Are Questions Your Answer to Happiness?


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/are-questions-your-answer-to-happiness

Are Questions Your Answer to Happiness?

Access Consciousness founder Gary Douglas explains how turning the standard self-help formula on its head could actually be a lot more helpful.

Take a walk through your local bookstore and you will probably find a self-help section. And more than likely, it’s fairly large. The global self-help industry is reportedly worth around $11 billion per year and a quick online search of “the answer to happiness” will reveal nearly 5 million results. People are obviously looking for it. But how many actually find it? Look around. Not much happiness is abounding.

Perhaps that’s because we have it backward. We keep looking for the answers that will create happiness. But what if they don’t exist? What if there is no secret to life? And, what if the willingness to ask questions actually opens the door to the happiness you seek?

3 Top Tips to Finding Happiness

1. Recognize that there is nothing wrong with you.

The reason the self-help industry fails most people is because they start with one subtle-yet-damaging conclusion: that there is something wrong with you. Most programs ask the individual to acknowledge what is wrong about them and then take steps to fix, improve, or neutralize those issues.

What if there is nothing wrong with you? What if buying into the idea that you are damaged and somehow in need of being fixed is what keeps you stuck in unhappiness? Always searching. Never finding.

A healthier and more effective approach to self-help is to give people the awareness that nothing is wrong with them and that they need to stop making themselves wrong. All that is required for positive change is a more open mind.

If you have lived your life believing that you are wrong and that you need to be fixed, start asking this question, “What’s right about me that I’m not getting?” As you ask this question, the negative thoughts and feelings that keep you from happiness start to dissipate and you gain a sense of the gift you are.

See also Feeling Stuck? Try Self-Inquiry for Resistance

2. Curiosity is key.

Research has shown that curious people—those who are constantly asking questions and looking for new possibilities—tend to enjoy higher levels of positive emotions, lower levels of anxiety, more satisfaction with life, and greater psychological well-being.

Take kids as an example. In case you haven’t noticed, they tend to have a higher level of happiness than most. They play. They imagine. They explore. They ask questions. They are curious.

Each one of us has an innate awareness of what decisions will bring us the best of love, life, health, finance, and business. The trick to revealing this unconscious wisdom is to keep your mind open to every possibility—to never seek an answer to anything. To forever and always ask questions.

3. Practice asking questions.

Most of us have spent our entire lives looking for the answer. Not just any answer—the right answer. Recognizing that questions are what catapults us into the life, the joy, and the satisfaction we desire is a start. But, if asking questions is new to you, it might take some practice. Here are a few typical answers or conclusions you may be familiar with and questions you can ask instead:

  • Rather than saying, “This situation is so bad” or “Wow, this situation is amazing,” ask “How does it get any better than this?” This question triggers your unconscious self to make an unpleasant situation better and an uplifting situation even greater.
  • Instead of believing that you are a victim of life and that happiness is given or taken, ask “Do I want to be right, or do I want to be happy?” This question empowers you to realize that happiness is a choice and can be called upon at any time.
  • Instead of saying “I am stuck” or “I quit,” ask “What else is possible that I have never considered?” This question triggers your unconscious awareness to look for the various solutions and possibilities available to you.

Happiness is available to you. Recognize that you are not wrong. Have a sense of curiosity about everything that comes your way. Ask questions rather than seeking answers and coming to conclusions. Happiness is just a choice. What choice can you make today?

See also A Meditation Practice To Let In Joy + Happiness

Gary-Douglas-CPH-5938

ABOUT OUR EXPERT
Gary Douglas is a bestselling author, business innovator, and founder of Access Consciousness®, a set of simple-yet-profound tools currently transforming lives in 176 countries. He has authored or co-authored 17 books including the Barnes and Noble #1 bestselling novel, The Place. An avid investor and entrepreneur, Gary is a vocal advocate of Conscious Capitalism and benevolent leadership. He co-hosts a weekly radio on Voice America and has featured in numerous TV shows, print media, and online publications around the world. He is renowned for his unique insights on love, relationships, money, business, aging, leadership, and emotional freedom. For more information on Gary Douglas, visit garymdouglas.com

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【書摘】逐鹿之海:一六六一台灣之戰|朱和之


一六六一年四月三十日清晨,當濃霧被朝陽驅散,熱蘭遮城守望的哨兵詫異地看見海上出現了一片光禿禿的森林,仔細一瞧,那竟是無數的國姓爺船隊前來攻打大員,引發巨大騷動。

是甚麼樣的力量,讓來自東西半球、地北天南的人們聚集在這一片小小的海灣裡彼此廝殺?誰的信仰和價值,才是上天眷顧的一方?

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【書摘】逐鹿之海:一六六一台灣之戰|朱和之

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6656

【書摘】逐鹿之海:一六六一台灣之戰

友善列印版本

書名:逐鹿之海:一六六一台灣之戰(link is external)
出版社:印刻
出版日期:2017年10月31日
作者:朱和之


第六章:戰雲

蕭壠神學院在去年秋末落成,隨即招收學生開始上課,經過半年的運作,已漸漸上了軌道。神學院由亨布魯克牧師擔任校長,共有三十名年齡在十到十四歲之間的學生,都是從西拉雅各村社所挑選的貧童或孤兒。

學生全體住校,由神學院提供所有生活需求,只有星期四休假時可以外出。他們接受學識、生活和道德的全人教育,以在將來成為認真的傳道人。神學院上午以西拉雅語教授《教理問答》,下午則以《語言入門》等教材學習荷蘭語,以及各種生活儀節。

阿剌朗因為當年已經十八歲,並未如願成為學生,但在亨布魯克牧師賞識下成為神學院的助理教師。這是他最滿足也最驕傲的一段時光,每天都充滿喜樂地勤奮工作著。他也和以前在學校的女同學以基督教儀式結婚,兩人都放棄蕭壠習俗[1],妻子搬離娘家、阿剌朗離開男子會所,一起居住在自己的小屋中,過著基督徒的生活。

這天下午,阿剌朗正在指導學生練習對話,亨布魯克突然來到教室門口向他招手:「雅各,政務員有事情宣布,我們一起過去一趟。」

阿剌朗回頭吩咐學生:「大家自己練習。值日生負責把不說荷蘭語而說各村社語言的學生名字記錄下來,晚點交給我。」

兩人來到蕭壠政務員的宅邸,三名荷蘭人學校教師、兩名荷蘭駐村士兵和三名蕭壠社長老已在大廳聚集等候。

「所有人都到齊了。」政務員巴克斯一見亨布魯克二人前來,當即道,「福爾摩沙商館有命令──根據最近得到的消息,我們十分確定國姓爺即將實行侵略的野心。他的大軍將從南、北兩邊登陸,會合包抄熱蘭遮城堡和普羅民遮堡壘。」

眾人騷動起來,一名教師疑惑道:「幾乎每年都有國姓爺攻打臺灣的傳聞,這次是真的嗎?」

「確定無疑!」巴克斯異常嚴肅,「有太多跡象顯示國姓爺真的要來了,大家不可輕忽。」

「主啊,請憐憫我們,讓我們有足夠的勇氣抵擋國姓爺的侵略。」亨布魯克沉穩地道,「我們會向國姓爺展現基督徒的美德,讓他知道我們是不可侵犯的。」

巴克斯向亨布魯克一點頭,續道:「有鑑於此,商館決定取消今年的地方會議[2],以免官員們離開工作崗位之際,心中暗藏反叛念頭的人趁機作亂。」

三位長老互看一眼,似乎有些鬆了口氣,但也有些可惜。這意味著他們的長老身分應該可以再持續一年,但也沒有機會享受會議之後的大餐招待了。阿剌朗則是頗為遺憾,他一直希望親身體驗地方會議的盛大與莊嚴,更暗暗期盼有一天能夠被任命為長老,洗刷父親飛托被褫奪權杖的屈辱。

巴克斯又道:「其次,所有荷蘭人,從學校教師到士兵,都應該立刻隨身佩戴一支適用的荷蘭槍枝。福爾摩沙人則用傳統的方式武裝起來。」

剛剛發言的教師緊張地問:「國姓爺會派多少人來攻打?」

巴克斯遲疑了一下,只道:「不會太少。這就是為甚麼所有人都必須做好準備,隨時接受召喚。一旦偵測到海面有危險迫近,住在沙河和大甲溪間的居民就要全副武裝集結在虎尾壠,阻止敵人登陸;住在沙河這邊的幾個村社,則在蕭壠集合,防守魍港海岸。」

三位蕭壠長老眼睛發亮,直問:「我們可以像以前那樣在出征前舞蹈祈福,勝利回來後舉辦十四天的慶典嗎?」

「可以!」巴克斯毫不遲疑地回答,長老們聞言忍不住一臉興奮期待。巴克斯迫切地道:「大家即刻去磨好矛槍和弓箭,在最短時間內完成準備,敵人隨時都有可能來犯!」他指著阿剌朗道:「你也回去準備武器。」

阿剌朗大吃一驚:「我是神學院的助理教師啊。」

「去,每一個能夠上陣的人都要去!」

阿剌朗抗議道:「這是不對的!我們費盡力氣才改正了村人們崇拜偶像的異教習俗,現在卻又公然允許大家舉辦祭典;副校長維德瑞斯牧師過世後,神學院的課程好不容易重新安排就緒,現在卻要把吃緊的人力調派開來,這對教育的傷害太大了。」

「你根本不明白事情的嚴重性!」巴克斯始終力持鎮靜,壓抑著自己的恐懼,這時忽然全部爆發開來,嘶吼道:「你知道國姓爺派了多少人來攻打,兩萬五千!是兩萬五千名飽經戰陣的兇狠戰士啊!」

「兩萬五千⋯⋯」所有人都倒抽一口冷氣,這比公司治下所有能夠戰鬥者的數量多了好幾倍,更是全村老幼不及一千五百的蕭壠人所無法想像。

學校教師們開始默默盤算著怎麼逃亡,並隨即陷入絕望之中。長老們面面相覷,不知道即將迎來甚麼樣的災難。

「我明白了!」阿剌朗挺起胸膛,大聲道,「幾年前郭懷一率領五千人反叛公司,公司只花十二天就全部平定了。我會重新拾起矛槍,為荷蘭奮戰到底,然後再回來繼續教學工作。」

「點火!」裴德爾厲聲下令。

大目降漢人村落的大道公廟前,堆積著小山一般的數百袋稻穀。士兵們得令,拿著火把四處點燃,起初只引起一點看不見火光的熱流,但乾燥的稻穀很快便熊熊燃燒起來,濃焰衝天。

漢人農民們看著自己一整年辛勤勞動種出來的稻穀就這樣被燒毀,心底隨著火焰的跳動而顫抖抽痛。

「一定要全部焚毀嗎?」大頭仔三舍已經無法去計算損失的金額,痛苦地道,「隊長可以命令這些中國人把稻穀搬到赤崁的倉庫,不必燒毀啊。」

「非燒不可!要是國姓爺明天就登陸,這些稻穀就會成為他圍困我軍的重要物資。長官閣下有令,凡是十袋以上來不及運送的稻穀,都必須就地燒毀!」裴德爾仗劍插腰,一點都不容商議,「還有,所有中國人即刻起必須離開靠近山丘和森林的地區,集中到赤崁普羅民遮市街附近去。也就是說,大目降的所有中國人都得離開!」

隨行翻譯用閩南語複述命令,漢人們一陣大譁,有些人比手畫腳顯得很不服氣,也有人拱手哀告甚至跪地磕頭,希望荷蘭人讓他們留下來。三舍近乎哀嚎地道:「這又是為甚麼?讓農人離開他們辛勤開墾的農地和家園,到沒有能夠遮風避雨的地方去,等於是讓他們流離失所啊。」

裴德爾虎著臉道:「一旦開戰,公司職員全都集中在堡壘裡戍守,如果任由中國人待在鄉下,萬一被意圖不軌的壞人煽動,對彼此都是很大的麻煩。」

漢人們怨聲載道,你一言我一語地抗議起來,甚至激動叫囂。裴德爾舉起燧石手槍「轟」地朝天開了一槍,眾人一片驚呼,嘩地全都蹲伏臥倒,許多人嚇得顫抖不已,甚至於屁滾尿流。

裴德爾睥睨環視,大喝一聲:「還不快滾!」眾人如驚弓之鳥起身奔走,唯恐落後。裴德爾輕蔑地啐了一記,咒罵道:「真是不加鞭打就不肯動一下的蠢牛。」

三舍開始失悔自己去向揆一通報國姓爺即將來襲的消息,這下子損失難以計數。他心裡暗暗罵道:揆一行事這麼偏激,大失民心,就算擊退國姓爺,大家還願意好好服從嗎?

「還有,所有房子的門窗都必須拆下,送到普羅民遮堡壘去,以免敵人躲在屋內。」裴德爾轉身對三舍道,「對了,長官有命,請你暫時住在熱蘭遮城堡裡。」

三舍心頭一驚:「這是⋯⋯要逮捕我嗎?我對公司那麼忠誠,每次聽到甚麼消息都最早向長官報告啊。」

「你不是已經把妻子和其他家屬送回中國去了?」

「是⋯⋯不⋯⋯」三舍結結巴巴,「他們原本就經常往來⋯⋯往來福爾摩沙和中國之間的⋯⋯」

「你八十歲的老母親也經常這樣奔波?何況是在國姓爺即將大舉來襲的時刻?」裴德爾嚴厲地瞪視著。

三舍意識到事態嚴重,趕緊賭咒:「我只是想讓家人躲避戰亂,絕對沒有背叛公司,否則讓我遭到天打雷劈!」這時稻穀堆猛烈地燒成一個巨大的火柱,熱氣蒸騰侵人,倏然間「嗶剝」爆響,把三舍嚇了一大跳。

「哈!」裴德爾忍俊不住,在他肩頭拍了一記,「你放心,我們只是請你住在城堡中的好房屋裡,不是懷疑你通敵,也不會把你關進地牢。等你的家人把屬於你的稻穀和鹿肉都拿出來交給公司,就會放你回家。」

裴德爾搭乘舢舨回到大員,接近熱蘭遮城堡下的公司碼頭時,遠遠看見港道外的海面上有幾艘正在燃燒的中國帆船,隨著波浪搖晃一邊吞吐火舌。一艘領港船駛了進來,船首上站著的是資深領港員彼得斯,裴德爾遂喊道:「今天燒了幾艘啦?」

「十五艘!」彼得斯罵道,「這些中國人想逃跑的決心真是堅定,偷渡小船多到抓不勝抓,還偽裝成漁船和商船,若不通通捕捉、燒毀,本地的消息都讓他們洩漏光了。」

「這些中國人就只有逃跑的本領最好!」裴德爾說罷,兩人哈哈大笑,揮揮手錯船而過。

舢舨靠上碼頭棧板,裴德爾一下船就看到揆一正在城堡外親自監督工程,遂快步上前行禮,大聲道:「報告長官閣下,您交付的命令已經完成──各村社無法搬運的稻穀都已燒毀,總計數千袋;所有鄉下中國人都強制移動到赤崁平原;十名架必沙也都已帶到城堡中軟禁在舊倉庫裡;包括普羅民遮堡壘在內,所有要塞也都配置了充足的士兵、彈藥和其他軍需品。」

「很好!」揆一雙手抱胸,目不轉睛地瞻望著城堡,「等這個新稜堡完成,下層城堡的三個邊角就都有足夠的防禦工事,火砲也沒有死角了;原本為了往市鎮出入方便,在城堡東側開的這道大門,勢必成為敵軍攻擊的一大弱點。等稜堡蓋好,這道門就會封起來,只留下原本北側的三個門。」

「如此一來就萬無一失了。這座歐洲最新式的城堡,可以抵擋任何武力的攻擊。」裴德爾走到他身旁,雙手插腰看著雄偉的城垣,「若不是把那些合約期滿的士兵強制留下,工程就無法這麼快完成。」

揆一瞥了他一眼:「你認為這是不對的嗎?」

「對極了,打仗就是要這麼幹!」裴德爾爽快地道。

「然而易普倫那幫人卻在背後說,這一連串措施太過激烈,將會損害本地商業利益,激起商人和百姓們極大的氣憤,使他們不再效忠公司。」揆一看似平淡地道。

裴德爾道:「笑話,這都是不了解戰爭的懦夫之見,等國姓爺大軍登陸,他們才會驚惶地認為我們做得不夠多、不夠徹底。」

「就拿扣留十名架必沙來說好了,這不只是為了逼他們交出稻穀和鹿肉而已,更是為了防範他們和國姓爺暗中勾結。事實上,上次拘捕的漁翁島船長身上就攜帶了幾封信件,是國姓爺手下大官寫給三位架必沙的。這種事情多麼謹慎都不過分。」揆一忽然激切起來,「別看這些架必沙對公司多麼忠誠的樣子,諺語說『豢養在餐桌下的小羊,往往最先攻擊主人的孩子』,他們畢竟是中國人,絕對不可信任!」

裴德爾看了他一眼,知道何斌叛逃之事對揆一造成很大的衝擊。這些雷厲風行的措施,除了軍事上的目的,同時也是揆一顯示自己和中國人並無勾結的表白,更是對輕縱何斌的補救。

「讓他們去嚼老太婆舌根吧。」揆一激憤地道,「等明天國姓爺來到這道城牆下,大家就會知道我誓死保衛福爾摩沙、保衛荷蘭國領地的決心!」

 


[1]蕭壠家庭習俗:西拉雅族為母系社會,女子婚配後住在原本的家中,男子則繼續待在會所,只能在晚上低調潛入妻子房間,且須在天亮前離開。直到丈夫五十歲後,兩人才會搬進田間的小屋同居。

[2]地方會議:東印度公司以武力壓制原住民村社後彼此結盟,形成如同領主與封臣的關係,並且每年在赤崁舉行地方會議,再次確認盟約、宣布重要規定及任免各村社長老。

 

What You Need to Know About Your IT Band


https://www.yogajournal.com/teach/what-you-need-to-know-about-your-it-band

What You Need to Know About Your IT Band

The trendy go-to remedy for a tight IT band—foam rolling—can actually do more harm than good. Here’s why, plus the yoga poses that’ll help you keep your IT band healthy.
IT_band_anatomy

The iliotibial (IT) band may not be top of mind for most yogis. After all, the thick fascial tissue (similar to a tendon) isn’t typically aggravated by yoga alone. But if you love jump backs, or if you practice yoga to help balance a fitness regimen filled with high-impact or explosive activities (think running, hiking, dancing, or high-intensity interval training) you likely have an embodied sense of this fibrous structure, and you might say it feels “tight.” And you’re right: The tendinous fibers of the IT band have a firmness that serve as a natural protector of your outer thigh. Yet before you use yoga to help “stretch” or heal your IT band, it’s important to know the basics about how this tissue can become irritated and what to do to help it feel better.

If you feel pain on the outside of your knee, particularly when bending it, this may be a sign that you’re dealing with IT Band Syndrome. For example, pain may occur when you walk up or down stairs or move into yoga poses that require a deep bend in one knee, such as Virabhadrasana II (Warrior Pose II). The source? IT band tension caused by imbalances in your tensor fasciae latae or gluteus maximus muscles—the two hip-based connection points for your IT band. When these muscles pull on your IT band, which connects into your knee’s joint capsule and the outside of your shin bone, it can lead to pain in your outer knee.

The good news? IT band issues are usually not very serious and respond well to strengthening and releasing tension in the muscles surrounding the tendon—especially your gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae, as well as the neighboring quadriceps, hamstrings, hip flexors, and hip rotators.

See also Explore Your Hamstrings: Yoga Poses for All Three Muscles

4 Common Causes of IT Band Syndrome

When any tendon is put under repeated stress from overworking or overstretching, little tears or traumas can occur, leading to injury and pain. When this happens in the IT band, it’s called IT Band Syndrome—and because tendinous tissue doesn’t get as much healing blood flow as a muscle, it can be harder to repair. What’s more, the IT band is packed with nerve endings, which is why foam rolling it can be very painful. Here, four common causes of IT Band Syndrome:

1. Excessive running, jumping, or cycling, particularly when knee and hip alignment is off. Keep in mind that any movement with poor alignment can lead to problems. That’s because part of the IT band’s purpose is to keep your knee optimally tracking as you move, so if your joints are consistently out of alignment (say, if your feet pronate when you walk or turn out when you ride your bike), it can irritate your IT band.

2. Overstretching or over-tensing your buttock muscles from exercise or poor habits (for example, sitting cross-legged or frequently wearing high heels).

3. Excessive sitting, which chronically shortens the tensor fasciae latae while overly lengthening the glutes, weakening your hips, hamstrings, and gluteal muscles and aggravating your IT band.

4. Leg length discrepancies, which can place excessive strain on one hip, leading to IT band issues on the longer leg.

Also known as the iliotibial tract, the IT band is a multipurpose tendon that runs down the length of the outer thigh, from the top of the pelvis (ilium) to the shin bone (tibia). It connects the tensor fasciae latae muscle (a hip flexor) and gluteus maximus (the largest butt muscle, a hip extensor, and external rotator) to the outside of the tibia. The IT band is responsible for keeping your hips and knees stable, particularly during rapid, explosive moves like running and jumping. Think of the thick fascia of the IT band like a well-tensioned bridge that links the pelvis and knee. That fascia also envelops your quadriceps muscles and tapers into the knee joint capsule. When the two muscles that attach at the top section of the IT band—the tensor fasciae latae and gluteus maximus—contract, it adds tension to the IT band, which helps to stabilize your knee-to-hip relationship. But too much use (or underuse) from one of these muscles can overstress your IT band and tug on your outer knee, leading to pain.

anatomy-it-band

Ilium

This is the uppermost and largest part of the hip bone; it’s a wide, flat bone that provides many attachment points for muscles of the hip and trunk.

Tensor Fasciae Latae

This small muscle lies in front of the hip joint and is one of the connection points for the IT band.

Iliotibial Band

This thick, fascial tissue serves as the tendinous insertion for the gluteus maximus and tensor fascia latae. It is the outer border of the vastus lateralis (outer quadriceps) muscle and acts as a fascial envelope for the quadriceps group.

Tibia

Also known as the shinbone, it is the larger and stronger of the two bones below the knee.

Gluteus Maximus

The largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles, this is the main extensor muscle of the hip and the other connection point for the IT band.

Why Foam Rolling Isn’t a Cure

It seems logical that if you’re dealing with IT Band Syndrome, massaging the tendon with a foam roller might help. And while it will likely provide temporary relief afterward (there’s a good chance it’ll also hurt like heck while you’re rolling!), it’s my firm belief that arbitrary foam rolling of your IT band can do more harm than good. Here’s why:

For starters, excessive rolling can further irritate an aggravated IT band tendon, worsening existing micro-tears. Plus, some of the relief that comes after a foam-rolling session may be the result of stimulated stretch receptors in the vastus lateralis, the lateral quadriceps muscle that lies beneath your IT band. While this quad-tension relief can slightly relieve IT band pain, it doesn’t negate the potential additional damage caused by the foam roller. Finally, if you foam roll your IT band while ignoring the all-important gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae, you’re not addressing the underlying cause of pain.

Instead of foam rolling, try Ball Plow

First, use therapy balls on your gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae. Place the balls between your muscles and the floor, then ease the weight of your body onto the balls, taking deep breaths as the balls sink deep into your tissue. Stay here for 2 minutes per muscle group. As you lie on the balls, try tensing and releasing these muscles a few times to further relax the muscles and their connections to the IT band. Then, use therapy balls on the outside of your thigh, which will help to improve hip mechanics and ultimately restore proper IT band function—without risking additional damage.

It’s important to avoid trying to “roll out” or “loosen” your IT band, as it could worsen its condition. Instead, use the therapy balls to target the mobility of the muscles underneath the IT band: the quadriceps. In the following release exercise (“Ball Plow,” below), moving the therapy balls in super-slow motion helps to coax mobility into these deeper muscles. The balls will likely come in contact with your IT band at times, so limit your pressure at highly sensitive points. Attempt to apply pressure that helps to create a relaxation response in the deep thigh muscles below the IT band.

See also Releasing Tight Hips

The practice below will help you to home in on the right spots. If rolling feels painful, back off. This should feel like a tolerable stretch, leaving the area feeling warm and refreshed.

1. Rest on your side and place a pair of Yoga Tune Up Therapy Balls (or other small, pliable balls) on the outside of your thigh, toward the junction between your quads and hamstrings, nestling the balls into a region that is directly below your IT band.

2. Let the balls sink in for 10 breaths. Imagine that they’re docking themselves between your quads and hamstrings.

3. Moving slowly, use the weight of your thigh to guide the balls forward (across the thigh, not lengthwise). You’ll use the deeply docked therapy balls to move your quads around your femur, mobilizing the lateral (outside) quad away from the hamstrings and creating a stretch between the bone and your quads. If done correctly, it will feel like a large hand is pivoting your thigh muscle around the bone.

4. Therapy balls will naturally roll (they are spheres, after all). Try to minimize rolling by using them to plow the entire section of muscle, which will cause your thigh to internally rotate.

5. Repeat for up to 10 minutes, moving slowly from the outside of your thigh toward the middle, then switch legs.

3 Poses for a Healthy IT Band

When it comes to your IT band, not all yoga poses are created equal. Some lengthen the IT band’s muscular attachments, and others will reinforce their strength and stability. The following poses will help you get to know your IT band—and help heal and prevent problems.

About Our Pros

Writer Jill Miller is the creator of Yoga Tune Up and The Roll Model Method, and author of The Roll Model: A Step-by-Step Guide to Erase Pain, Improve Mobility, and Live Better in Your Body. She has presented case studies at the Fascia Research Congress and the International Association of Yoga Therapists Symposium on Yoga Therapy and Research. Learn more at yogatuneup.com. Model Kat Fowler, E-RYT 500, is a yoga and meditation teacher and a Yoga Alliance Continuing Education Provider in New York City. Learn more at katfowleryoga.com.

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Everything You Need to Know About Meditation Posture

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Anatomy 101: Balance Mobility + Stability in Your Hip Joints

 

【時事想想】縮短學童上課時數可行嗎?|許又方


最近有公民提出將學童上課時間縮短為上午九點至下午三點的構想,並且已經成案,教育部必須在明年一月回應。桃園市議員王浩宇曾調查各國學生上課時數,台灣學童平均每天上課時間長達9.5小時,名列全球第一;而歐美日等先進國家則僅6-6.5小時,中南美洲的巴西甚至只有5小時。看來台灣不只勞工「血汗」,連小學生也不例外。這個問題攸關學童健康與長遠的國家競爭力,政府恐怕不能輕忽看待。

【時事想想】縮短學童上課時數可行嗎?|許又方

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6658

【時事想想】縮短學童上課時數可行嗎?

友善列印版本

最近有公民提出將學童上課時間縮短為上午九點至下午三點的構想,並且已經成案,教育部必須在明年一月回應。桃園市議員王浩宇曾調查各國學生上課時數,台灣學童平均每天上課時間長達9.5小時,名列全球第一;而歐美日等先進國家則僅6-6.5小時,中南美洲的巴西甚至只有5小時。看來台灣不只勞工「血汗」,連小學生也不例外。這個問題攸關學童健康與長遠的國家競爭力,政府恐怕不能輕忽看待。

(圖片來源:公共政策網路參與平臺網站截圖)

過去民間針對勞工工時的討論,往往會提出「工時不等於效率」的觀點,這個看法同時也適用於學校──「學習時數不等於學習效率」。很多家長秉持「不讓小孩輸在起跑點的」的信念,除了每天7:30至下午3:40(若加上課後照顧,最長可至5:00)長達8:00小時的在校時間外,更要求子女必須參加校外輔導或學習各種才藝,以致台灣很多學童每週學習的時數竟可高達60小時,比起一般勞工更加「血汗」。醫學專家早已警告,過長時間的學習易對學童造成壓力,不僅影響身心健康,並且削弱學習的成效。最顯而易見的是,因為過度學習而致對學習失去了興趣,隨著年級不斷升高,這種現象愈是明顯。台灣學生平均每週閱讀時數居全球末段,未始不是早年被迫學習過度所造成。而當一國之民對閱讀、對新知的汲取興趣缺缺時,連帶也拖累了整體國家的競爭力。

不僅如此,自小就處在高度的學習壓力下,以致成年的台灣人對於過長的工時也似乎習以為常,結果是年紀輕輕就罹患慢性疲勞症候群,受影響最顯著的是睡眠品質,過去曾有一項統計顯示,台灣人失眠率名列全球第二。這個問題迄今顯然未解,因為不久前衛福部才宣稱,台灣一年的安眠藥使用量超過三億二千萬顆,排起來的長度將近330公里,相當於國道一號總長。試想,因為自小學習、長大工作所造成的過勞,將造成國民健康多少問題,又將耗損多少醫療資源?

因此,縮短學童上課時數,是一個必須嚴肅面對的課題。一如勞動力管理得當,短工時也能創造高效率般,如果課程設計可以更精進,那麼縮短上課時間也能獲致高度學習成果。再者,上課時間變短,資源的耗費(如水電)也相對可以減少,亦有利於經濟效益。

當然,若真要實施每天上學六小時,就目前台灣社會現狀與觀念而言,仍有其亟待克服的難題。首先必須矯正的就是過去家長「學習多(長)才有成效」的觀念,唯這與導正台灣「慣老闆們」認定「工時長(加班)等於成效高」的偏差心態一樣困難,也可能是推行此案的最大阻礙──簡單來說,認為學校教得不夠,乾脆把子女送去「補習」。其次,台灣多數家庭屬「核心型」,即由父母與子女所組成的小家庭型態,如果父母都有職業,現行學童上下學時間一旦調整,將造成家長接送問題。如果學校不願開早自習或晚修課,那麼雙薪家庭對此解決的方式恐不外乎把小朋友交給安親班。若真是如此,即使學校上課時間縮短了,但還是會有不少的學童(特別是都會區)根本無法獲得這個美意所帶來的好處。

此外,在這個對公教人員抱著質疑眼光的年代,學生上課時間減少了,意味老師授課的鐘點也會降低。那麼,會否有人主張應該裁減教師員額或調降老師薪水?若果,勢必又造成政治上與社會上的歧見、紛爭,這些都是主其事者無可迴避的挑戰。

 

 

Fearless Heart Seal


https://www.yogajournal.com/poses/abhaya-hridaya-mudra

Fearless Heart Seal

Use this mudra to find the courage to keep your heart open and loving, especially during those difficult times in your life when fear, hate, or anger pull you away
Fearless heart mudra Sianna sherman

abhaya = fearless

hridaya = heart

mudra = seal

sianna sherman fearless heart mudra

Abhaya Hridaya Mudra Step by Step

Step 1

Bring your hands together in Anjali Mudra.

Step 2

Cross your right wrist over your left wrist in front of your sternum, with the palms facing away from each other.

Step 3

Bring the backs of your hands together.

See also The Mudra You Need to Courageously Follow Your Heart

Step 4

Wrap your right index finger around the left index finger, then your right middle finger over your left, skip over the ring finger and wrap your right little finger over your left.

Step 5

Draw the mudra to the root of your heart, at the base of the sternum. Hover the Courageous Heart Mudra in front of and around your heart. Stay here and meditate on having the courage to keep your heart open and loving, especially during those difficult times in your life when fear, hate, or anger pull you away.

See also Powered By Love: 3 Mudras To Open Your Heart

Pose Information

Sanskrit Name

Abhaya Hridaya Mudra

Pose Level

1

Benefits

  • Connects you to your heart’s truth
  • Builds courage to follow your heart
  • Rejuvenates one’s vital force
  • Reduces fragmented thoughts
  • Reduces scattered energy
  • Imparts a powerful sense of vitality and calm
Anjali Mudra Sianna sherman

Salutation Seal

Dana Trixie Flynn in Dharma Chakra Mudra

Wheel of Dharma Seal

easy seat with gyan mudra

Consciousness Seal

Prana Mudra

Life Force Seal

Dana Trixie Flynn in Vajrapradama Mudra

Unshakeable Trust Seal

Sianna sherman fearless heart mudra

The Mudra You Need to Courageously Follow Your Heart

Dana Trixie Flynn performs the Abhaya Hridaya mudra.

Powered By Love: 3 Mudras To Open Your Heart

mudra, yjlive

Enhance Your Practice with Mudras From Hand to Heart

 

21世紀的AI革命如何撼動新聞業|地瓜周


「如果數據是石油,人工智慧就是讓大數據分析進入新紀元的煉油廠。」工研院巨量資訊科技中心技術長王雲形容。
在既定的報導模式下,AI能以高效率穩定提煉出一則則的報導,節省了記者網羅資訊、預測趨勢及歸納資料的成本。而記者省下的心力與時間則可投入價值鏈上游的判斷與行動上,產製需要咀嚼大量資料,需要時間、專業與實務經驗尚可消化而出的解釋性新聞、深度專訪與調查性報導。這樣的角色分工,有助於提升報導的質量,提升記者進行深度報導的能力,但也代表未具該能力的記者有被裁撤的風險。
21世紀的AI革命如何撼動新聞業|地瓜周
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6650

21世紀的AI革命如何撼動新聞業

友善列印版本

「如果數據是石油,人工智慧就是讓大數據分析進入新紀元的煉油廠。」工研院巨量資訊科技中心技術長王雲形容。

來源:Pixabay

提煉數據價值的煉油廠(AI),已有諸多應用於新聞業的例子:日本JX 通訊社對於眾議院選舉結果的精準預測(link is external)、以秒為單位產出的新聞速報等;此外,AI能迅速蒐集社群網站上可能成為新聞的事件,也能應用在財報新聞、運動賽事的報導上。

在既定的報導模式下,AI能以高效率穩定提煉出一則則的報導,節省了記者網羅資訊、預測趨勢及歸納資料的成本。而記者省下的心力與時間則可投入價值鏈上游的判斷與行動上,產製需要咀嚼大量資料,需要時間、專業與實務經驗尚可消化而出的解釋性新聞、深度專訪與調查性報導。這樣的角色分工,有助於提升報導的質量,提升記者進行深度報導的能力,但也代表未具該能力的記者有被裁撤的風險。

科技變遷與市場拉鋸使新聞組織不得不站在組織轉型與內容革新的趨勢上,將AI納入新聞產製體系中,在現今已毫無疑問是新聞媒體競爭國際影響力的基本要件。基於此,與AI、工程師的密切合作成為記者工作的新樣態--記者必須具備使用數據的思維,同時查核數據來源的真實性、保護個人隱私與避免演算法的偏見。

以「打擊假新聞」為例,路透社與華盛頓郵報在「結合AI與記者專業」的實驗上開闢出具體的方向:路透社的AI程式-「News Tracer」,由多位專業記者鍵入四十項新聞可信度評量指標,如:消息來源的身份、新聞地點與傳播方式,用以分析推特上的新聞貼文,建立新聞可信度評分。華盛頓郵報的「Truth Teller」系統則連結華郵的真實查核專欄(Fact Checker)及其他新聞查核組織的文章,累積資料庫,以即時明辨政治人物公共論述的是與非。

AI的另一項功能在於強化媒體與讀者的關係--分析讀者閱覽新聞留下的數據足跡,幫助媒體發展符合讀者喜好的內容,藉此推動讀者訂閱制度的穩定發展,也有助於精準投放廣告。但別忘了網路經營的馬太效應:「凡有的,還要加給他,叫他有餘;凡沒有的,連他所有的也要奪去。」資源充裕的新聞媒體,可以應用科技發展多元服務,透過訂閱制度套牢訂戶,大者恆大;小型媒體的生存則越發艱困。

不過,歐盟祭出的「一般資料保護規則」(GDPR)將在2018年生效,對於運用AI、大數據經營新聞媒體的公司來說,將帶來新的變數--使用者有權反對企業使用或買賣其個人資料、網頁瀏覽的相關數據,且企業有責任保護使用者的數據足跡不遭到外洩,否則歐盟將予以重罰。歐盟作為全球第三大經濟體,企業主不敢得罪之外,歐盟的罰則也並非紙老虎:今年科技巨擘Google便因違反歐盟的反托拉斯法,遭罰24 億歐元(約新台幣 826 億元)。在個資暴露、快速流竄且手到擒來的網路平台上,歐盟高聲吹起保護個人隱私權的警哨,意圖驚醒尚未警覺隱私與個人安全正遭受威脅的讀者,及濫用個人隱私、屏蔽多元意見的企業。歐盟的手將介入、阻擋大數據的流動性,以高效率聞名的AI是否失去價值,應如何重整,則是媒體的新考驗。

對筆者而言,除了期待AI能藉此「被啟蒙」為更謹慎看待個資的人工智慧、體貼使用者對於數據使用有「知的權利」,能為其解釋數據操作的利弊之外,也期待新聞媒體(祖克伯亦於去年承認臉書為非傳統媒體)動手劃破其運用數據所創造的無阻力、無異議的活動空間,使科技的使用得以創造人的反思性。

資料來源:

「一秒寫兩百則新聞!超快手 AI 記者,日本朝日電視台都愛用」(2017年11月1日)。科技報橘,取自:https://buzzorange.com/techorange/2017/11/01/jp-ai-reporter-fastalarm/(link is external)

「30頁財報 機器人二分鐘寫成新聞」(2017年6月29日)。經濟日報,取自:https://money.udn.com/money/story/10242/2553468(link is external)

The making of Reuters News Tracer. Thomson Reuters. Available from: https://blogs.thomsonreuters.com/answerson/making-reuters-news-tracer/(link is external)(25 Apr 2017)

Truth Teller Team. Announcing Truth Teller beta, a better way to watch political speech. The Washington Post. Available from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/ask-the-post/wp/2013/09/25/announcing-truth-teller-beta-a-better-way-to-watch-political-speech/?utm_term=.699d006e27c1(link is external) (25 Sep 2013)

 

A Winter Yin Sequence to Call on the Light Within


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/winter-solstice-yin-yoga-sequence

A Winter Yin Sequence to Call on the Light Within

The long dark days of winter can lend themselves to physical stagnation, fatigue, and hibernation. In this yin yoga sequence, we honor the pause.

The Winter Solstice marks an auspicious shift in daylight, when we begin to emerge from the darkness back into the light. On the shortest, darkest day of the year, we are urged to call on the divine light from within. The long dark days of winter can lend themselves to physical stagnation, fatigue, and hibernation. In this yin yogasequence, we honor the pause before we are called to expand once again.

About Our Expert
Dani March
 is a Toronto-based Registered Yoga Teacher and Master Lifestyle Coach. She is the visionary behind LivOn Purpose™a modern yoga teacher training that combines the yin and yang aspects of yoga with the underlying current of transformational work. Originally drawn to her own mat by the strong and graceful movements of Vinyasa Yoga, she later fell in love with the stillness and meditative aspects of Yin Yoga. As a devoted and lifelong student of yoga and meditation, Danielle dishes out inspiration, soulful strategies, tangible tactics, resources and a fresh perspective.

Namaste-DaniMarch-WinterYin

Get Unstuck: Yin Yoga to Reverse Winter Stagnation

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Slow Down with Yin Yoga

double knee supine twist pose, supta matsyendrasana

Stoke the Digestive Fire: A Detoxifying Sequence

kundalini yoga

A Detoxifying Kundalini Yoga Sequence for Radiance

easy supine twist pose, supta matsyendrasana

A Sequence to Beat Restlessness + Prep for Meditation

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A Yoga Sequence to Target Sources of Back Pain

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A Healing Yoga Sequence to Ease Neck + Shoulder Pain

HEATHER LILLESTON tapas

A Tapas-Building Sequence to Fuel Willpower

 

【動漫物語】那些天龍人的故事:航海王的特權階級與仇恨|松音


假使天龍人落入了外面的部落社會,又沒有海軍的保護,沒有武力又沒有能力的天龍人,揍他們的可能就不只有魯夫一個人了,而只要是「天龍人」就有著整個群體的標籤,不管你是否作威作福,買賣奴隸,天龍人的標籤就是個印記,在航海王的故事裡,王下七武海多佛朗明哥的父親,唐吉訶德荷敏聖正詮釋了這樣的天龍人角色。
【動漫物語】那些天龍人的故事:航海王的特權階級與仇恨|松音
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6651

【動漫物語】那些天龍人的故事:航海王的特權階級與仇恨

友善列印版本

沒看過航海王,也聽過天龍人(link is external)

從2009年郭冠英的高級外省人事件開始,天龍人一詞便迅速從網路上竄紅,到現在成為媒體的日常用語,鄉民們講到天龍人標準印象就是高高在上,不食人間煙火,自以為高級的狂人印象,當然身為臺北居民,也一天到晚都被酸是天龍國人,更不用說是住在信義區或是天母的鄉民了,那可是天龍國之中的天龍國。

航海王漫畫裡面並沒有天龍國這個稱呼,天龍人住的地方是聖地馬力喬亞,通常名字後面帶了個聖(男性)或是宮(女性),是800年前創立世界政府的20位國王之後裔,為世界貴族中最有權力的階級。特徵是清一色豎起並在髮尾捲起來的頭髮(節錄自維基百科(link is external)ONE PIECE角色列表(link is external)(link is external)),高高在上,壟斷所有資源,除了買賣奴隸,動用世界政府海軍的力量殘暴的對抗反對者,各區域還需要繳納「天上金」供天龍人花用,以反派的形象塑造來說,天龍人就是徹頭徹尾的反派,主角魯夫不畏權勢,痛揍天龍人那一幕,自是大快人心。

離開漫畫看看現實世界,某些地方對於社會資源的壟斷,還真的像內建了「聖地」,某些區域飽受汙染及失業之苦,資源都往都市及某些地區集中,汙染留在地方,「天上金」則往大都市繳去,這套體系發揮到極致就像是飢餓遊戲中的施惠國與十二個行政區,資源全部往都城及少數人集中,只是航海王除了資源的集中,對於貴族的定義更為傳統,不脫Jump漫畫常見的家族血緣論,天龍人貴族權力的來源不是大資本家的集合,而是開國者血脈的繼承,還停留在傳統世襲權威的時代。

來源:Pixabay

離開了聖地,天龍人可就沒那樣吃的開了,在漫畫裡的世界,除了少數場面看得到天龍人的表現,大多數讓讀者恨得牙癢癢的角色都不是天龍人,都是頗具實力卻心靈扭曲的海賊,由於處於傳統社會,聖地外的世界便有種天高皇帝遠的感覺,海賊之所以能如此囂張的競逐以力拼力,也就顯示了世界政府無法有效的統治,君不見往往都是等主人公魯夫痛揍了反派之後,海軍才過來割稻尾嗎,海軍沒辦法治的部落社會,就只有靠海賊自己處理了。

假使天龍人落入了外面的部落社會,又沒有海軍的保護,沒有武力又沒有能力的天龍人,揍他們的可能就不只有魯夫一個人了,而只要是「天龍人」就有著整個群體的標籤,不管你是否作威作福,買賣奴隸,天龍人的標籤就是個印記,在航海王的故事裡,王下七武海多佛朗明哥的父親,唐吉訶德荷敏聖正詮釋了這樣的天龍人角色。

「因為,我們也是人類啊」

唐吉訶德一家放棄特權躲在北海不受世界政府保護的地方,想要實現他的想法,只是做一個與他人平等的人類,照理說放棄特權的「好天龍人」理應要受到大家的認同才是,但是,人們發現有天龍人到了自己的身邊且不受保護,才不管他是為何過來的,所有對天龍人的怨恨便傾注在他們的身上。

於是迎接這個放棄特權的天龍人家庭,便是傾注而來的仇恨、敵意與傷害,唐吉訶德荷敏聖天真的想法,替自己及家人引來了災禍,唐吉訶德一家終於被逼到絕境,妻子因病死去,自己和子女被吊上高台被憤怒的群眾圍毆,天龍人們也不可能再接納這名異端。

從這個赤裸裸的例子可以看出特權階級失去特權之後,只會變成仇恨的標的,無論是你自己要放棄特權還是特權遭到剝奪,另一件事情就是,要仇恨人只要有個標籤就夠了,所以唐吉訶德荷敏聖夠傻,他也許可以選擇當不合群的天龍人龜在聖地,只要成為天龍人,就別想當「人」,離開世界政府的保護就完蛋了。

上面提到的兩件事剛好是許多族群衝突仇恨的源頭,早期的殖民者到殖民地時,統治的技巧通常是把比較與他們合作的族群「天龍人」化,殖民者離去之後,接著就是對這些「天龍人」的大屠殺或種族歧視運動,而新政府常常作壁上觀甚至推波助瀾,就好像看漫畫的讀者們,一定很希望世界政府倒台後,看到囂張的天龍人們被憤怒的鄉民打爆,即使天龍人不見得全部都是買賣奴隸的渾帳,這並不重要,重要的是他是天龍人。

回頭看看媒體所稱的「天龍人」或「天龍國」人們,在這個貧富差距逐漸擴大的社會結構裡,確實有些概念上的天龍人存在,甚至自己也可能是聖地居民的一份子,然而對於掌握資源的優勢者來說,並不能像是唐吉訶德要去挑戰風車那樣,自己孤身的去堅持沒人認同的理念,畢竟人們從來就不把「天龍人」當成自己人,比較好的方式是以漸進的方式從內部去調和及改變,先讓掌握資源的特權團體知道「特權消失的風險」之後,逐漸去理解他人的痛苦,進行資源合理的分配,仇恨的消失可能要經歷好幾個世代,但倘若特權團體本身不願意支持放下特權的轉型,仇恨便永遠不會消失。

 

 

5 Rules for Mindful Dating & Relationship-Intention Setting this Holiday Season


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/5-rules-for-mindful-dating

5 Rules for Mindful Dating & Relationship-Intention Setting this Holiday Season

Are you in the market to meet someone new, who shares your interest in yoga, meditation, or just being a more evolved human? There’s no better time than now, when you’re setting your heart’s intentions for the new year. Here are MeetMindful CEO Amy Baglan’s five rules for mindful dating online and in real life that she swears by.
romantic couple under blanket in winter love

Amy Baglan wants to change the way you date. The founder and CEO of MeetMindful (and previously, yoga event company YogaDates) was inspired to start a new kind of dating platform after dealing with her own frustrations as a single yogi.

“When I moved to Denver I was taking yoga classes four or five days a week, and everyone was sitting there not talking. I thought, ‘This is so strange, I don’t get it. Why aren’t people connecting?’ It almost feels like it’s taboo to do that."

After gaining valuable insight from YogaDates, which held yoga events for singles, Baglan launched MeetMindful in 2015, a platform for single people who value mindfulness and are looking to find like-minded partners.

“At YogaDates, I got insight into the problems customers were having in the dating space and meeting online. They felt like they kept having these super inauthentic experiences. [People who prioritize] mindful living, living with intention and authenticity, are looking for a connection. When we don’t get it we really crave it—something feels off or gamey."

Baglan says the online dating community as it stood was giving people permission to date with way less integrity than ever before. “People almost felt disposable," she laments. “What a shitty feeling for a human. It’s almost like the human-to-human connection was lost."

The key is to avoiding such depressing interactions is to connect with like-minded people who share your interests, says Baglan, who created MeetMindful to help people do that. “Maybe they’re not into the same practices as you are, but they have some personal growth practice and they are pursuing it."

Are you in the market to meet someone new, who shares your interest in yoga, meditation, or just being a more evolved human? Here are Baglan’s five rules for mindful dating online and in real life, and don’t forget to try out MeetMindful (for free).

Baglan’s 5 Rules for Mindful Dating

1. Have clarity about what you want.

A lot of people date for dating’s sake—they keep something alive because it looks good on paper or they don’t want to feel rejected, Baglan says. Are you dating because you just went through a breakup and your confidence needs a boost? All these reasons are not core reasons to be in relationships with people, she advises. Having clarity about what you want opens up new and existing possibilities.

2. Look for like-minded people.

This step is about really getting clear on what kind of people you want to be around. You’re looking for people not only with like-minded interests, but also like-minded values. People who want to leave the world better than they found it. Try getting involved offline in your community. If you’re really into volunteering and you want to find someone who actively gives back, go to fundraisers for causes you care about. If you’re looking for long-term love with a partner who shares your core values or perhaps just a new friend to practice yoga with, look no further than the MeetMindful community online. After all, MeetMindful is a meeting ground for people who want to live their happiest, healthiest lives—and connect with others who feel the same.

3. Ask great questions.

Once you’ve connected with lots of great matches, it’s a smart idea to ask great questions. Try to figure out what makes this person tick. Ask probing questions that are really generative like, “You just got back from traveling in India—tell me about it." You want to find out what they’re passionate about and what their purpose is. The more you can get a feel for the type of person you’re talking to, the better you can decide if you want to meet up with them in person or not. It’s also useful to reveal key details about yourself, so people get a sense of who you are.

4. Drop into your body.

When meeting dates in real life, try really dropping into your body and seeing what’s there for you and what’s going on. I was recently on a date and my friend happened to be across the bar. I later told him the date was kind of boring, and he said, “I could tell because you weren’t leaning in." I wasn’t super engaged; I didn’t have that excitement. Check in with your body to see how you’re feeling emotionally and if you’re “turned on" mentally and physiologically.

5. Date with integrity. 

The worst thing that’s happening these days is “ghosting," where the person just disappears. We are humans interacting with humans—treat people how you want to be treated. Be honest and straightforward and avoid ghosting. If you’re not interested, come out and say it in a way that’s really true and authentic, like, “I’m looking for the one. In my gut I know it’s not you, but you’re awesome."

Ready to date more mindfully? Click here to start your MeetMindful two day free trial and start making meaningful connections today!

About MeetMindful

MeetMindful revolutionizes the way singles meet and date online by inspiring people to make meaningful connections every day. MeetMindful is not only a dating app, but a meeting ground for people who want to live their happiest, healthiest lives—and connect with others who feel the same.

Date the way you live. Sign up for a free trial to get started!

meet mindful logo header
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5 Ways to Set an Intention

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Setting the Intention for Fun

couple love

5 Pillars of Finding a True Love Connection

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5 Yoga Rules I Love to Break

couple in kitchen

Healing Relationships Through Compassion and Connection

couple, kitchen, morning, questions of love

A Yogi’s Guide to Common Questions of Love

Yoga Hands-on adjustments

YJ Asked: Is It Ever OK for a Yoga Teacher to Date a Student?

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Set Your Vacation State of Mind

 

【女人想想】收出養服務的美麗與哀愁──以理解作為指引,尋找生命的亮光|黃靜怡


在收出養領域服務多年,深刻體會到不管對孩子、生母或收養父母來說,收出養從來都不是一件容易的事,其中隱藏的價值觀、文化、意識形態和性別意識,在收出養歷程深深地牽動和影響著在當中每一個人的步伐。

【女人想想】收出養服務的美麗與哀愁──以理解作為指引,尋找生命的亮光|黃靜怡

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6653

【女人想想】收出養服務的美麗與哀愁──以理解作為指引,尋找生命的亮光

友善列印版本

在收出養領域服務多年,深刻體會到不管對孩子、生母或收養父母來說,收出養從來都不是一件容易的事,其中隱藏的價值觀、文化、意識形態和性別意識,在收出養歷程深深地牽動和影響著在當中每一個人的步伐。

(圖片來源:作者提供)

父子騎驢的寓言故事,常被我們用來隱喻和描述出養人的處境,看似讓人哭笑不得,卻是反映許多孩子的生母在面對養育抉擇過程的真實寫照:一方面難以面對出養決定,一方面留養四處碰壁的兩難之中反覆掙扎。

當我們面對每一個來到機構尋求出養的生母(絕大多數是女性)時,總是得先花很大的力氣和時間了解生母遭遇了什麼樣的困難,如何走到出養這一步,陪伴生母討論是否有任何留養的可能性和資源,接著確認她對於出養的期待和想法。對工作者而言,在多方利益需求的複雜交織下,對於前方的路該往哪裡走,有時也像是墜入五里霧中,什麼都清楚,也什麼都不清楚,需要帶著一份理解和接納,陪他們走一段路,在複雜的收出養決定和多方的需求中,尋求一種平衡。

多年陪伴懷孕青少女進行生育抉擇的實務經驗,讓我看見懷孕事件同時涉及性價值觀、生育決定和養育抉擇的議題,以及較難被發現的性別議題;出養絕非一個容易的決定,特別是在主流價值和社會文化的影響之下,生母多半也有著對家庭完整的想像和渴望,覺得自己沒有資格給小孩完整的家庭而選擇出養,然而一旦決定出養也會覺得自己是不負責任的母親,甚至在出養歷程反覆出現對孩子的虧欠、愧疚、失落和罪惡感等感受。

有時候,我們要對自己殘忍一點,不能縱容自己的傷心。有時候,我們要對自己深愛的人殘忍一點,將對他們的愛、責任、記憶擱置[1]

這句話道盡了出養人在出養歷程的悲傷失落,以及,在這來來回回的過程,我們也逐漸被培養出一種能力,一份對於出養處境的認識與理解,找到轉化和重新詮釋的路徑。

有些生命會與自己交纏相視,一起度著一段時光,有些則只能給予一個手掌的溫度,然後祝福[2]」。

常有生母會問我:「社工,我把孩子出養還是留養比較好?」這個問題之所以無法回答,因為不論是出養或留養都需要很大的勇氣,隨之而來承擔的責任也不同,兩者無法比較,也沒有好壞,需要回到每個人的條件和生命選擇。因此關鍵並不是給了什麼答案,而是我們能不能陪著生母在有充分的資訊和資源之下,才來做決定。

然而在這個作決定的陪伴過程,父子騎驢的劇本總是時常上演,工作者也常跟著上上下下,例如當生母決定出養時,親友會說:

「你怎麼把孩子送給別人?」

「日子再怎麼苦⋯⋯也要讓小孩在身邊吧!」

「人生走一趟,最珍貴的是親情與愛。」

「可憐的小孩,不能養就不要生,生了又不要他!再怎樣也要自己養,有需要大家會幫忙,不要丟下他,帶他回去吧!」

「小孩很讓人心疼欸!這麼捨不得孩子再苦一定要把他攬在身邊!」

這些話語背後隱含著社會文化對於女性做為母親角色的想像和期待。然而造成出養的因素往往受到社會的、文化的、資源環境、個人條件等因素交織而錯綜複雜,通常不只是因為經濟或者是未成年等單一因素,在我們的工作經驗中,從14歲到44歲的女性,都有著類似的處境,如果加上未成年或未婚懷孕生子,那就得再背負上標籤和輿論壓力,甚至在生活中引發更多的風暴,促使生母為了保護和不捨孩子,不得不忍痛做出出養的決定。出養看似一了百了,但出養的歷程絕非如外界看起來如此輕易,每個無法留在家裡長大的孩子,不只是生母或原生家庭的無能為力,我們看不見的文化、歧視和標籤都在背後推了一把,出養背後的結構性因素和出養人所處的社會處境才是主要關鍵。

我的愛有多深,我的牽掛和不捨便有多長[3]」。

這是許多出養人的深刻體會。然而身在其中的工作者,在陪伴每一個出養人走過出養歷程中的血淚,逐漸淬鍊出一種對出養的看見和理解,進而重新在出養過程中,找到一份新的眼光,看見結構的綑綁和限制,悲傷失落得以找到位置安放,生命的道別能好好說再見,讓出養人和孩子都能重新獲得力量帶著祝福繼續往前。

這麼多年來,也陪伴過不少在留養和出養之間來回擺盪掙扎遲遲做不了決定的母親,後續選擇了留養,但在缺乏國家整體完善的托育政策和友善的育兒環境,生母在工作和育兒照顧之間疲於奔命是常見的畫面,甚至一不小心就落入風險邊緣,照顧的安排常常只能停留在有限的選擇,甚至是承受了多重的壓力。在陪伴梅子從準備出養到最後決定留養一路峰迴路轉的故事,寫實的呈現生母和孩子的生活處境。

梅子從小父母親離異,由外婆照顧長大,高中之後即開始要自立生活。在大一懷孕生產後即中斷學業,獨自照顧小梅。為了能撫養小梅,在飲料店工作,期間將小梅送去托嬰中心,不過收入根本付不起生活費和高昂的托育費用,靠著跟親友借貸,才有辦法打平每個月的支出。過了半年,梅子無力再負擔托嬰中心的費用,於是開始了小梅每天在不同親友家流浪的日子,梅子更努力的工作,只為了可以有足夠的收入來支付自己和小梅的生活費,同時卻也犧牲了自己的學業、生活以及和小梅相處的時間。

梅子不忍看著小梅每天流浪在不同親友家的生活,看似有人看顧,但是頻繁的轉換照顧環境和照顧者,梅子也發現小梅缺乏安全感,也難以跟人建立信任的關係,於是梅子只好詢問父親和繼母是否可以協助,與父親達成共識之後,梅子仍然須每個月給7000-8000不等的費用給父親,做為照顧小梅的貼補。在父親的重組家庭裡,也有個跟小梅年紀差不多大的孩子,小梅雖看似照顧環境和照顧者穩定了,梅子也決定在這個時候,完成之前未完成的學業,到空中大學進修大學的學分。不過卻也在此時,梅子得知小梅的身上出現許多黑青和不明的傷痕,梅子既生氣又懊惱為什麼沒有辦法保護好小梅,也沒辦法給小梅一個穩定的生活環境,求助政府單位卻屢次吃閉門羹,在走投無路的情況之下,情緒潰堤只好尋求出養。

即使梅子幾乎是一個人孤軍奮戰在照顧小梅,生母平常的工作是早上8點半到晚上7點左右下班,下班後再去保母家接回小梅,工作平均月休6天,休假期間要到空大上課,因為梅子跟我們說等拿到學位,就可以轉換累積專業經驗和學習專業知能的工作。梅子非常有意願要親自撫養小梅,且小梅與梅子有緊密的依附關係,實無出養必要性,只是缺乏友善的支持系統和資源,於是社工開始跟梅子討論留養的準備和計畫,包括梅子的生涯規畫和理財安排,只是每個月2萬多元的收入,實在難以支付小梅每個月19000元的保母費,我們仍持續在陪伴梅子尋找各方資源⋯⋯

讓每個孩子在家庭中成長,看似如此理所當然,但在我們的工作日常和許多面臨像梅子這樣處境的許多父母親來說,卻是需要搶時間、需要耐心等待,更需要友善的資源。

因著傳統的家庭圖像和社會文化價值的潛移默化,梅子的生命經驗讓她在有了小梅之後,夾帶著比誰都來得強烈對家庭完整的渴望,即使在有限的支持與資源下,仍努力學習和適應親職角色,然而在投入心力和時間去照料孩子食衣住行的同時,卻也為了照顧孩子而壓縮自我需求,包括日常作息、生活型態與人際圈改變等部分,更因為全心投入家庭而受限,同時也承受著社會上若有似無對母親角色責任的期待和想像,在多重的壓力之下,若公領域或私領域的資源亦匱乏,更讓這些努力想要實踐母職的女性動彈不得。

如果有更多實質的友善資源和育兒環境,像梅子這樣的年輕父母,就能夠獲得力量和勇氣得以支撐,不需要被迫走向不得不的出養選擇,可以跟孩子一起生活。

在收出養服務工作的這幾年來,常常很難向別人解釋的清楚收出養到底是怎麼一回事,大部分的人也很難理解,聽到收出養大多會直接聯想到,社會新聞或者是連續劇中的「狠心」的出養父母將可憐無辜的孩子送給有「愛心」的收養父母等劇情,但在現實生活上,從來不是如此簡單的線性關係而已,也容易因著受到負面新聞的影響,加上文化的價值判斷和複雜的意識形態在當中,形塑著收出養該是什麼樣的樣貌,雖然收出養存在我們的社會由來已久,為了維護兒童權益,在2011年修法後的兒少法對於收出養制度有更進一步的規範逐漸改變收出養的面貌和服務方式。然而收出養是生命中不可承受之輕,不論是對孩子、生母和養父母來說,都不是一件容易的決定。

勵馨基金會多年來在提供收出養服務的過程,因著性別意識和對青少女懷孕議題的認識和理解,看見在收出養決定背後,不論是「未婚懷孕」的青少女母親或是「不孕」的收養母親,這兩者的「身分」都分別把女性推到一個特殊的社會處境上,因此在收出養歷程更需要多一些友善的對待和支持,每一方的需求和利益都需要被看見和理解,我們期許自己在工作過程中,試圖帶著一份溫柔和理解的眼光,努力的在收出養來來回回的工作當中、在多方的需求之間取得一種愛的平衡,讓生命的失落能被溫柔承接,分離能有機會說再見,看見生命的亮光。


[1]引自三毛《送你一匹馬》。

[2]引自鄧紫云,ELLE雜誌296期,2016/5月號。

[3] 引自三毛《夢里花落知多少》

 

The World’s Oldest Yoga Teacher: Her Secrets to a Long, Active, Happy Life


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/worlds-oldest-yoga-teacher-shares-secrets-long-active-life

The World’s Oldest Yoga Teacher: Her Secrets to a Long, Active, Happy Life

If there’s living proof that yoga is the fountain of youth, it’s 96-year-old Guinness-World-Records-holding Tao Porchon-Lynch.
worlds oldest yoga teacher

“I don’t want to know what I can’t do. I’m only interested in what I can do.”

If there’s living proof that yoga is the fountain of youth, it’s Tao Porchon-Lynch. The 96-year-old Guinness World Records-certified oldest yoga teacher in the world still teaches regular classes in Westchester County, New York. That is, when she’s not traveling around the world, coming in first place in ballroom dance contests, writing books, and making videos with Tara Stiles.

Porchon-Lynch’s life story feels like a movie (and it could end up being one, after she finishes writing her autobiography at the end of this year). The former MGM actress and model for brands like Lanvin and Chanel, who was born in French India, crossed paths with Marlene Dietrich, Gene Kelly, and Gandhi. She studied with B. K. S. Iyengar and K. Pattabhi Jois. And yes, you will work up a sweat in her yoga class, and you probably won’t be able to resist hugging her.

“Last weekend I came in first place in a dance contest. My partner was 70 years younger, and all ages were participating. I danced all day for two days then I taught two yoga classes Sunday morning. I wasn’t really tired."

We sat down with the lovely-as-ever Porchon-Lynch last week after taking her Monday night class at the JCC of Mid-Westchester, where despite a recent slip on the dance floor and three hip replacements, she’s still demonstrating most of the asanas in her class. “I don’t believe in calamities,” she explains. “I don’t want to know what I can’t do. I’m only interested in what I can do.”

Most Important Yoga Lessons

Yoga Journal: You’ve been teaching yoga for 56 years and practicing it for 72 years. Are there any particular poses that you credit with helping to keep you young and fit?

Tao Porchon-Lynch:Breathing is more important than anything else—poses that are not done correctly are not going to help. It’s how much you can feel the breath moving throughout your body. If you’re in touch with the breath inside you, there’s nothing you can’t do.

YJ: Is there anything about yoga that you wish you knew as a younger person?

TPL: Not really. As a teacher, the most important thing is to have is compassion. We’re not all made the same—you can’t tell everyone to do it the same way. Sometimes it’s better for students to stop physically and continue mentally, rather than strain. It’s important to watch your students to make sure you can help them.

YJ: You studied with yoga greats like the late B.K.S. Iyengar and K. Pattabhi Jois. What are the biggest lessons you learned from them?

TPL: They were both the greatest yoga masters. I loved Iyengar for one thing—his alignment, which was always perfect, and his principles of alignment. Pattabhi Jois was wonderful, all breathing, which was what I was looking for. I learned so much from Pattabhi that had to do with my inner self.

See alsoA Tribute to B.K.S. Iyengar

World's Oldest Yoga Teacher Tao Porchon-Lynch

The World’s Oldest Yoga Teacher on Aging Gracefully

YJ: Do you meditate?

TPL:I believe in nature. To me meditation is, if I see a flock of geese across the sky, I’ll stop my car. I don’t need to make it regular.

See alsoWhy Meditating in Nature Is Easier

YJ: You’re still ballroom dancing?

TPL:Last weekend I came in first place in a dance contest. My partner was 70 years younger, and all ages were participating. I danced all day for two days then I taught two yoga classes Sunday morning. I wasn’t really tired.

YJ: Do you think being a lifelong vegetarian has helped you live a long, healthy life?

TPL: Maybe. I don’t believe in getting old. In America, look how many beautiful trees are hundreds of years old. They are losing leaves but they are not dying—they are recycling. In a few months, spring will start up again. You can learn so much from nature.

See alsoAging Gracefully

Tao Porchon-Lynch’s 5 Rules for a Long, Happy Life

1. Don’t procrastinate—tomorrow never comes.
2. You can’t believe in something if you only do it halfway.
3. Each day, whatever is in your mind materializes.
4. Never think about what can go wrong. I know my best day is every day.
5. If you wait for something good to happen, it will. Don’t look for tragedy.

See also4 Anti-Aging Tips to Grow Older the Right Way

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《血觀音》:美麗島的不美麗|邱懋景


楊雅喆的新作《血觀音》(The Bold, the Corrupt, and the Beautiful,2017)確實引領觀眾們重新領略楊逵的至理名言,因此,該片獲得第五十四屆金馬獎最佳劇情片時,上台領獎的他舉起「沒有人是局外人」的標語字樣,相信若已看過該片的人,更可以感受導演此舉的用意。我想,他是鼓勵電影人要勇敢一點,又或者,台灣人,再勇敢一點,打破自己心中的小警總吧。

《血觀音》:美麗島的不美麗|邱懋景

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6654

《血觀音》:美麗島的不美麗

友善列印版本

「我滿懷著確信,從巨船蓬萊丸底甲板上凝視著台灣的春天,那兒表面上雖然美麗肥滿,但只要插進一針,就會看到惡臭逼人的血膿底迸出。」

                                           ──楊逵〈送報伕〉

楊雅喆的新作《血觀音》(The Bold, the Corrupt, and the Beautiful,2017)確實引領觀眾們重新領略楊逵的至理名言,因此,該片獲得第五十四屆金馬獎最佳劇情片時,上台領獎的他舉起「沒有人是局外人」的標語字樣,相信若已看過該片的人,更可以感受導演此舉的用意。我想,他是鼓勵電影人要勇敢一點,又或者,台灣人,再勇敢一點,打破自己心中的小警總吧。

光看《血觀音》的片名,顧名無法思義,反倒是英文片名提示很多。沒有上映第一天去看該片,因為片名讓我摸不著頭緒外,看完前導預告也是滿頭問號,最要命的是,我難以擺脫楊雅喆《女朋友。男朋友》(2012)的既有印象,因此,實在是提不起勁去電影院早早欣賞。

不過我錯了,楊雅喆不只突破他自己,該片突破了台灣新電影「影響的焦慮」,選擇一條鮮少人走過,甚至是沒人走過的「婦.黑」之路。

《血觀音》用一句話描述,就是劇中的棠家一家三雌如何成為「婦.黑」的故事。什麼是「婦.黑」?婦是女性觀點的逞兇鬥狠,黑是普世皆然的貪婪政商結構。不僅如此,它想說得太多了──你可以找到若干與之相關的台灣新聞事件對號入座。它就像楊逵說的那支針,狠狠地刺進台灣滿目瘡痍的社會創傷。觀影的過程中,你慢慢地進入整起事件,你不能不思考,不能不說不,因為,你也從來都不是局外人。

直到片末,它還要回馬槍地說,沒有什麼光明的結局。縱然導演想說的話很多,不過結尾直接秀出字幕:「世上最可怕的不是眼前的刑罰,而是那無愛的未來。」這字幕的出現,讓它的效果到了極致說教的地步,與其如此處理,倒不如在開場前,就先上這段字幕作為楔子,可能比較好。

《血觀音》要說書,具體說一個我不跟你玩「餘韻」的美學,說一個你我都聽過的「白手套」──但我們好像都不是很清楚這手套要怎麼玩與接,才玩得優雅、接得高招的故事。這樣「中間人」的故事,不英雄、不底層、不黑白,灰灰地又幽暗得要死不活,弄權謀耍手段就是它的生存之道。是故,該片的整體美術風格設計也跟著陰陰豔豔,活得像在地府,與諸多牛鬼蛇神走一遭。若仔細回想該片的情節,你會有個疑問:欸,「婦.黑」是不是太多了,以至於男性角色皆很扁平,比方說,Marco(巫書維飾演)就無法有機地融合在故事之中。然而影片最末的橋段,他卻又十分搶戲。

可是,它好像不得不這麼做。畢竟,它要讓你明白,你我都是「中間人」,尤其是無所不在的家庭關係之中,「中間人」永遠是寂寞的。於是,我們不斷聽見棠真(文淇飾演)在片中的獨白:「寂寞,我寂寞。」

寂寞久了很容易有病。

於是,我們看見《血觀音》角色個個病得不輕,耍嘴皮子玩隱喻的功力,不輸給詩人,有時候你甚至覺得高招,實在病得太厲害了。唯一病情比較輕的,活得比較像人樣,當屬棠寧(吳可熙飾演),但以劇中的說法,即是:「公主身,丫環命。」她想擺脫既有的階級立場,多一點人味,卻又難以脫身。

棠寧(圖片來源:《血觀音》預告截圖)

我想,今年的台灣電影,《大佛普拉斯》與《血觀音》是眾所關注的對照組,一部是社會百分之一的底層階級,另一部是百分之一的統治階級,透過金字塔的兩造,描述了台灣社會的偽善與惡行,卻有異曲同工之妙。

然而,《血觀音》更殺出一條血路。它告訴我們,百分之九十八的人們,你們不要再裝了,不要再假裝置身事外了,醒醒吧。不覺醒的話,你們永遠是被統治者,看政經新聞永遠只能霧裡看花。就像電影開頭的新聞從業人員,分不清楚那個嘴型是G?還是救?抑或是G也是救?

 

This 12-Minute Yoga Sequence Is Backed by Science to Strengthen Your Bones


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/12-minute-yoga-sequence-for-strong-bones

This 12-Minute Yoga Sequence Is Backed by Science to Strengthen Your Bones

Want to ensure a healthy, pain-free yoga practice for years (and years) to come? This fun and simple three-part plan is for you.
strong-for-life-cover

Ask several yogis what motivates their practice, and you’re sure to get a range of responses, from “stress relief” to “spiritual growth.” What you probably won’t hear: “a strong skeleton.”

But new research shows that yoga is surprisingly protective when it comes to staving off fractures and helping to prevent osteoporosis, a bone-thinning disease that will cause approximately half of women age 50 and older to break a bone. (Men get osteoporosis too, but 80 percent of sufferers are female, likely because women typically have smaller, thinner bones and because production of estrogen—a female hormone that protects against bone loss—drops off sharply at menopause.) The hard truth is that by the time you hit the age when your skeleton becomes more brittle, it’s much more challenging (though not impossible) to build protective bone mass. Which is why the best time to focus on increasing your bone mass reservoir is now, says Loren Fishman, MD, a Columbia University physiatrist specializing in rehabilitative medicine who studied under B.K.S. Iyengar.

Ready to be more proactive about protecting your bones? Our three-part plan reveals which yoga poses may be particularly beneficial, regardless of your age, as well as new thinking behind the role of nutrition and high-impact, weight-bearing exercises on bone health. Read on for the latest research-backed ways to strengthen your lovely bones.

Part 1: Yoga

Great News: As a yogi, you’re already protecting your frame in a few major ways. For starters, each time you practice a pose, you’re potentially building new bone. “When you hold a pose like Supta Padangusthasana (Reclining Hand-to-Big-Toe Pose) or a twist, you’re opposing one group of muscles against another, like the quadriceps against the hamstrings or the gluteal muscles against the shoulder muscles, respectively,” says Fishman. That opposition creates a force that physically stimulates osteoblasts, bone-making cells that initially live on the outside of the bone and turn into osteocytes, which are cells that become embedded within your bone. “You’re actually laying down new bone,” he says.

Yoga may also help reverse or stall the bone-weakening effects that come with age—which is relatively new thinking in the medical world. Doctors used to believe that women’s ability to accrue new bone basically ended once they entered menopause and their levels of bone-protective estrogen and progesterone plummeted. “The new research shows that yoga can outweigh the hormonal effects of age,” Fishman says. His 2015 study, published in Topics in Geriatric Rehabilitation, found that 80 percent of older participants, most of whom had osteoporosis or its precursor, osteopenia, who practiced 12 yoga poses (often modified) a day showed improved bone density in their spine and femurs (see “Poses to boost bone health” below). These findings apply to younger women with healthy skeletons, too. “There is strong evidence that young osteoblasts do respond pretty vigorously to the forces generated by muscles, which is likely to put off osteopenia and osteoporosis until later in life—if it were to appear at all,” Fishman says.

Finally, there’s the vital role yoga plays in preventing fractures by building stability and agility. “Yoga improves your physical balance and flexibility, which means you’re less likely to fall and break something—and if you do start to fall, your agility may help you catch yourself,” says Lori Rubenstein Fazzio, DPT, C-IAYT, clinical director of the Yoga Therapy Rx Practicum at Loyola Marymount University (LMU) and part-time faculty in LMU’s Master of Arts in Yoga Studies. Equally important, yoga enhances your mental balance, too. “It makes you more present and focused,” Rubenstein Fazzio says, and alert people are less likely to slip on an ice patch or trip on a staircase. More surprisingly, yoga’s calming qualities help lower levels of cortisol, a stress hormone that breaks down bone when it’s chronically elevated, says Lani Simpson, DC, a certified clinical (bone) densitometrist and host of the PBS show Stronger Bones, Longer Life. In this way, even passive poses like Savasana and Sukhasana can play a role in preventing bone loss.

Whatever your physical practice, slow and steady win the race for strength. “Strength builds as you hold each pose, which you should do for as long as you comfortably can,” says Rubenstein Fazzio. Aim to hold each pose between 12 and 72 seconds, when possible, because that’s the range needed to stimulate osteocytes, says Fishman. But don’t do it at the risk of form—good alignment is key. In Vrksasana (Tree Pose), for instance, make sure your pelvis is level and your standing leg’s knee is facing forward. “If your hip is jutting out or your standing knee is collapsing inward, you’re probably just hanging on your ligaments and joints and not using your muscles,” Rubenstein Fazzio notes, and if your muscles aren’t pulling on that hip bone, no meaningful bone-strengthening will occur. “You want to feel your muscles tensing; that’s how you know you’re engaging—and building—them. And when you build muscle, you build bone.”

See also Stand Strong: Yoga for Bone Health

12-Minute Yoga Sequence to Boost Bone Health

Practice poses from Loren Fishman’s bone-health research using the instructions at right from Terry Roth Schaff, C-IAYT, who collaborated with Fishman on the study. The sequence takes at least 12 minutes to complete and can be incorporated into your regular home practice or practiced on its own. Breathe slowly as you hold each pose for about 30 seconds per side.

Bonus Poses for Bone Health

Twists like Parivrtta Trikonasana (Revolved Triangle Pose)Marichyasana III, and —the three remaining poses from Fishman’s study—help stimulate bone growth by gently tugging on your spine and hip bones. But if you have osteoporosis or are new to yoga, start by practicing seated twists in a chair to avoid overdoing it, advises Schaff. Sit in a chair with your heels under your knees and maintain length in your torso as you gently twist to the right, starting from your low back and moving up your spine. Keep both sides of your chest open and twist only to the point where you can maintain length in your spine (don’t round your back). Repeat on other side. Then, practice the same twist with your legs crossed.

Part 2: Why You Need Yoga, Cardio, AND Strength Training for Ultimate Bone Health
Part 3: The Nutrients You Need for Strong Bones & a Sesame-Cabbage Salad with Salmon That Has Them All

 

【時事想想】川普發給以色列吞併巴勒斯坦的通行證?|中東流浪者


許多歐洲和中東國家紛紛警告美國,切勿採取會破壞中東和平的冒險行動;美國承認耶路撒冷為以色列首都,將摧毀目前得來不易的以巴和談進展。例如沙烏地阿拉伯國王薩勒曼警告,川普的舉動將激怒全世界的伊斯蘭教信徒、打破美國幾十年來的謹慎政策,或將再次攪動中東局勢。

【時事想想】川普發給以色列吞併巴勒斯坦的通行證?|中東流浪者

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6646

【時事想想】川普發給以色列吞併巴勒斯坦的通行證?

友善列印版本

宗教聖城-耶路撒冷因川普的一句話,再度動盪不安。

川普在12月6日發表談話(link is external)決定,承認耶路撒冷為以色列首都是一件「早就該做的事情」,此舉符合美國的最大利益。川普還要求,美國務院啟動使館搬遷計劃,著手規劃、建造以及施工等事項。

川普也附帶但書說,此一決定不意味著美國不再支持以巴進行和平談判,美國將支持「兩國方案」解決巴以問題。

其實,遷館一事並非川普的創舉。早在1995年10月,美國國會就通過法案,要求政府承認耶路撒冷是以色列「不可分割」的首都,並將使館從特拉維夫遷往耶路撒冷。

橫亙在以巴土地之間的隔離牆。(圖片攝影:中東流浪者)

歐洲和阿拉伯國家紛紛提出警告

但因該法案在外交上極為敏感,歷任美國總統都不敢擅自妄動,而暫緩執行法案,每六個月簽定一次豁免聲明,以致法案從未曾實施。今年六月,川普還曾簽署備忘錄,暫緩遷館。半年後,川普翻臉比翻書還快,決定徹底執行該法案。

川普號稱繼續支持以巴和談的說詞,看在國際社會眼中,卻是完全不同的故事。

許多歐洲和中東國家紛紛警告美國,切勿採取會破壞中東和平的冒險行動;美國承認耶路撒冷為以色列首都,將摧毀目前得來不易的以巴和談進展。例如沙烏地阿拉伯國王薩勒曼警告,川普的舉動將激怒全世界的伊斯蘭教信徒、打破美國幾十年來的謹慎政策,或將再次攪動中東局勢。

歐盟外交和安全政策高級代表莫蓋里尼也致電巴勒斯坦總統阿巴斯,明確歐盟立場。她強調,耶路撒冷這個城市的性質應該通過談判來予以定義。她重申,歐盟致力於恢復有意義的和平進程,實現兩國解決方案。

聯合國秘書長古特雷斯更召開記者會宣讀聲明,表示反對任何可能危害巴以和平前景的單邊措施,強調實現巴以和平的「兩國方案」不可替代。

曇花一現的「兩國方案」

在討論兩國方案前,必須回顧以巴衝突的歷史。

1920年,英國以約旦河為界,把巴勒斯坦分為東西兩部分,東部稱外約旦(約旦王國),西部仍稱巴勒斯坦(以色列、約旦河西岸、加薩走廊)為英國委任統治地。原本英國人的目的是逐漸在該地區建立一個統一的國家,這就是所謂的「一國方案」。

然而,這片土地住滿不斷從歐洲湧入的猶太人和當地的阿拉伯人,彼此互相排斥,甚至爆發過數起激烈的種族衝突,導致阿猶之間的暴力衝突頻傳,這也注定了一國方案必定胎死腹中。

最後,在英美等國的主導下,聯合國在1947年通過了「181號決議」,規定巴勒斯坦在1948年結束英國的委任統治後建立猶太國(約1.52萬平方公里),和阿拉伯國(約1.15萬平方公里),耶路撒冷(176平方公里)國際化。

此一方案猶太人勉強接受,但阿拉伯人卻完全無法認同。阿拉伯人抗議,人口數量少的猶太人,為何分得的土地卻比阿拉伯人要更多。

1948年5月14日,以色列國正式成立。原本歡欣鼓舞的獨立,卻帶來的血淋淋的戰爭。以色列成立的隔天,中東阿拉伯國家全面向以色列宣戰,「決心要把猶太人趕下地中海」。

但看似弱小的以色列在數次慘烈的中東戰爭中,存活下來了。幾次大戰後,真正存在的只剩下以色列,沒有巴勒斯坦國。至今,整個地區都處在以色列的軍事佔領之下。原本英美設計的「兩國方案」胎死腹中。

巴勒斯坦錯失了真正建國的機會

揮舞著巴勒斯坦國旗的小男孩。(圖片攝影:中東流浪者)

爾後,1974年聯合國催生出《巴勒斯坦問題的和平處置》(Peaceful settlement of the question of Palestine)提案。該方案主張,「將以色列與巴勒斯坦建立為兩個政府,在雙方都認可的安全邊界上,和平共存」。同時,以聯合國第194號決議為基礎,巴勒斯坦的主權範圍在1967年六日戰爭之前的領土。

但該議案經美國,加拿大,以色列,密克羅尼西亞聯邦,馬紹爾群島,帛琉否決而未通過。

實際上,「兩國方案」在以色列與巴勒斯坦皆存在爭議。以色列國內諸多傳統極右派猶太教政黨都極力反對「兩國論」,並根據錫安主義原則,主張整個聖地(今日巴勒斯坦全境,南北地區分為茱蒂亞、薩瑪利亞)均是以色列的領土,反對任何割讓土地;

以色列執政的右翼利庫德集團也曾反對巴勒斯坦立國,在1990年代後接受兩國方案,但不接受在1967年六日戰爭之前的領土由巴勒斯坦控制,並支持擴建(巴勒斯坦)的屯墾區。

在以色列獨立後,有一群阿拉伯人仍選擇留在原本的土地上,不願離開。這些阿拉伯人,成為當今以色列阿拉伯公民。這些阿拉伯裔公民被允許不用當兵,以免陣前叛逃或避免殘殺自己同胞,這群阿拉伯裔公民佔以色列總人口的20%左右。

這群阿拉伯人雖然在以色列社會中遭受種族歧視,但一些阿拉伯裔以色列人仍然認同應留在以色列,而不願意被劃歸巴勒斯坦統治。

因為,以色列阿拉伯人在政治及法律上擁有平等權利、並有基本法保障。對比巴勒斯坦民族權力機構及哈瑪斯政府的暴力及貪污腐敗,生活在以色列的阿拉伯人在以色列社會中受到的歧視還比能夠忍受及改善。

至於巴勒斯坦,哈馬斯主張消滅以色列,也使以巴和談出現影響。

以色列用吞併方式,實現「一國」?

若「兩國論」行不通,「一國論」可以嗎?對以色列人而言,恐怕完全無法接受。一旦落實一國,一些過於敵視以色列的巴勒斯坦人,將可擁有自由出入以色列的權利。

若以色列併吞巴勒斯坦,巴勒斯坦人對以色列的敵意會更深;且以色列建立隔離牆的合法性也大降(以色列建立隔離牆尚有正當性,因為隔離牆確實減少恐怖攻擊,最多被譴責乘機侵佔土地、重要水源及阻礙交通等問題);也就是說,以色列不能藉由對於外國人的防範與民主國家允許的合法歧視,來減少恐怖事件。

因此,對以色列而言,選擇現在的狀態:以色列為完整一個獨立國家,但透過軍事和屯墾方式,鯨吞蠶食巴勒斯坦,是符合當前利益。以色列想保持這種現狀,就需要國際社會,尤其是美國的支持。

巴勒斯坦人擔憂「國將不國」

在過去二十多年裡,美國人雖然在一再表示支持「兩國方案」。但卻反對巴勒斯坦單方面獨立建國,要求以巴和談為和解的基礎。

以色列也樂於如此,畢竟只要巴勒斯坦不真正獨立建國(至今只有名目意義),整片土地就在以色列的控制之下,以色列政府得以公然巴勒斯坦興建屯墾區、修築馬路,自由進出,一點一滴「融合」巴勒斯坦人的土地。

同時,以色列又可以對巴勒斯坦人的問題不管不問,畢竟他們不是以色列國民。這樣的好事,以色列人自然不願意發生改變。

但對巴勒斯坦人而言,川普宣布耶路撒冷是以色列首都這件天大事件,等同釋放出美國「放棄兩國方案」的訊號,也幾乎快成為壓倒巴勒斯坦人悲痛情緒的最後一根稻草。

對巴勒斯坦人而言,美國光明正大、不帶一絲模糊力挺以色列,宛如讓以色列拿到更多吞併巴勒斯坦的通行證。這張通行證,將要把巴勒斯坦人全部趕出原本定居的土地,拱手讓給以色列人。

如今,不少巴勒斯坦人已開始擔憂,巴勒斯坦「國將不國」,恐怕得要「做一些什麼事」,才能讓世界看到他們的憤怒和沸騰到極致的熱血。這股狂亂的憤恨情緒,曾出現在1987和2000年的兩次「巴勒斯坦大起義」上。

 

 

5 Shoulder-Opening Binds to Ground & Cleanse the Body


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/5-shoulder-opening-binds

5 Shoulder-Opening Binds to Ground & Cleanse the Body

Binds are a wonderful way to open the shoulders, create a safe, stable haven in a pose, and build prana in the body. Within these 5 binds, you’ll find some of the most elegant, graceful shapes that ask you to rise to the occasion.

Binds are a wonderful way to open the shoulders, create a safe, stable haven in a pose, and build prana, or energy, in the body. Often after holding a bind, upon release, a flush of blood moves through the body and feels quite cleansing. Binds are also helpful in increasing your flexibility, patience, and resolve because they take practice, determination, and perseverance to achieve. Within these 5 binds, you’ll find some of the most elegant, graceful shapes that ask you to rise to the occasion.

Want to study the anatomy of the shoulder girdle or learn how to teach students with tight bodieswith Ippoliti? Join her at Yoga Journal LIVE New York, April 21–24. Sign up today!

About Our Expert
Amy Ippoliti is the co-author of the new book, The Art and Business of Teaching Yoga. She is known for bringing yoga to modern-day life in a genuine way through her intelligent sequencing, clear instruction, and engaging sense of humor. A teacher on YogaGlo.com, she is a pioneer of advanced yoga education, co-founding 90 Monkeys, an online school that has enhanced the skills of yoga teachers and studios in 65 countries. Follow her on:

Twitter: @amyippoliti
Instagram: @AmyIppoliti
Facebook: @AmyIppolitiPage

 

【印度想想】全國逾半人口吃素 胖子卻滿街跑?|吳秉霖


印度人的飲食習慣還有一個特色:特別晚。與台灣人習慣的早餐早上八點、午餐中午十二點、晚餐晚上六點不同,印度人的三餐幾乎是成等份分布在一天二十四小時內:早上八點吃早餐、下午兩點吃午餐、晚上九點吃晚餐。還記得某位年輕的辦公室印籍同仁對台灣人吃晚餐的時間感到不可思議:「六點吃晚餐的話,睡前時會餓到睡不著吧?」食物份量又猶以家人團聚的晚餐最為豐盛,進食完又幾乎是立刻就寢,也無怪乎印度人會養出圓滾滾的肚子。

【印度想想】全國逾半人口吃素 胖子卻滿街跑?|吳秉霖

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6647

【印度想想】全國逾半人口吃素 胖子卻滿街跑?

友善列印版本

某日某人進入某廠辦徵詢某某事該洽何單位負責人,得一指示為「請去某某區找一有鬍子、有肚子的老兄處理」。某人在到達該區後頓時傻眼,只見放眼望去,在辦公室裡或坐或站的盡是翹著鬍子、腆著肚子的老兄;鬍子與肚子實在不是辨識印度人最有效率的指標。曾幾何時,當在被問到對印度人第一印象時,腦海裡跳出來的形象已從眾多慈善組織勸募海報上投射的「乾瘦、黝黑」的印度小孩,變成這些「有鬍子、有肚子」的印度男子。

(圖片攝影:吳秉霖)

印度成年人口中過重的人數約1.8億人,佔印度總人口的五分之一,比法國、西班牙、英國的人口總數加起來還要多。這個比例在過去十年間接近翻倍,從2006年的10.5% 增加至2016年的19.6%。

造成印度人肥胖的原因有很多,其中之一是印度料理的食材與烹飪方式。在印度料理中,蛋白質與菜葉類的組成相當少,大部份都是塊根類與麥麵粉類等澱粉類,烹飪方式更是由大量油脂和香料燉煮而成,實在是非常適合「供養大量人口」。若在Google上搜尋「印度料理」的圖片,會發現基本上印度料理都是同一個土棕色的色調;在尚未習得品味各式印度料理的變化與特色之前,印度菜對外國人來說,基本上就是「顏色都很像、形狀不一樣、嘗起來一個樣」。

印度人的飲食習慣還有一個特色:特別晚。與台灣人習慣的早餐早上八點、午餐中午十二點、晚餐晚上六點不同,印度人的三餐幾乎是成等份分布在一天二十四小時內:早上八點吃早餐、下午兩點吃午餐、晚上九點吃晚餐。還記得某位年輕的辦公室印籍同仁對台灣人吃晚餐的時間感到不可思議:「六點吃晚餐的話,睡前時會餓到睡不著吧?」食物份量又猶以家人團聚的晚餐最為豐盛,進食完又幾乎是立刻就寢,也無怪乎印度人會養出圓滾滾的肚子。

另一個面向,是社會對於肥胖的態度。在物資匱乏的年代,只有擁有豐厚家底的人才有機會獲得多餘的營養,因此在印度傳統觀念裡,肥胖與社會經濟地位連起了正相關性 – 有道是,印度人的位階高低可以用肚子大小判斷出來──在一群印度人之中,領頭者很有可能就是肚子最大的那位老兄!有位長年留美的印度朋友分享他因美式審美觀開始注重體態後,回印度參加婚禮時被長輩與親戚關心的故事。「你怎麼變得那麼瘦!」甫回歸正常BMI值的他,其實也不過是肚子小了一圈,「你是不是都沒有吃飽喝足?」親戚們用真誠的眼神、憂慮的表情追著他問,而上了年紀的伯叔輩在他四周挺著身板與掛在其上的一顆圓肚,用著孕婦般驕傲的神情撫肚漫步四方。

在二十世紀末,慢性營養不良一直都是印度最大的人口發展議題之一。諷刺的是,當臃腫與肥胖變成街頭隨處可見的景象時,另一個指標 – 代表營養不足的貧血 – 並沒有隨著過重人口比例的上升而有所下降,快速竄升的肥胖率並沒有使得營養不良情形改善。根據2016年的調查指出,印度有53% 的女性有貧血症狀,這個比例在十年前是55.3%;印度男性的貧血比例則是22.7%,亦與十年前的24.2% 相去不遠,使得現代印度社會同時承受著體重過重與慢性營養不良的問題。

最近幾年,印度街頭冒出了許多健身房,寶萊塢明星也早已以身作則,視壯健苗條為美;但印度人普遍仍缺乏運動,再配上不健康的飲食習慣和種種風土民情,使得印度平均餘命僅68歲,全世界排名125名,遠在中國75歲、美國78歲和台灣80歲之後。每次搭機從印度返台,都會在登機閘門之後看到一整排二、三十輛輪椅在待命,準備接送不良於行的印度人。我猜無法自行走出飛機的印度人比例應該要全世界任何一個國家都還高:就像那條長長的入境走廊一樣,印度人揹著濃厚傳統色彩的飲食文化與生活習慣讓他們在通往健康的道路上還有很長、很長的一段路要走。

 

Yoga for Inner Peace: 12 Poses to Release Sadness


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/yoga-for-inner-peace-12-poses-to-release-sadness

Yoga for Inner Peace: 12 Poses to Release Sadness

Colleen Saidman Yee, who leads Yoga Journal’s upcoming Yoga for Inner Peace online course, discusses the importance of letting yourself feel sad, and demonstrates a sequence to release grief and other festering emotions.
Colleen Saidman Yee performs Modified Child’s Pose.

In Yoga Journal’s online course, Yoga for Inner Peace, Colleen Saidman Yee—acclaimed yoga teacher, fashion model, and the wife of yogi Rodney Yee—offered 3 yogic practices a week for 12 weeks to transform your body, mind, and heart and support YOU in your personal journey toward inner peace. Here, she discusses the importance of letting yourself feel sad, and demonstrates a sequence to release grief and other festering emotions.

The Importance of Feeling Sad

Roshi Joan Halifax, who has spent the last 45 years working with death and dying, says one of the biggest problems in our society today is unexpressed grief. We are so afraid to feel sad that we cover it up. Soon, we start to believe the masks that we put on, and who we really are gets buried deeper and deeper. The body knows what’s real and what isn’t. So if we continue to live this façade, human-to-human connection gets confusing, and we end up feeling isolated and misunderstood, rather than content and peaceful.

Mr. Iyengar said that if you don’t want your world to change, don’t step on your mat. It becomes so much more difficult to BS yourself and others once the practice is in your bones. You know when you’re lying, and it feels horrible. Again, the body knows more than the brain, and a yoga practice fosters that intimacy and ability to listen to the body. It becomes more and more difficult to ignore or cover up emotions. How many times have you rested in Savasana and cried for seemingly no reason? Maybe it’s relief from a lifetime of feeling the need to shut down.

See also Feel Happier: Poses for Depression & Anxiety

Ramanand Patel (my husband, Rodney Yee’s teacher) was just here teaching at my Yoga Shanti studio in Sag Harbor, New York. He talked about the importance of release, and said that the two main ways to let out festering emotions are laughing and crying. He pointed out that over our four days together, I would make a joke when things got sentimental or sad. On the last day, he looked me in the eyes and said, “You need to cry more." Because I’ve been in front of the camera since I was 19 as a model, I learned how to shut down the tears. My eyes swell when I cry, and that makes my clients unhappy. So Ramanand nailed me and gave me permission to let go of my stoic façade. I took it on, and now I cry pretty much every day. I don’t look for things to cry about, but I no longer shut down the impulse (I’m watching the Olympics with tears streaming down my face as I write this). My tears are tears of sadness, empathy, and joy. My face and shoulder muscles have softened, and I’m better able to sit with not only my sadness, but other people’s sadness. Taking off my mask has given others permission to do the same. From here, real communication and connection can thrive.

When we conceal our emotions, we get stuck in protection mode. The following sequence begins with Sun Salutations to shake up the body in all directions in order to clear out the hardness. I recommend doing these postures without being rigid, even if that means not going all the way into each pose. Match your breath to the movements.

Slideshow: 12 Poses to Release Sadness

YOU WILL NEED A block and a blanket.

See also Yoga for Depression

 

遲來的正義:「波士尼亞屠夫」穆拉迪奇判刑確定|彭孟濤


11月22日,聯合國成立的「前南斯拉夫問題國際刑事法庭」(ICTY),於荷蘭海牙的總部,宣判「波士尼亞屠夫穆拉迪奇」──曾在波赫戰爭期間,犯下種族滅絕、違反人道與戰爭罪的塞族共和國將軍穆拉迪奇(Ratko Mladić)──終身監禁。

遲來的正義:「波士尼亞屠夫」穆拉迪奇判刑確定|彭孟濤

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6644

遲來的正義:「波士尼亞屠夫」穆拉迪奇判刑確定

友善列印版本

11月22日,聯合國成立的「前南斯拉夫問題國際刑事法庭」(ICTY),於荷蘭海牙的總部,宣判「波士尼亞屠夫穆拉迪奇」──曾在波赫戰爭期間,犯下種族滅絕、違反人道與戰爭罪的塞族共和國將軍穆拉迪奇(Ratko Mladić)──終身監禁。

穆拉迪奇(1993年)(圖片來源:維基百科)

歸根結柢,這場奪走20萬條人命的波赫戰爭,源自於民族和宗教差異。波士尼亞與赫塞哥維納(簡稱波赫,Bosna i Hercegovina)原為南斯拉夫社會主義聯邦共和國六個加盟共和國之一。信仰東正教的塞爾維亞人、信仰天主教的克羅埃西亞人和信仰伊斯蘭教的波士尼亞穆斯林人是境內人數最多的三個民族。由於歷史因素,各民族之間一直存在著民族隔閡、宗教矛盾等衝突。但二次大戰後,在狄托(Josip Broz Tito)領導的南共盟威權統治下,衝突暫時得到了壓抑。但1980年代後,隨著狄托去世,以及接下來的東歐劇變和蘇聯解體的影響下,緊張關係又開始浮現。

特別是當1991年南斯拉夫崩解之際,穆族和克族傾向支持脫離前南聯邦而獨立,塞族則堅決反對。1992年3月,在塞族的抵制下,波赫仍通過獨立公投,稍後也獲得美國和歐洲共同體的承認。但塞族卻自行建立塞族共和國(Republika Srpska),宣布仍留在南斯拉夫內。而後塞族民兵在南國聯邦軍的支援下,迅速佔領波赫各地,釀成全面內戰。由於塞爾維亞和克羅埃西亞在背後各自支持同屬自己民族的派別,使得波赫成為南斯拉夫分裂後的內戰中最複雜的戰場。

交戰中,先是塞、克二族聯合對付穆族,後來穆、克二族同意共組穆克聯邦(Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina),聯手對塞族作戰。期間聯合國和歐洲共同體雖從中斡旋和談,但均未奏效。其後在美國參與並主導北約干預下,才使局勢有利於穆克聯邦。

1995年11月,在美國居間調停下,波赫衝突各方終於在岱頓市(Dayton)達成最後協議,同意終止長達三年八個月的血腥內戰。12月中旬並在巴黎簽署和約。(參見洪茂雄編著,《南斯拉夫史:巴爾幹國家的合與分》、Minton F. Goldman著,楊淑娟譯,《中、東歐的革命與變遷:政治、經濟與社會的挑戰》)

《岱頓協定》的簽署。前排簽署者由左至右分別為塞爾維亞總統米洛塞維奇、克羅埃西亞總統圖季曼和波赫總統伊澤特貝戈維奇。(圖片來源:維基百科)

根據《岱頓協定》,波赫成為單一國家,採取「邦聯制」,由控制波赫領土51%的穆克聯邦和佔49%的塞族共和國的政治實體所組成。可以說,《岱頓協定》提供了終結內戰的解決之道,但就長期而言,該協定並沒有真正化解民族之間的不信任,成功建立起族群政治的運作。(參見郭秋慶,〈波士尼亞與赫塞哥維納憲政體制的選擇及其運作── 兼論『戴頓協定』20 周年政局的發展〉,《台灣國際研究季刊》)

而且,該協定雖為波赫境內迎來了和平,但內戰造成的傷害,終究難以抹滅。尤其是當時塞族在佔領區內實行「種族淨化」,驅逐或殘殺非塞裔人士,更激起國際社會的憤怒。其中最引人非議的莫過於「斯雷布雷尼察大屠殺」。這場造成當地約8000名穆裔平民死亡的屠殺,正是由穆拉迪奇帶領下的塞族共和國軍隊所執行的。

斯雷布雷尼察大屠殺紀念碑(圖片來源:維基百科)

而鑒於南斯拉夫內戰中所發生的種種戰爭罪、種族滅絕等重大罪行,聯合國安全理事會也在1993年通過第827號決議(Resolution 827),設立「前南斯拉夫國際刑事法庭」加以處理。截至目前,ICTY一共起訴了161名犯罪嫌疑人,並定罪當中的83人。

第一個被送上國際法庭受審的前國家元首是米洛塞維奇(Slobodan Milošević)。出身塞共盟(南共盟塞爾維亞分支)總書記的他,在擔任塞爾維亞總統時,介入波赫衝突在前,轉任南聯盟總統又挑起科索沃殘酷鎮壓阿爾巴尼亞族反抗事件於後,致使他獲得「大塞爾維亞主義」幕後鼓吹者與迫害人權的獨裁者等惡名。惟於法庭審理過程中,這位西方媒體口中的「巴爾幹屠夫」,卻於2006年死於獄中。(參見王保鍵,〈混合法庭:國際刑法制度中追訴嚴重犯罪的新模式〉,《人文及社會科學集刊》)

米洛塞維奇(圖片來源:維基百科)

除了米洛塞維奇,當時的波赫塞族領袖也躲不過法律制裁。先是有「巴爾幹鐵娘子」之稱的普拉夫希奇(Biljana Plavšić)於2001年主動前往海牙自首,2003年被判處11年監禁(她是承認在波赫戰爭中犯有罪行的最高級別塞族政界人士,2009年獲釋出獄);而後「斯雷布雷尼察大屠殺」的兩大戰犯──前塞族共和國總統卡拉季奇(Radovan Karadžić)與穆拉迪奇──在潛逃多年後也分別於2008年及2011年落網。2016年卡拉季奇獲刑40年。

卡拉季奇(1994年3月)(圖片來源:維基百科)

針對種族清洗的暴行,卡拉季奇和穆拉迪奇都堅稱自己無罪,後者甚至在法庭上失控叫囂,「你們全都是騙子!」但在判決確定後,不僅當年大屠殺的倖存者和罹難者家屬,對「遲來的正義」感到欣慰,聯合國隨後也表示,這是「司法的重大勝利」!

誠如聯合國人權事務高級專員扎伊德(Zeid Ra’ad al Hussein)說的(link is external),「今天的判決是對犯下這類罪行者的警告,無論他們權勢多大,無論需要多少時間,他們都無法逍遙法外,他們終將被追究責任。」

 

5 Yoga Moves to Practice Daily for Everyday Core Strength


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/5-yoga-moves-to-practice-daily-for-everyday-core-strength

5 Yoga Moves to Practice Daily for Everyday Core Strength

Incorporate these poses from Nicole Sciacca, Chief Yoga Officer at LA’s Playlist Yoga, into your daily routine to strengthen your core muscles and help you maintain a strong and flexible spine.

While you may think about your core on the mat, how often do you consider the work of the core in everyday life? As a mother of a 70-pound four-year-old (he has a very tall father!), I can attest to the importance of full-body strength and mobility. You use your rotational core every single day for basic movement. Those muscles that make up the front, side, and back of your core allow you to flex, extend, and twist. They play a role in everything from carrying groceries home from the farmer’s market to picking up dog poop. The great news is that incorporating the following five moves into your daily yoga practice will strengthen them to help you maintain a strong and flexible spine.

5 Everyday Strong-Core Yoga Moves

About Our Expert

 

【山農說書】 台灣是個瀆神之島──談《大佛普拉斯》與《血觀音》|晏山農


第五十四屆金馬獎已然風光落幕。由於一掃去年中國片全面霸凌台片的陰霾,今年台片可謂大放異彩,其中《大佛普拉斯》(以下簡稱《大》)和《血觀音》(以下簡稱《血》)更是支撐榮耀台灣的雙塔,而兩者都是神片!

【山農說書】 台灣是個瀆神之島──談《大佛普拉斯》與《血觀音》|晏山農

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6645

【山農說書】 台灣是個瀆神之島──談《大佛普拉斯》與《血觀音

友善列印版本

第五十四屆金馬獎已然風光落幕。由於一掃去年中國片全面霸凌台片的陰霾,今年台片可謂大放異彩,其中《大佛普拉斯》(以下簡稱《大》)和《血觀音》(以下簡稱《血》)更是支撐榮耀台灣的雙塔,而兩者都是神片!

既因兩者都圍繞著宗教,從而牽扯出官商勾結的內幕,而且整個的劇情編派、攝影、音樂風格都迥異於前,所以謂之神片。

《大》如台啤,嗆辣中留有鬱氣,時間因而定格,那是台灣人常有的三聲無奈(無錢、無背景、無感情);《血觀音》則如高梁摻入威士忌,濃郁的後座力猶如黑洞的磁吸,時空不知推移到何種座標。兩片風格差異頗大,但不能因《血》攬得金馬最佳劇情片,就妄斷軒輊高下。倒是兩片各自祭出如來、觀音作為影片的符碼,卻又在宗教聖名下行官商勾結之陰醫,因此兩片都有強烈的瀆神(profanation)氣味。

《血觀音》預告截圖(圖片來源:官方預告片)

當代著名的義大利哲學家阿岡本(Giorgio Agamben)就曾這樣描繪:瀆神就意味著打開某種特別形式的玩忽的可能性,而這種玩忽忽視分隔,或者更確切地說,它把分隔置入一種特定的使用之中。阿岡本更強調「從神聖到神聖之外的過渡,也可以借助一種對神聖之物的全然不當的使用(或者,更確切地說,重新使用)來完成:遊戲」。阿岡本還沿引班雅明(Walter Benjamin)之論,針砭資本主義就是一種宗教現象,沒有救贖祇有徹底毀滅一途。

阿岡本談論瀆神現象,既犀利又別開生面;但他指涉的範疇是西方一神論的基督教社會,以及由此衍生的資本主義文化,可台灣混搭了儒釋道佛的民間宗教,以及前/後現代並陳的社會氛圍,其實遠比阿岡本討論的西方社會更華麗喧譁,更堆疊多樣。我的淺見是,儘管《大》和《血》都有瀆神褻佛的用意,但那是台灣的日常,正信佛教固然不會在意,且瀆神本身映照的是更質樸(醜陋)的真實台灣。

依瀆神的視角,《大》有段強烈對比:當大佛送抵法會,政商名流齊聚頌經念佛時,肚財的喪葬儀式僅僅祇有四個人參與。細膩刻畫出小千世界的實情:社會常說公平正義,但在他們生命中並沒有這四個字。畢竟他們連捧飯碗的力氣都沒有,哪裡還有空去說這四個字。片末法會戛然中斷,究為何故?大佛無言無動,祇可意會不可言傳。佛照見眾生的五蘊、苦集滅道,如何渡一切苦厄,決於人而非神佛。看似瀆神,卻見證了無神論佛教的真諦:空。

《大》片的諸角色,一邊是政商名流:斯文其表,獸心其中的佛教工廠店負責人黃啟文(戴立忍飾)、酒色財氣皆沾的高委員(陳以文飾)、敢拿敢給的齷齪副議長劉三城(李永豐飾);另一邊是底層苟活的魯蛇:唯諾畏縮的菜埔(莊益增飾)、樂天自嘲的肚財(陳竹昇飾)、寡言自適的海蟑螂釋迦(張少懷飾)、刁鑽求活的便利商店店員土豆(納豆飾)。但無論貴賤貧富,就是一部「色即是空,空即是色」的渣男影像。

大佛普拉斯預告截圖(圖片來源:大佛普拉斯)

反之,《血》以一尊斷臂的觀音像透照出政商勾結的大千世界。但相較於《大》的編導黃信堯祇求講好一個小千世界的故事,楊雅喆意圖揭露黨國體制/官商勾結/土地資本環環相扣的政經生態,但其架構有些荒疏、未盡周延、入味有限,於是橋段間的銜接牽強者不少:棠夫人何以百分百確定彌陀計畫會遭麗水計畫取代?黨國強壓地方資本,可有違治理原則?棠夫人的五鬼搬運術,僅靠少數人可行乎?Marco何以可藉冥婚全身而退?於是,所觸碰的官商網絡是指控、提問者多,鞭辟入裡者少。

但也因為架構空疏、留白甚多,這才得以讓片中的女角色大展婦黑學,女力全面引爆。以觀音在漢傳佛教轉為女性角色來看,棠夫人(惠英紅飾)、棠寧(吳可熙飾)、棠真(文淇飾)的「婦黑聯盟」,再輔以立法院長夫人(陳莎莉飾)、議長特助(陳珮騏飾)、林翩翩(溫貞菱飾)、林議員夫人(大久保麻梨子飾)、縣長夫人(王月飾)、成年後的棠真(柯佳嬿飾),各個眼神放劍、手腕靈巧,諸人合體匯為血色千手觀音,分則為暗婊八方的羅剎女,這是一部外道別傳、成魔手記。如此的瀆神又是另番風情!

當然,兩部異色電影的形式風格更勝於內容展讀,不得不談。《大》彷《人間》雜誌風格以黑白影像攝獵真實人生,祇有行車紀錄器所現是彩色,但那是虛偽、醜陋的聲色犬馬,是外道之誘。它所傳遞的訊息即:無受想行識,無眼耳鼻舌身意,無色聲香味觸法,無眼界,乃至無意識界。加上攝影者中島長雄最擅捕捉看似荒涼、無趣的魚塭、廢碉堡等,於是,看似無情的人世有了溫度。攝影之外,音樂的流曳:朱約信在歡場獻唱《台東人》VS.劇末林生祥主唱、王昭華作詞的《有無》,前者是紙醉金迷的放浪曲,後者是底層庶民的自我慰語,亦是黑白辯證的說詞。

再者,電影由編導黃信堯親自上陣解說劇情。或有不少人覺得旁白過於頻繁、破壞觀眾自由想像空間;但這讓人憶及舊時電影,佇立一旁解說電影情節的辯士,或昔日電台廣播劇的演出,黃信堯走的不是吳影的愛情文戲、也非張宗榮的武戲,倒有幾分陳一明的自嘲戲謔風。之所以如此編派,為的還是想守住傳統說書人文以載道、善惡有報的傳統,既本土又走出悲情、開出類似東歐黑色戲劇的新局,遊戲/神聖互置,全然符合阿岡本瀆神的意旨。

至於《血》喜用紅藍偏死調,則有強烈的地獄圖暗喻。棠宅的曲徑設計,猶可想像為迷你版的榮寧二府,最迷魅的一景應是棠夫人宴請眾人的晚宴,遠處廊亭上坐著棠寧,旁邊赫然出現兩鬼魅,鬼魅隨著秀蘭瑪雅《純情青春夢》的歌聲起舞,似幻若實、寒慄心起,這是極精彩的造景。

另有個鮮明對比,議長特助約晤棠夫人在KTV談判,台語歌聲串流加上八點檔強勢女王咄咄逼人的主場優勢,未料,棠夫人一句「對不起,我插播」,緊接著「浪奔浪流,萬里濤濤江水永不休,淘盡了世間事,混作滔滔一片潮流」的《上海灘》音律唱起,由此再插播「淫海小清流」(營建署官員)遭議長派人馬架走的畫面,本土天后竟遭香江姥姥逆轉勝。這等外來勁風強壓本土勢力的隱喻,始終就是台灣的日常。

當然,陳莎莉與惠英紅的眼神交鋒、惠英紅指導文淇血色作畫俱是絕妙鏡頭。祇不過,橋段精湛處固然不少,但上文已言及,楊雅喆想將黨國體制/官商勾結/土地資本匯為一體,何其難哉!劉邦友滅門血案、農會超貸擠兌、黨主席之爭本是橫跨不同時段的新聞焦點,勉強湊合自然矛盾叢生。也就是說,他想揭發官商勾結內幕,但自身卻陷迷宮而不自知。於是端賴國寶級說唱藝人楊秀卿,電影才支撐得起來。楊秀卿看似善惡有報,實則驚悚震天的唸歌,配合著成年棠真的新聞,盲人(讓人想起荷馬)的史詩演繹,讓瀆神氣味油然生出。

楊雅喆和《血觀音》的問題,還得由片中人物的角色談起。楊雅喆根本就把棠寧視為自己(或台灣人)的化身!片中棠夫人譏諷棠寧是「公主命,丫鬟身」,既貶抑她縱浪情色、煙酒不離,還直截把她視為塑造棠王國的必要性工具(到處誘男人陪睡)。看似墮落的生命,底蘊卻深藏著對母親與女兒的愛(注意,本片強調的是一個無愛的世界),她是眾女角中獨具人味的一人,她在兩魔女演技綻放中必須扛鼎不放,祇因隔代接班早已預設,而身處地獄道的她,最終必得幻滅。棠寧如此,楊雅喆和他鏡頭下的台灣亦如是!

相較於《女朋友。男朋友》對權力架構的生澀,《血》較沒撞牆問題,但就是陷迷宮。因為楊雅喆不脫憤青色彩,他的提問、咒罵和一般憤青沒啥兩樣,但孫猴子難逃如來掌,楊雅喆若再無超脫,日後的虛無恐湮沒藝術的展放;反之,看完《大》片儘管會有說不出的鬱,卻是圓滿自足,一種類似卓別林的風情暗生。當然,黃信堯刻畫的底層小人物都太善良可愛、善惡絕對二分,這就是文青遺緒,以致瀆神仍未臻頂。

我同意馬欣〈金馬54 「愛國片」再也不用愛得這麼累了!(link is external)〉之論,今年光是《大》與《血》兩片就夠台片揚眉吐氣。但愈是如此風光,就愈擔心台灣電影產業的再生產與分工能否到位,以及諸導演能否從文青/憤青的灰影中走出。畢竟,紊亂政局下唯電影、文學諸藝術可滌人心,否則庶民廣眾在藍綠標簽下分類械鬥,祇會成為徒然送死的走卒而已。

 

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