall composition results in an arrangement of surfaces and materials in which a contemporary office may remain visually connected to its user, context, and architectural features.


The planning builds on the idea of connectivity setting itself around common spaces in which co-workers may easily convene and interact. “Social” spaces flow off one another in such a way to create links between the entire office while avoiding a typical office layout of simple public and private zones. The architectural decisions behind wall type, material, and transparency support these planning efforts in order to enhance the experience in which the user is able to see, hear, and access the social and private spaces and the people using them.



LED up-lighting highlighted the unexpected ceiling design feature. Additional acoustic treatments such as fabric wall panels, painted wood casework, painted gypsum board, and carpeting were used to address acoustic issues of the hard concrete ceiling surfaces and glass walls. A simple monochromatic material palette of glass, steel, light woods and finishes compliment the concrete to create a unified space.


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在華府期間,我特別與柯林頓總統的特別助理兼國家安全會議亞洲處處長魏德曼(Kent Wiedmann),以及國務院東亞事務首席副助理國務卿湯森(Peter Tomsen)等人會面,將政府的大陸政策及辜汪會談的定位,以及未來兩岸關係的看法,向他們做明確的說明。美方認為,兩岸雙方以務實的做法處理實際的問題,這就是「對台灣在國際環境中漸現的權利,予以政治上的承認。」







《Katie Melua – Fields Of Gold (04:55) 》

《Katie Melua – Fields Of Gold (04:55) 》

What You Need to Know About Fascia


What You Need to Know About Fascia

Deepening your anatomical perspective refines your kinesthetic sense by helping you feel into your entire body—which is greater than the sum of its anatomical parts. The connective-tissue net, known popularly as fascia, weaves those parts into one integrated whole.

If I asked you what a heart is like, chances are you’d say it’s like a pump. The lungs are often described as “bellows,” the kidneys “a filter,” the brain “a computer.” We tend to view the body in mechanical terms because we live in an industrial age—and because the body has been described as a “soft machine” ever since the scientist René Descartes coined the term in the early 17th century.

So it comes as no surprise that most anatomy books show you body parts—this muscle, that ligament—as if we’re assembled part by part like a car or an iPhone. But instead of timing belts and motherboards, we have hamstrings and biceps. An anatomy atlas is a helpful tool for learning, but the error comes when we start thinking that humans are actually built that way. What is actually going on under your skin is so different from what’s in those pictures.

Your body is much more like a plant than a machine. We are grown from a tiny seed—a single cell, or fertilized ovum, about the size of a pin prick—not glued together in parts. This seed contains sufficient instructions (given the proper nourishment) to create a helpless, squalling baby, who turns into an energetic toddler, a feckless teenager, and then finally a mature adult.

By the time we’re adults, we consist of approximately 70 trillion cells, all surrounded by a fluid fascial network—a kind of sticky yet greasy fabric that both holds us firmly together, yet constantly and miraculously adjusts to accommodate our every movement.

The traditional biomechanical theory of the musculoskeletal system says that muscles attach to bones via tendons that cross the joints and pull bones toward each other, restricted by other “machine parts” called ligaments. But all these anatomical terms, and the separations they imply, are false. No ligaments exist on their own; instead they blend into the periosteum—vascular connective tissue that serves as cling-wrap around the bones—and the surrounding muscles and fascial sheets. What this means is that you weren’t assembled in different places and glued together—rather, all your parts grew up together within the glue.

For example, the triceps are wedded by fascial fabric to their neighboring muscles north, south, east, and west, as well as to the ligaments deep in both the shoulder and elbow. If you contract the triceps in Plank Pose, all these other structures will have an effect and be affected. Your whole body engages in the action—not just your triceps, pectoral, and abdominal muscles.

The takeaway for yoga? When you do poses, it is useful to put your attention anywhere and everywhere in your body—not just the obviously stretched and singing bits. A release in your foot can help your hip; a change of your hand position can ease your neck.

See also Fascia: The Flexibility Factor You’re Probably Missing on the Mat

Fascial Function

The fluid fascial network that lives between each cell in your body consists of bungee cord–like fibers made mostly from collagen, including reticulin, and elastin. These fibers run everywhere—denser in certain areas such as tendons and cartilage, and looser in others like breasts or the pancreas.

The other half of the fascial network is a gel-like web of variable mucopolysaccharides, or mucus. Basically, your cells are glued together with snot, which is everywhere, and is more or less watery (hydrated) depending on where it is in the body and what condition it’s in.

All the circulation in your body has to pass through these fibrous and mucousy webs. Generally speaking, the denser the fibers and the drier the mucous, the less the fascial web allows molecules to flow through it—nourishment in one direction and waste in the other. Yoga helps both stretch and ease the fiber webbing, as well as hydrate the gel, making it more permeable.

New research shows that this web of proteins runs down through the membranes of each cell and connects both aspects of the connective-tissue web through the cytoskeleton to the cell nucleus. This means that when you’re doing yoga stretches, you are actually pulling on your cells’ DNA and changing how it expresses itself. Thus, the mechanical environment around your cells can alter the way your genes function.

We’ve known for a while that the chemical environment (hormones, diet, stress catecholamines, and more) can do this, but these new connections explain some of the deeper changes we see when people start practicing regularly.

More on that mechanical environment: Cells are never more than four deep from your capillaries, which excrete food, oxygen, messenger molecules (neuropeptides like endorphins), and more. Tension in your body—slumping your shoulders forward, for example—prompts the fibroblasts (the most common cells found in connective tissue) to make more fibers that will arrange themselves along the line of stress. These bulked-up fascial fibers will form a barrier that will slow or stop capillary-sourced food from reaching your cells. You’ll get enough to survive, but function will slow down. In addition to a thicker barrier of fascial-tissue fibers, the mucus that completes your fluid fascial network will also become thicker and more turgid, which contributes to stopping the flow to your cells.

And because the exchange of goods from capillaries to cells is a two-way street, with cells delivering messenger molecules and CO2 and other waste products back into the bloodstream, a hardened fascial network can trap unprocessed cell products (toxins or metabolites) like a stream eddy traps leaves.

The fix: deep strengthening and stretching squeezes your fascial network the way you would squeeze a sponge. Those metabolites that were trapped in the mucousy bits rush in hoards to the capillaries and your bloodstream. Many of us may feel out of sorts after we release deeply held tension—that’s your liver dealing with the metabolites you squeezed from the tissues. Try an Epsom salts bath, or go back for more movement to keep the process going.

Over yoga time, fascial fibers will slowly thin out and unadhere over weeks, sometimes months, but the mucus can change to a more liquid state in as quickly as a minute, allowing more sliding, less pain, more feeling, and less resistance. Use your yoga—it’s a great tool to get fluids and information flowing to their maximum sensitivity and adaptability.

See also The Anatomy of Fascia—& What It Can Tell Us About How to Practice


Body of Knowledge: Fascia 101

Fascia is the biological fabric that holds us together—the connective-tissue network. This collagenous network of gel and fiber is made up in part by an “extra-cellular matrix,” manufactured inside a connective-tissue cell and then extruded out into intercellular space. The fiber-gel matrix remains an immediate part of the environment of every cell, similar to how cellulose helps provide structure to plant cells. (Remember, we are more like a plant than a machine.)

The Anatomy Trains body map shows our myofascial, or muscle-fascia, anatomy. These 12 whole-body myofascial meridians are more evident in dissection. While most anatomy textbooks show the muscles with the filmy fascia removed, this map illustrates fascia’s deeper function—as global lines of tension, proprioception, and interoception that embed the body’s neuromuscular network, acting to keep your skeleton in shape, guide movement, and coordinate postural patterns. Understanding how these lines function can help unlock a deeper understanding of anatomy for your yoga practice. For example, in Urdhva Mukha Svanasana (Upward-Facing Dog Pose), you are stretching the entire superficial front lines of fascia—the green lines—from the tops of your feet all the way up to the sides of your neck to the back of your skull. You are also challenging all four arm lines. When you strike the right balance in this pose, you can feel your fascial web helping you realize tension and stability, effort and ease.

Feel Your Fascia


Rick Cummings

The benefits of thinking of the body as a whole organism, instead of in parts, are profound. When we truly comprehend and feel this in our own bodies and see it in our students, we can move and teach with more integrity. That said, as yoga becomes physiotherapized, or made into a practice resembling physical therapy that helps people restore movement and function (a necessary and positive process in general), asana are often reduced to which muscles are stretched—think “Downward Dog is good for your hamstrings.” In reality, while tight hamstrings may be a common experience, your edge in this pose may be deep in your calves or butt, or along the fronts of your shoulders. It depends on your patterns—the way you were grown and what you took on.

Try this exercise to help you feel that your anatomy is more like a plant than
a machine, and to help you move away from separating yourself into parts:


Move into Down Dog. It is easy to feel your back body in this pose as you lift your hips, drop your heels from the middle of your legs, and lengthen your spine. But take time to spread your awareness and attention throughout your entire body in order to find points that lack awareness and are unique to your experience of this pose. Here are some points to ponder:

  1. Track the front of your spine in this pose, as if you were rolling a warm red ball up the front of your spine from your tailbone, up the front of your sacrum and the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae, then behind your guts and heart.
  2. Relax your voice box, then your tongue, then your jaw. Let your head dangle. Let yourself be stupid for a moment, then re-establish the length in your cervical spine without the tension.
  3. Move your breath into the back of your ribs, which can be frozen in your early work in this pose. Can you feel the ribs moving under your shoulder blades? Are you moving your lower ribs behind your kidneys?
  4. Move your weight around your feet while in the pose. This can be subtle but powerful. If your heels are off the ground, move slowly, medially then laterally, on the balls of your feet. Feel how that changes the way you feel the rest of your body. If your heels are down, move slowly all around your feet like a clock: At what position do you lock up? Work there.
  5. Because the deep lateral rotators are often limiting in this pose, can you let the area between your sits bones bloom? Try rotating your knees inward in the pose to help find your limitation, and keep working your hips upward. Remember, you are whole. Someone may describe you as a machine, but that is not the scientific truth­—wholeness is.

Join Tom Myers for a seven-week online introduction to anatomy for yoga students and teachers. You’ll learn how to think of movement in holistic, relational, and practical ways, and how to identify common postural patterns, as well as strategies for cueing to awaken parts of the body that may need work. Sign up now.

About Our Pro
Writer Tom Myers is the author of Anatomy Trains and the co-author of
Fascial Release for Structural Balance. He has also produced more than 35 DVDs and numerous webinars on visual assessment, Fascial Release Technique, and the applications of fascial research. Myers, an integrative manual therapist with 40 years of experience, is a member of the International Association of Structural Integrators and the Health Advisory Board for Equinox. Learn more at anatomytrains.com.


《Katie Melua – The Closest Thing To Crazy (04:11) 》

《Katie Melua – The Closest Thing To Crazy (04:11) 》

Transformation of a bakery into a two floor house in the old part of the city of Porto, Portugal


Transformation of a bakery into a two floor house in the old part of the city of Porto, Portugal

Architects: Guilherme Machado Vaz
Location: Porto, Portugal
Year: 2017
Area: 1.926 ft²/ 179 m²
Photo courtesy: Luís Ferreira Alves

“João’s House is a renovation project for a small house located in the old part of the city of Porto, close to the Douro River. It is a traditional XIX century ground floor building with walls made with stone, and a wooden roof structure covered with tiles. It was once used as a bakery that served the local population who were mostly fishermen.

The project transforms the bakery into a two floor house distributing the social spaces on the groundfloor and the private spaces on the upperfloor. There is a mid level between the two floors to open a small pátio that brings light to the client’s musical studio.

The social space on the ground floor – living room and kitchen – is fisically divided, and visually United, by a piece of furniture that works simultaneously as a Bookshelf and a cupboard, as it can be accessed through it’s glass sliding frames from both sides. So you can have books in one shelf and ktichen stuff in another. It also filters light in a very subtle way.


The kitchen is a very extroverted space, and it can extend outdoors to the street, letting you enjoy the neighbourhood spirit and popular life with a glaass of wine in hand while dinner is being cooked.

The living room is a more introverted space iluminated by the skylight that gives very different kinds of white due to the reflection of natural light in the various wall textures. The upperfloor has two unleveled rooms that share one bathroom with two separate entrance doors. There is also a very nice and quiet varanda that the sun likes to visit. It opens to the neighbours backyards and takes you to a very confortable place. A place about identity, culture and the history of Porto.”

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《Katie Melua – Piece By Piece (03:25) 》

《Katie Melua – Piece By Piece (03:25) 》







安奇‧馬許瓦里(Ankit Maheshwari)的祖父氣沖沖地衝進新娘休息室裡:身形修長,龐眉皓髮的他插著腰、大聲點名一個又一個安奇狐群狗黨們的名字,下令他們趕快拿著藏在背包和桌底的格蘭立威(Glenlivet)和傑克丹尼(Jack Daniel’s)威士忌滾出他孫子的婚禮。約莫一坪大的休息室裡原本塞著五、六個彪形大漢,正在用透明塑膠杯輪流啜飲著套著可口可樂的瓊漿玉液;人贓俱獲的他們這下只好揣著瓶子與杯子,一邊竊笑一邊魚貫溜出房門。坐在沙發上,美艷動人的新娘妮哈莉卡‧鐵支(Niharika Tyagi)放開安奇的手,抿著笑,用眼神示意他跟上他的朋友們。安奇隨後加入了我們在對街停車場舉辦的第二場飲酒會,手上拿著的杯子杯緣上還淡淡地沾著新娘的唇印。


印度西邊的古吉拉特邦(State of Gujarat)自1949年禁酒至今。這或許與古吉拉特邦是國父甘地(Mahatma Gandhi)故鄉有關──甘地一直都以其對飲酒的深痛惡絕聞名。甘地曾經將飲酒描述為「比竊盜與賣淫更可惡的行為(“…hold drink to be more damnable than thieving and perhaps even prostitution” – Young India, 8-6-‘21)」,並甚至說出了「我寧願印度永遠窮困…我寧願印度沒有教育,若這是禁酒的代價的話(“I would rather have India reduced to a state of pauperism than have thousands of drunkards in our midst. I would rather have India without education if that is the price to be paid for making it dry.” – Young India, 15-9-‘27)」這樣保守激進、充滿爭議的敘述。話說回來,聖雄甘地對於「純潔」這件事有近乎潔癖的執著──除了飲酒之外,他還反對吃肉、抽菸,和性行為。

甘地的思想並沒有隨著時光消散,反而在令人意想不到的時候襲捲而來。2015年東印度貧困落後的比哈邦(State of Bihar)首長尼特許‧庫瑪(Nitesh Kumar)宣布比哈邦(在66年之後)跟進古吉拉特邦全邦禁酒,他直指此則飲酒禁令是在向聖雄甘地致敬,並要那些「少數說英文的人」認知到飲酒並不屬於基本人權。

在印度的29個邦中,古吉拉特邦、比哈邦和東北的那葛蘭邦(Nagaland)有禁酒令,在其他的26個邦平日飲酒目前仍是合法的;但因飲酒普遍被認為是社會動盪與犯罪的淵藪,各地各自在特定日期規定有禁酒日(Dry Day),這些日子包含甘地的生日、選舉投票日、獨立紀念日等。在公開場合飲酒亦被普遍視為是冒犯的行為,路人會對手拿酒瓶的人側目且議論紛紛,飲酒變成在陰影裡 – 拉下窗簾的酒吧或夜色掩蓋的野外 – 才能從事的行為。

對大部份的印度人而言,飲酒是不折不扣的「戶外運動」。為了避人耳目,德拉敦(Dehradun)夜歸的男人會在路上攔下一台嘟嘟車(Auto-rickshaw),坐進後座,拉下靠人行道側的防水油布,在妻子頻頻打來的電話鈴聲裡與識與不識的人用塑膠杯乾盡不知名的烈酒。人們在古爾岡(Gurugram)的酒店(Liquor Shop)櫃台前摩肩擦踵、揪著錢,用激動與期待與店主討要快樂與歡愉;有些酒店為了控制人潮,會在櫃台上加裝鐵窗,遠遠一看那個場面甚像是飢荒時期的政府公發糧食處(Ration Stall);買到酒之後,顧客可以走進旁邊店家特地為有家但因酒歸不得的人所準備的「飲酒席」──基本上就是個用帆布、木板,稍微講究一點的會有磚牆與雨遮,配上震耳欲聾的音樂,將審視與批判的目光阻絕於外,讓飲酒的人能自成一方天地的場所。


毫不意外地,大張旗鼓的道貌岸然與慾望蠢動的燈紅酒綠就如此交織出檯面上與檯面下兩個同時存在但好像互不干擾的世界。都市的年輕白領在下班的時候站在塵土飛揚的停車處上將手上的印度製廉價威士忌一飲而盡,住在高級社區的自由派夫婦則忙著在爸媽來訪之前把酒瓶藏起來。無論政府或保守人士如何將飲酒視為不潔的行為,印度仍是全世界成長最快的飲酒市場之一。印度整體酒類市場平均年增率為8.8%,並預計在2022年達到年飲用量170億公升的水準;其中,紅酒市場的年增率為21.8%,威士忌市場的年增率為22.8% – 而印度已是全世界大的威士忌飲用國。



《Katie Melua – Dreams On Fire (04:07) 》

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【我們的島】能源轉型的允諾與失落 供電穩定的未來如何走


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公視記者:胡慕情 陳添寶


























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‘Wake-up call’: microplastics found in Great Australian Bight sediment


‘Wake-up call’: microplastics found in Great Australian Bight sediment

Exclusive: Scientists say governments and corporations need to ‘legislate and incentivise’ to tackle ocean plastics

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Microplastics have been found in the sediment of the Great Australian Bight marine park
 The Great Australian Bight marine park, a so-called ‘pristine’ biodiversity hotspot where microplastics have been found below the surface. Photograph: Sarah Hanson-Young

Plastic has been found in ocean-floor sediments 2km below the surface in one of Australia’s most precious and isolated marine environments.

CSIRO scientists discovered the microplastic pieces while analysing samples taken hundreds of kilometres offshore at the bottom of the Great Australian Bight– a so-called “pristine” biodiversity hotspot and marine treasure.

Conservationists and scientists said the discovery off the South Australian coast should act as a “wake-up call” for governments and corporations to cut unnecessary use of plastics and to “legislate and incentivise” to tackle the growing ocean plastics problem.

Dr Denise Hardesty, a principal research scientist at CSIRO and a member of the team analysing the sediments, said: “This points to just how ubiquitous plastics are in our environment. Even in deep sea sediments around Australia, that’s a developed country, we still find plastic – anthropogenic waste – from the bottom of the sea to the surface.

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“Wherever you are, the organisms passing through those areas will have come in contact with it – whether it was a fishing line or a plastic bag that’s broken down into thousands of tiny pieces.

“This is hundreds of kilometres offshore at a couple of kilometres of depth – that’s pretty confronting that, even there, we find it. This stuff is everywhere.”

The sediments were analysed using a red dye that causes any plastics to fluoresce under special light. The pieces detected were at least 10 micrometres wide – about the same width as very fine wool.

An image of microplastics found in the Great Australian Bight
 An image of microplastics found in the Great Australian Bight. Photograph: CSIRO

CSIRO scientists are doing further analysis and a scientific paper is being prepared for submission to a journal.

Microplastics have been found in several less remote seabed areas around Australia and other parts of the world.


In 2017, CSIRO researchers reported they had found plastic pieces in sediments taken from Derwent river in Tasmania. The same team has found plastic fibres in the digestive tract of mussels from the same river.

Dr Jennifer Lavers, of the Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies at the University of Tasmania, said she was not surprised that plastic had been found in the bight “because there are multiple studies from around the world finding microplastics and even nano plastics in sediments throughout the bottom of the world’s oceans”.

“Should it worry us? Absolutely,” she said. “The smaller the pieces, the more species there are to consume it.

“Everything that is tiny is at the base of the food web so it’s not an issue of just an albatross swallowing a cigarette lighter or a sperm whale swallowing big chunk of net, you now literally have microplastics being eaten by corals, sea cucumbers, clams and muscles, and zooplankton at the very base of the food web. You have all levels of the food web infiltrated with this stuff. It’s everywhere and where the plastic goes, the chemicals follow.”

Microplastics and microfibers are now so ubiquitous in our air and water that the CSIRO researchers had to go to extreme lengths to reduce any contamination of their sediment samples from outside sources.

Equipment had to be pre-rinsed with deionized water, laboratory solutions had to be filtered, analysis took place in a fume hood and personnel wore clothes made from natural fibres. Air monitoring was also carried out to find laboratory areas with the least amount of airborne plastics.

A $20m four-year government and oil industry-backed research program into the bight ended in 2017 and revealed a rich and previously unknown habitat on the deep seabed.


Associate professor Jason Tanner is a marine biologist specialising in the ocean floor at the South Australia research and development institute. He helped lead the research into the biodiversity in the bight.

“There’s quite a diverse fauna down there – filter feeders, soft corals, sponges and lots of more mobile organisms – starfish, sea cucumbers, urchins and, of course, fish. We found almost 300 new species from our sampling.”

Tanner said because plastics tend to sink in the ocean, it was logical that it would eventually settle in deep ocean sediments.

He said that during sampling of the bight seabed 3km down, they used a 4m trawl and “pretty much every time” they would bring up “human debris” to the surface.

“We brought up Coke cans and bits of clothing,” he added.

Tanner said the animals on the seabed used feeding methods that would likely cause them to eat any plastic that might be there “but what the impact of that would be, I couldn’t say.”

James Cordwell, the Australian Marine Conservation Society’s marine campaigner, said: “It’s gutting to know that plastic pollution has been found in one of the wildest parts of our oceans. It is further evidence that few parts of our oceans are left untouched by plastic. We should be very concerned.”

Cordwell said the cool temperate waters of the Great Australian Bight “are some of the wildest and most amazing parts of our big blue planet”, where species such as southern right whales, bottlenose dolphins, Australian sea lions, great white sharks and little penguins lived.

“This is is yet further proof that the world needs to cut our plastic addiction and do much more to stop plastic pollution. Plastic pollution is flowing into our oceans at an alarming rate. Marine life gets entangled in it and mistakes it for food. Once ingested, it sticks in their stomachs and guts and can ultimately lead to their slow starvation.

“We need to lift our game in our response to plastic pollution. We’ve got the world’s third-largest ocean territory and we’re a rich, educated country who trades on our spectacular wild places.

“Cleaning up this mess at the bottom of the sea would be a monumental task and almost impossible. We’ve got to stop plastic reaching our oceans and entering our food chains.”

He said governments needed to “legislate and incentivise”, adding: “The longer we wait, the worse it gets. Australia must lead by example and change our domestic plastic consumption and help our neighbours do the same.”

Plastic fibres found in digestive tract of a mussel in the Derwent river in Tasmania
 Plastic fibres found in digestive tract of a mussel in the Derwent river in Tasmania. Photograph: CSIRO

Nathaniel Pelle, an oceans campaigner at Greenpeace Australia Pacific, said it was “incredibly troubling” that plastics had penetrated to Great Australian Bight seabed.

“The communities of the bight are home to thriving tourism industries and fishing towns whose occupants cherish and depend on the health of this environment. The waters are so productive that fully 25% of the value of Australian seafood catch comes from the bight.

“Corporations like Nestle, Unilever and Procter & Gamble are still pushing incredible quantities of plastic on to the global market and governments in Australia, and the world, have been incredibly slow to act on controlling the avalanche.

“We cannot afford to continue our inaction to this problem as plastic permeates every single part of the environment from our drinking water and the food we eat to microplastic particles in the Antarctic and Great Australian Bight.

“Corporations and governments must move to not only limit the use and consumption of single-use plastics but to also measure and address the impact of what is already in the environment.”

The Wilderness Society South Australia director, Peter Owen, said the Great Australian Bight was a “marine treasure” and governments around the world now needed to act on plastics.

“That microplastics have been found in the deep remote waters of the Great Australian Bight is a wake-up call for better protection of our oceans and that includes protecting them from deep-sea oil and gas drilling that Norwegian oil giant Statoil wants to pursue in the Great Australian Bight.”

In 1977, South Australia was the first state to introduce legislation that provides cash for returning recyclable plastics and introduced a plastic bag ban in 2009. Other states are only now introducing schemes to roll out this year and next year.Tasmania and Victoria have no plans to introduce a scheme.

A South Australian government spokesperson said the state was “years ahead” of other areas in banning plastic bags and introducing its container deposit scheme.

“South Australia’s waterways and oceans have long been considered an asset that is important to protect and preserve. Container deposit schemes and plastic bag bans are recognised internationally as two of the most important ways we can do this and both these strategies are part of our behaviour in South Australia.”

The spokesperson added the state had a “longstanding culture of recycling and waste diversion”.


Play Video
 Welcome to Australia’s plastic beach – video

Members of the public could help by avoiding plastic wrapping “wherever practical and possible” and could also cut the plastics they buy, reuse plastic containers and use recycling schemes.

In a statement, the assistant federal environment minister, Melissa Price, said the government “takes the problem of marine debris and its impacts on the environment and wildlife seriously” and pointed to her department’s threat abatement plan for the impacts of marine debris on vertebrate marine life.

The plan has been in revision since early 2017, with a public comment period ending in April 2017. According to a Department of the Environment and Energy spokesperson, the plan is still being revised with an expected release “in the second half of 2018”.

Price said responsibility for waste and litter management largely fell to the states but said the government would “continue to work with” state governments and businesses on the issue.

She added the public played an important role in cutting plastic waste on beaches by reducing their use of plastics by “choosing not to buy plastic products or choosing to buy products with less plastic packaging.”

She said: “[The public] can also support businesses that use products made of alternative materials to plastics and always take their waste away following visits to beaches and waterways.”


塑膠污染入侵深海又一例 南澳洲原始海域 海床檢出塑膠微粒


塑膠污染入侵深海又一例 南澳洲原始海域 海床檢出塑膠微粒

發表日期 2018/04/30

大澳洲灣(Great Australian Bight)是澳洲最珍貴、最遺世獨立的海域之一,科學家最近卻在這片海域海面下2公里的海底沉積物中,發現了塑膠微粒。


位於澳洲南部的大澳洲灣。John Englart攝(CC BY-SA 2.0)


CSIRO首席研究科學家、沉積物分析團隊成員之一哈德斯蒂(Denise Hardesty)博士說,「這顯示塑膠在我們的環境中是多麼的普遍。連在澳洲這個已開發國家,從從海面到海底,都有這種人造廢棄物。」








協助主持此研究的副教授坦納(Jason Tanner)是南澳研發中心(South Australia research and development institute)海洋生物學家及海床專家。他指出,「該處動物相的多樣性相當高,濾食動物、軟珊瑚、海綿和許多移動型生物,像是海星、海參、海膽,當然還有魚。我們從樣區中發現了近300種新物種。」










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