How the Teres Major Can Make or Break Healthy Shoulders in Inversions

How the Teres Major Can Make or Break Healthy Shoulders in Inversions

Start to understand, lengthen, and strengthen your teres major—a little-known muscle that can be the key to protecting your shoulders when you go upside down.
april anatomy

In every inversion, from Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward-Facing Dog Pose) to Salamba Sirsasana (Supported Headstand), you are basically asking your arms and shoulders to act like legs. But there’s a difference: Your legs are well-designed for pushing, resisting gravity, and constantly bearing the weight of your body as it navigates through all types of terrain. Your shoulders, in contrast, are built for pulling and hanging. All the objects that are dear to us—tools, food, loved ones—are held by our hands and carried by our hearts through our shoulders.

When you invert in asana class, you turn that relationship upside down. And doing so safely requires both precision and adaptability. When you ask your very mobile shoulder assemblies to accept the compression of your body’s weight and act like stable legs, then your bone placement, ligament resilience, and muscle balance all play a role in successful, injury-free inversions.

Key to muscle balance in the shoulders is the teres major. (When we refer to any particular muscle, we mean all of its fascial connections and mechanical influences in its area of the body.) So let’s explore the teres major’s entire “zip code.”

To find teres major, reach across and grab the flesh that forms the back of your armpit, with your thumb in your armpit and your fingertips on the outside edge of your shoulder blade. If you slide your thumb back and forth, you can feel the dense and slippery tendon of your latissimus dorsi (or lat) muscle. You can follow it as it curves up around into the humerus (upper arm bone). The lat comes from your lower back, connecting into the fascia of your thoracic and lumbar spine, hip, and even your outer ribs, and eventually winding into a flat, wide tendon that attaches to your upper arm.

Under your fingertips is your lat’s good friend, and our focus: teres major (meaning “big round” in Latin)—a much shorter, square muscle that runs from the bottom corner of your shoulder blade and joins into the humerus right beside, and parallel to, the lat.

What you are holding when you hold the back of your armpit is the control panel for the proper positioning of your shoulder in inversions. The lats and teres major form part of the big X across your back that I call the Back Functional Line. This myofascial (muscular plus fascial) line connects from the end of the lat on your arm, all the way across your back, to your opposite hip and leg.

While your lats are broad surface muscles that usually lengthen and strengthen pretty quickly with initial yoga practice, teres major is, by contrast, not very well known or understood in the context of movement. The myofascial pathway through teres major requires more attention to get balanced. I call this pathway the Deep Back Arm Line—another myofascial line of connection that starts with the little- finger side of your hand and ends at your thoracic spine. The idea is to get even muscular and fascial tone through the whole Deep Back Arm Line. You can do it; it just requires attention.

See also Anatomy 101: Understand Your Quadratus Lumborums (QLs)


Teres major is key to supporting your weight when you move upside down. If teres major is too short, you’ll be setting yourself up for a shoulder injury as you load your shoulder with more weight in increasingly difficult or long inversions.


The Deep Back Arm Lines (yellow) run from the tips of your little fingers up your arms, eventually reaching your shoulder blades and the center of your back to your neck. The Back Functional Lines (blue) connect to the ends of your lats, cross your lower back, and end at opposite hips and legs.


Feel your deep back arm lines and back functional lines

Become aware of these lines when you go upside down. Take any inversion—from simply being on all fours in Down Dog to Headstand or Handstand—that’s easy and non-injurious for you.

Ground through the heels of your hands, or your little fingers and your outer arm bones (ulnas) if you’re in Headstand or Pincha Mayurasana (Forearm Balance), and feel up through the myofascial line outside your lower arms to the olecranon (the point of the elbow). These are your Deep Back Arm Lines. From here, the myofascial connection runs into and up the triceps, which may be insufficiently toned in many beginning yoga students, and unable to sustain balance with the rest of this pathway. (Do your Plank Poses to get those triceps posturally strong!)

From the triceps of each arm, the Deep Back Arm Line runs into the rotator cuff surrounding the scapula. The lats reach far away to the back of the torso, but try to put your mind into the shorter teres major, which links the triceps with the lower tip of the scapula. Can you feel your shoulder blade at the end of your triceps? Can you place your scapula on top of your humeral head (the ball in the ball-and-socket joint), and at the same time pull it down onto your ribs?

See also Anatomy 101: Why Anatomy Training is Essential for Yoga Teachers

The rotator cuff, which I call the “scapula sandwich,” is a thin slice of scapula between the surrounding cuff of muscles. It gets hooked to the spine by the rhomboids and the levator scapulae. In the inversion, can you feel this hook into the upper back and cervical spine?

The rotator-cuff muscles—supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis—surround the ball of the shoulder. Lots of people get into trouble with the rotator cuff (think baseball pitchers and tennis players), but for yoga folks, the trouble spot is often teres major.

So expand your awareness to the whole Deep Back Arm Line. Where does it feel weak? Can you feel it connecting all the way up? Often the triceps are the weak part, and the teres major is the overly short part, creating a short circuit in the whole “using your arm as a leg” thing.

You can sharpen your awareness of teres major by practicing a short vinyasa. In Down Dog: Ground through the outer heel of your hand and little finger, tone your triceps, and feel the connection build up through your Deep Back Arm Lines. Track the lines specifically through the back of your armpits, through teres major, and into the Back Functional Line.

Now move slowly through cycles of Down Dog and Plank Pose. Feel how the shifting angle of your shoulders, and different weight-bearing in your arms, travels through the Deep Back Arm Lines to your mid spine in Plank and extends across your lower back and Back Functional Line as you move into Down Dog. In Plank, these lines act independently, but in inversions, the lines connect through the teres major. The key to sustaining happy inversions lies in allowing teres major to lengthen as you move back into Down Dog. If it can’t lengthen, the foundation of support through your shoulder will be lost. As you extend your elbows, keep your humerus bones and triceps connected to your lower arms, but make sure your scapulae stay connected to your back and ribs. Feel the stretch? That’s your teres major creaking open at last.

Shift onto one arm (you can drop a knee or two to the ground) and grab the back of an armpit to feel your teres major and enhance your awareness of where you need to stretch. Most people need to let this muscle go in order to strengthen the triceps and rotator cuffs. If you can find teres major and let it go, you’ll become more aware of your arm connecting to the outside of your hand, and the tip of your shoulder blade connecting to your ribs. If teres major is too short, it will hook the whole shoulder blade into your arm, setting you up for a shoulder injury as you load it with more weight in increasingly difficult inversions.

See also Anatomy 101: Understand + Prevent Hamstring Injury

Learn More
Join Tom Myers for a seven-week online introduction to anatomy for yoga students and teachers. You’ll learn how to think of movement in holistic, relational, and practical ways, and how to identify common postural patterns—plus strategies for cueing to awaken parts of the body that may need work. Sign up at

About Our Pro
Writer Tom Myers is the author of Anatomy Trains and the co-author of Fascial Release for Structural Balance. He has also produced more than 35 DVDs and numerous webinars on visual assessment, Fascial Release Technique, and the applications of fascial research. Myers, an integrative manual therapist with 40 years of experience, is a member of the International Association of Structural Integrators and the Health Advisory Board for Equinox. Learn more at

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——吳秀娟,2018.02.26發表於《2018 Cookmania廚師生態學習》臉書社群










廚師小郭與他的朋友,在環島前,認真研發出好吃美味的野菜蘑菇披薩。(取自《2018 Cookmania 廚師生態學習》臉書社群)







3月8日,阿比野菜環島來到第二站,宜蘭的岳明國小,廚師志工清晨五點就從台北開著車子前往學校,七點半與學校老師及幾位早到的孩子,到海邊進行場地佈置,因為當天陰涼風大,實在無法在海邊進行野宴,孩子原本很失望,但最後大家改成在海岸旁的防風林進行,廚師志工Nicolas Chang紀錄著:











「阿比野菜環島學校」18所,行前拍攝紀錄的影片,秀娟老師也有分享在她自己的臉書上,可以在以下網址上看到: is external)



5 Ways Kundalini Yoga Can Help You Create the Life You Want

5 Ways Kundalini Yoga Can Help You Create the Life You Want

Feel like you need a life change, or to craft better, healthier habits and a more consistent practice? Consider Kundalini. Here’s why it really works.

Are you ready to discover your life’s purpose and activate your fullest potential? Kundalini Yoga is an ancient practice that helps you channel powerful energy and transform your life. And now there is an accessible, easy way to learn how to incorporate these practices into your practice and life. Yoga Journal’s online 6-week online course Kundalini 101: Create the Life You Want offers you mantras, mudras, meditations, and kriyas that you’ll want to practice every day. Sign up now!

Kundalini Yoga is the yoga of deep awareness and transformation. We cannot practice Kundalini Yoga without experiencing magical shifts. I was certified in Hatha yoga before my certification in Kundalini Yoga. I love them both. However, when I need a miracle or the ability to break free of limiting beliefs or fears, Kundalini Yoga is my go-to practice. And here’s why:

1. Kundalini Yoga clears blocks in your energy field.

Kundalini Yoga is a magical science that uses sound, mantra, energy healing, exercises and meditations to release trauma from the energetic body, which surrounds the physical body. It is this field, known as the aura, that holds wounds. When those wounds are healed, radiance can occur. Radiance is the magnetic frequency that draws in beauty, love, and light. Attracting abundance into your life starts in the subtle (energetic) body–not the mind.

Kundalini Yoga helps us recognize that abundance is our birthright and living from our hearts is the surest path to prosperity. When we are able to listen to the whispers of the heart, we are able to tap into the magnetic force of the universe, which is love. When we live in that frequency of love, we feel gratitude. Like attracts like, and therefore gratitude attracts more gratitude.

Many people feel as if they have done everything possible to create the lives they want, however they still feel stuck. Kundalini Yoga is a technological miracle that makes the impossible possible through the laws of quantum physics and energy.

2. Kundalini yoga quiets your mind.

The practice of Kundalini Yoga quiets the thoughts that keep us feeling fearful, stuck, and insecure, so that the heart and soul can flourish. Our heart shows the pathway to our highest potential, not the mind! But our heart’s voice is quiet. It can easily be drowned out by the whirling thoughts of our ego-driven mind. When our heart is in in alignment with our soul’s mission, everything flows. Our sensitivity awakens, and our intuition opens. We can let go of the pain of the past and the fear of the future by being present in the moment.

The breathwork and sacred mantras of Kundalini Yoga are wonderful for quieting our mind. Slowing our breath down puts the brakes on racing thoughts. Next time your mind is really spinning out of control, try playing a sacred mantra. The soothing sound current will shift the vibration to one of peace.

3. Kundalini Yoga gives you confidence.

Kundalini Yoga helps you recognize that you are worthy. In a Kundalini Yoga session, you are likely to come face to face with your self-imposed limitations–your inner walls–but you can miraculously dissolve them with the practice. The iconic Kundalini Yoga quote from Yogi Bhajan, “keep up and you will be kept up,” really works. After meeting the challenge of a Kundalini Yoga exercise, many of life’s challenges seem less overwhelming.

The confidence you get from Kundalini Yoga arises from deep within. It does not depend on external circumstances. It is confidence that comes from having the genuine experience of connection to a reservoir of light and love that is much deeper than your limited sense of self. When we truly feel worthy of happiness and success, we are able to manifest our deepest dreams.

4. Kundalini Yoga connects us with the divine.

Kundalini helps us to let go and live without attachment. We work our body, mind, and soul in a way that integrates oneness with the universe. This allows us to feel a connection to higher realms. The higher realms remind us to trust ourselves and to recognize that our pure essence is one with spirit, and, when we trust ourselves, we let go of attachment. We begin to give and receive energetically.

We learn the beauty of giving by silencing the constant chatter in the mind. We stop “doing” and begin allowing. We learn that our true heart’s desire comes from the Divine, and we stop needing approval from others to honor our inner truth – our Sat Nam. When we free ourselves from the expectations of others, we begin to attract love into our lives by giving love.

5. Kundalini Yoga builds strength and resilience.

Our true strength comes from our core energy, not our muscles. If our energy reserves are low, we feel weak in body and in spirit, and our ability to persevere through the challenges of life diminishes. With regular practice, Kundalini Yoga helps us develop a profound core of prana–or life force–and a reservoir of love inside. We gain the ability to depend on that reservoir to deliver the strengths needed to meet the daily demands of life.

Exercises like Ego Eradicator help to free the flow of energy through our body and mind. An incredible strength becomes tangibly accessible when the energy flows. The energy has always been available to us, but we were separated from our own light.

Life will always mirror the challenges found in our inner energy field. By working through and releasing the inner energy blockage, a corresponding release in our life, thinking, and our spirit also occurs. This parallel of micro and macro is the secret power of how Kundalini Yoga enables us to create the lives we desire. When we are cleared of wounds and vibrating in the frequency of love, we attract more love. This is the law of (Kundalini Yoga) science.

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由於一戰時期的穆斯林世界,大量女性加入戰時生產、後援以及技職教育,一戰後的穆斯林世界開始對殖民現代性、以及傳統性別認同產生質疑。以埃及為例,從富裕家庭出身、受過教育的胡達(Huda Shaarawi),不僅能閱讀可蘭經,亦能以阿拉伯文與法語寫詩。

胡達不但在1922-23年前後,成立埃及女性聯盟(Egyptian Feminist Union),長期監督政府推動結婚年齡、女性投票權、反對一夫多妻制、制定對男性嚴格的離婚法、建立診所、提供女性與孩童更多藥物等權益,胡達更在參與國際婦女選舉聯盟在羅馬的會議後(International Woman Suffrage Alliance-IWSA),在公開場所脫下長期包裹的頭巾,激勵與震撼穆斯林世界,不少女權運動研究者,皆定義埃及為穆斯林世界女權的開路先鋒。

就在胡達倡議穆斯林世界女權的當下,土耳其正在進行獨立戰爭。凱末爾曾在戰時提到:「我們的敵人說土耳其不能被認為是文明的國家,這是言之有理的, 因為國家是由男女兩部分人所組成,讓國家的一部分人閉上眼睛,而使另一部分人前進,這能使整個民族進步嗎?前進的道路必須由男女一起踩出来挽臂而行。」



不過, 法律保留了家庭的戶長應該是男性、勞動分工的原則是女主内男主外、妻子外出工作需經丈夫同意。儘管改革鼓勵婦女參與公共領域,但是改革很少涉及私人領域,家父式的威權仍具體影響土耳其。



土耳其女性在國際婦女節高喊自由。(圖片來源: hurriyetdailynews,作者提供)


首先,在公領域方面,女性在凱末爾時期的議會僅佔有4.5%議席;而2002年女性佔有的議席比例是4.4%,女性參政權並未顯著增加。另外,逮捕在國際婦女節遊行的女性,並宣稱遊行者與2016年發動軍事政變的反叛勢力「葛藍運動Gulen movement」,企圖在全國串聯。

在私領域方面,艾爾段曾公開呼籲任何穆斯林家庭都不能接受避孕或計劃生育,土耳其生育更多後代的責任就在女性身上,女性首先應該是一名母親。過去,艾爾段曾意圖修改女性墮胎的合法週期,從合法的十週縮減至四週。綜如上述違反女性身體自主權的行徑,雖終致修法失敗,艾爾段心中所隱藏那晦澀的民族主義,近日更要求一名六歲女童,做好為國犧牲的準備(link is external),招致公民社會的劇烈反感。



[1] 據非官方組織調查,至今仍有很多土耳其女性不知墮胎已合法。另外,全國三十七家公立醫院,僅有三家能協助非緊急的墮胎處理,所以土耳其許多墮胎手術仍是在非法的環境下執行。



New Moon Flow: A Playlist for the First Lunar Phase

New Moon Flow: A Playlist for the First Lunar Phase

Hoping to find the perfect music to listen to during the new moon? This playlist from #YJInfluencer Lauren Eckstrom will help you harness the moon’s comforting energy.

Many of us are familiar with the sun’s energy through Sun Salutations, but what about the moon? The moon is full of tranquil, feminine energy that can be tapped into as we move and flow. This energy is rejuvenating and restorative, and this playlist will be the soundtrack of support.

See also Soothing Moonshine: Chandra Namaskar

1. “Intention Feat Morley," EarthRise SoundSystem
2. “Halving The Compass," Helios
3. “Beyond This Moment," Patrick O’Hearn
4. “Somewhere Within Your Soul," ID3
5. “Dunes," Chequerboard
6. “Soon It Will Be Cold Enough To Build Fires," Emancipator
7. “Everything," Yinyues
8. “Bring You Back," Beacon
9. “Chesapeake," Evenings
10. “Anthem," Emancipator
11. “Know Where," Holy Other
12. “All the Same," Vieux Farka Touré
13. “Floating Sweetness," DJ Drez
14. “Play Delicate, Desire Quiet," Grace Cathedral Park
15. “Horizon," Garth Stevenson
16. “Surya," Todd Boston
17. “Dawn," Garth Stevenson

Download the free Spotify software to listen to our playlists—and check back weekly for more of our fave yoga tunes.)


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謝東閔在港工作 供應日本情資




連震東 先西後東



「和平工作」 參與有份
















Ask the Expert: Which Yoga Poses Prevent Lower-Back Pain?

Ask the Expert: Which Yoga Poses Prevent Lower-Back Pain?

Although standing orients your spine into proper posture, standing for too long can cause back pain. Incorporating a yoga routine can help relieve pain.
Upward Facing Dog Pose Urdhva Mukha Svanasana Lower-back pain

Answers to your questions about detoxifying yoga, back pain, digestive distress, and more.

I switched to a standing desk, but I often get lower-back aches. Which yoga poses can prevent the pain?

Working at a standing desk orients your spine into proper posture—your chin is parallel to the floor and your belly is firm. But standing for too long (even with good posture) can also place pressure on your lower back, as it’s forced to engage muscles that run along the length of your spine. Incorporating a twice-daily yoga routine can help improve posture and relieve back pain. Practice upon waking in the morning and again in the afternoon. Start in Downward-Facing Dog, roll through to Plank, lower into Chaturanga Dandasana, and finish in Upward Dog. Repeat twice. When you’re at your desk, it’s wise to alternate sitting and standing, so use a desk with an adjustable height. Or if you have a standing desk, get a taller chair, so you can alternate sitting and standing every few hours throughout the course of the day.

Kenneth K. Hansral, MD
Orthopedic surgeon, Poughkeepsie, New York

See also Practicing Yoga at Work and Yoga Poses for Back Pain

The best pose for people who suffer from scoliosis?

Jan 2015 Home Practice Vasisthasana Side Plank Pose

Side Plank

Recent research published in Global Advances in Health and Medicine found that scoliosis patients who held Side Plank Pose for 90 seconds per day for about 7 months reduced their spinal curvature by an average of 32 percent.

See also Ask the Expert: Avoiding Ankle Injuries in Lotus Pose

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Yoga Poses to Ease Back Pain

yoga for back pain, Tias Little Side Seated Wide Angle Pose_800x450

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台灣的血浴Taiwan’s Blood Bath (下)|李中志


台灣的血浴Taiwan’s Blood Bath (下)|李中志

台灣的血浴Taiwan’s Blood Bath (下)


往前閱讀:台灣的血浴Taiwan’s Blood Bath (上)























[1]美國最大水泥廠,Kaiser Permanente Cement Plant.


How to Avoid Yoga Injuries

How to Avoid Yoga Injuries

How do you know when you should push your students to work harder and when to back off?
Pushing the limits

Although yoga is intended to heal, many students and teachers find out the hard way that it can also potentially harm. Common yoga injuries include repetitive strain to, and overstretching of, the neck, shoulders, spine, legs, and knees, according to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS). But isn’t yoga supposed to be a gentle exercise that offers refuge from activities that can damage bones, tendons, ligaments, and muscles?

An international survey of 33,000 yoga teachers, therapists, and other clinicians from 35 countries (published in the January 2009 issue of the International Journal of Yoga Therapy) found that respondents typically blamed five things for yoga injuries: excessive student effort (81 percent), inadequate teacher training (68 percent), more people doing yoga overall (65 percent), unknown pre-existing conditions (60 percent), and larger classes (47 percent).

The Ego Factor

If blame can be placed anywhere, it would fall on a single attitude: overzealousness. Unbridled ambition is a dangerous thing, both for teachers who guide students and for students who push themselves beyond their limits. “Most yoga injuries are overuse injuries or over-ego injuries," says Kelly McGonigal, editor in chief of the International Journal of Yoga Therapy and the author of the book, Yoga for Pain Relief (New Harbinger, 2009). She suggests that novices don’t get hurt as often as impassioned, experienced yogis who want to take their practice to the next level physically. In fact, in her experience, teachers in training have the highest rates of yoga injuries.

“Suddenly you go from feeling lost in yoga class to realizing that it’s really possible to touch your toes, or stand on your head, or balance on your arms. You want to get better, to realize your potential," observes McGonigal. “You want to please your teacher, who inspires you and has helped you so much. You put faith in the system and lose touch with the body’s inner guidance. That’s when the goals kick in, the ego takes over, and the problems start."

The Teacher-Student Connection

Asanas are never to blame for injuries, insists McGonigal. “It’s the combination of individual student, asana, and the student’s or the teacher’s beliefs about the asana that leads to trouble," she says. By “beliefs," she means too much certainty about how long you should hold a pose, what a pose should look like, or how to do a specific pose in a specific way.

Besides common physical injuries, there are “psychic wounds inflicted by an overzealous and overly critical teacher," says Molly Lannon Kenny, a yoga therapist and the owner and executive director of the Samarya Center in Seattle. Unfortunately, students often want to please their teacher, so they may overextend themselves to emulate what the teacher says or does. Kenny says that, as a teacher, you have to dissolve the student-guru relationship entrenched in yoga culture.

“Both teachers and students need to practice svadhyaya (self-study) in order to see where their desires are stemming from," says Kennyy. “There shouldn’t be an ego investment of whether you can get a student to get a leg behind their head but an investment in exploring their self-concept [and] going beyond where they think they can."

The Right Tone

One way to help students get in the groove is to paint yoga as something to experience, not something to work at. Often, the challenge for yoga instructors is to balance the idea of the noncompetitive spirit of yoga and the aim to work toward perfecting asanas. An asana is, by definition, a steady, comfortable seat, so there is no “perfect" asana, says Kenny. An asana should be perfect for the person in the moment. The skilled teacher recognizes the student where she is and encourages her to work at a level that’s right for her. The pressing to go further comes with a rapport between teacher and student, where advancement refers to the student looking at her fears and self-concept, then moving beyond those in the spirit of yoga.

McGonigal, who teaches a workshop called “Already Perfect," has students practice with their eyes closed. She says that it has taken her years—and her share of “perfection-seeking injuries"—to learn that asanas aren’t something to perfect but something to experience. “Always pushing to get better, improve, do more in the rest of our lives is what makes yoga practice necessary in our culture. We shouldn’t need yoga to recover from our yoga practice," she says. But this attitude is challenging for teachers to adopt when they’ve been trained to fix postures, adjust students, and improve their own practices.

Teach Experience, Not Mastery

Though it’s less common in our goal-oriented culture, there are occasions when you’ll see that it could be to your student’s advantage to deepen his or her practice. But you can encourage your students to go deeper without physically pushing them deeper, says Maty Ezraty, a teacher in Honokaa, Hawaii. “The kind of adjustment teachers should make is more in awareness," she says—such as making students recognize where their breath is or become aware of their hand/foot placement or the curve of their spine. A physical, hands-on adjustment is more risky, she adds, emphasizing that you really need to know students first before presuming their bodies can move a certain way.

Teachers, Ezraty says, need to resist that urge to “fix" students, which suggests that they are doing something wrong and/or that there’s something wrong with them. “What you can do is tell students what steps they can go through to experience a pose, i.e., how you press your feet, avoid tucking or arching your back, or achieve balance." She says that instructors should focus on a two-part education process: Show students what they need to do, and teach them what they shouldn’t be feeling when doing it. “I might say to a student, ‘Can you press the ball of your foot more?’ or I may suggest using a blanket or other prop. It’s more important for teachers to let students access what they feel themselves when entering or holding a pose."

The Lowest Common Denominator

How can you tell if students are pushing themselves too far? “As a teacher, work on idea of being, not doing," says Molly Lannon Kenny. Spend time observing, watching students’ bodies and seeing how they approach their practice. That also means assessing students right at the get-go, before they ever stoop into Downward Dog. Instructors need to size up their students’ needs and challenges, find out about any health concerns, and determine their yoga goals—why are they in your class anyway?

Then aim to teach all levels of students or the lowest common denominator, not just the most advanced ones, says McGonigal. “Most all-levels classes presume no injuries, and this is just not the case. Think about your class plan from the experience of a student with a limitation: If someone in class can’t bear weight on her arms, what is she going to do during the Sun Salutation sequence?"

McGonigal suggests making sure that your sequence is varied enough that no single concern would lead to a student feeling left out or like a failure for 15 minutes while everyone else is practicing intense forward bends. “Teachers need to build a pose or sequence from the basics up, layering levels in," she says.

For example, if you’re teaching an advanced pose such as Natarajasana (Dancer’s Pose), it’s a good idea to teach elements of the pose earlier on in class that are more accessible to beginner and intermediate students, in this case simpler backbends and balancing poses. When advanced students tackle the full pose, students that aren’t ready for it yet know what they can work on as an alternative to get the same benefits.

Defining “Just Right"

Students often ask, “Am I doing it right?" But how they feel while getting into and holding a pose is more important than “getting it right." McGonigal and Kenny both agree that in yoga, the experience is different for everyone, and what feels right is something the individual must determine. A teacher can’t tell exactly how a student is feeling in a pose. She can only guide him—and that requires finding a window into that student’s experience.

Looking and listening can clue you in about what students are feeling—are they holding their breath, grunting, sweating, teetering, clenching their teeth? McGonigal also likes to ask questions, such as, “Are you hoping this pose is going to be over soon?"

“That’s never a good sign," she acknowledges. “I also ask them, ‘What could you change in this pose so that you could happily stay here another 2 breaths, 20 breaths, 200 breaths if you needed to?'"

What’s vital, adds Kenny, is giving students the vocabulary to express what they’re feeling. “If a student describes a sensation such as warmth or tingling, that’s okay. But if words like shooting, sharp, throbbing, and burning describe the sensation, there’s a problem," she says.

“I develop lead-ins that give students a movement vocabulary, and I explicitly tell students they can rewind as well as fast-forward. If something doesn’t feel right, go back to the last thing that felt good," advises McGonigal. “They aren’t modifications so much as options."

It’s yoga that needs to be flexible, not students. “I don’t ever presume a student should go farther or deeper into an asana physically," says McGonigal. “I want students to have a deep experience of the pose. I want to invite their full attention into a pose. I want to lure them back into that experience of ‘nothing wrong’ that can be experienced in a pose. You can’t measure that with inches gained in a forward bend or seconds added to a free-standing inversion."

Angela Pirisi is a freelance health writer who has covered holistic health, fitness, nutrition, and herbal remedies. Her work has appeared in Yoga Journal as well as in Natural Health, Fitness, Cooking Light, Let’s Live, and Better Nutrition.


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台灣的血浴 Taiwan’s Blood Bath (上)|李中志


台灣的血浴 Taiwan’s Blood Bath (上)|李中志

台灣的血浴 Taiwan’s Blood Bath (上)


原文:”An Executive Account of Taiwan’s Blood Bath As Detailed by Eyewitnesses”, The China Weekly Review, Volume 105, Number 5, PP 115-117.   March 29, 1947.

作者:約翰包威爾 John W. Powell



殺死5,000 人



















繼續閱讀:台灣的血浴 Taiwan’s Blood Bath (下)

[1] 原文使用V-J Day,Victory over Japan Day,戰後初期新聞喜歡的用法,指1945年八月十四日,日本宣布無條件投降。

[2] 婦人林江邁並未被打死。

[3] 專賣局的台北本町分局

[4] 據國史館資料應是三月二日電請蔣介石派兵。


5 Ways to Tap Into Your Inner Leader (and Stay True to Yourself)

5 Ways to Tap Into Your Inner Leader (and Stay True to Yourself)

Here are 5 ways to be a more authentic leader, plus a guided meditation from Meditation Studio.

Leadership is something we often think of in very literal terms, and we usually associate it with work. But if we shift our thinking just a bit, it can actually be something much more meaningful: a way of living more authentically and fearlessly. That’s a concept executive and investor Fran Hauser explores in her upcoming book, The Myth of the Nice Girl: Achieving a Career You Love Without Becoming a Person You Hate, which is designed to empower women to align more fully with their core values. Taking inspiration from the book, here are 5 ways to be a more authentic leader, plus a guided meditation from Meditation Studio.

5 Ways to Be an Authentic Leader

1. Align your actions with your values.

When your actions in the world don’t reflect who you truly are, you might feel off balance, even stagnant in life. The flip side of that is the easy flow and joy you feel in life and work when you do things that line up with who you really are. Just as you would realign the wheels of a car, you may find you can adjust the connection between your head and your heart to find a better balance.

2. Be courageous.

Self-doubt can make you feel stuck or hesitant to reach for what you want. What you need to cast that doubt aside is courage—a deeply rooted faith in your inner strength and knowledge. Think about where you are today and acknowledge that it is the result of a long, courageous journey through the unknown. What motivated you through that? What are you passionate about now? True success will come from connecting to that sense of purpose. Anytime you feel self-doubt creeping in, take small steps as you open yourself up to the possibilities that lie before you.

See also Kat Fowler on Embracing Yoga and Conquering Self-Doubt

3. Find your voice.

To communicate in your own strong voice, you must first understand what’s keeping you quiet. Are you afraid that others might judge what you say as imperfect? Picture that obstacle and observe how it feels in your body. Are there stories you tell yourself about how you might fail? Let go of those stories, and you will rob your fear of its power. Find a situation in your life where you can take a risk and speak up, focusing on the true value of what you have to say, without fear getting in your way.

4. Set healthy boundaries.

Do you say yes to what others ask of you, when deep down you want to say no? This is not the best or most honest way to have rich relationships. Instead, think about how you might be able to turn your attention inward and prioritize your own needs. This isn’t exactly saying no to others. When you are able to set healthy boundaries for yourself, you’ll find you have more energy to support and connect with the people who matter to you.

5. Invest in yourself.

Being absorbed in the demands of daily life can make it difficult to think about what will enrich and satisfy you in the long term. Take the time to look at your life and career with a broader scope. What will feed your passion and help you grow? What can you do to cultivate genuine relationships and open up new opportunities? This is how you reinvest your attention and energy in your future.

See also Yoga Philosophy 101: How Yoga Philosophy Can Revolutionize Your Approach to Self-Care

Guided Meditation: Align Your Values

This meditation, by Chrissy Carter, was created as a companion to the upcoming book, The Myth of the Nice Girl: Achieving a Career You Love Without Becoming a Person You Hate (available for pre-order now). More meditations like this will be featured in the upcoming Leadership Collection on Meditation Studio.

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How to Protect Your Low Back in Forward Bends

How to Protect Your Low Back in Forward Bends


So you have some nagging, persistent low-back pain. You’ve heard that your tight legs are probably part of the problem and that stretching them is a good idea. Since forward bends mightily stretch the backs of your legs, you decide to add some to your home practice a few times a week. Good idea?

Actually, it depends. While forward bends can be wonderfully relaxing and introspective, they can also strain or injure your low back—especially if the backs of your legs are tight.

In fact, there’s a right and a wrong way to do forward bends. Learning to do them correctly will keep your back safe from harm but requires that you pay close attention to the mechanics of your body. The crucial muscles to understand are the hamstrings, particularly in their interactions with your pelvis.

The hamstrings, of course, occupy the backs of your thighs. They originate on the ischial tuberosities (sitting bones), which project from the bottom of the pelvis. From the sitting bones, the hams extend about two-thirds of the way down the backs of the thighs, at which point they connect to the long tendons that cross the back of the knee to attach on the lower leg bones, the tibia and fibula.

The lateral (or outer) hamstring is known as the biceps femoris (biceps means “two heads"; the second head originates on the back of the femur, or thighbone). The two medial (inner) hamstrings are called the semitendinosus and semimembranosus.

See alsoAnatomy 101: Understand + Prevent Hamstring Injury

When the hams contract they flex, or bend, the knee. You can feel this if you sit on the floor with one knee bent and your fingers placed on the back of the lower thigh near the knee. Dig your heel into the floor, pulling your heel toward you against the friction of the floor, and you should feel the hamstring tendons pop out into your fingers. At the hip (with the help of the gluteus maximus), the hamstrings pull the thigh into line with or behind the torso. This is called “hip extension." The hamstrings also have leverage to rotate the femur bones. This action is called “hip rotation": The biceps femoris externally rotates, and the two inner hamstrings internally rotate the hip.

Here’s the basic anatomy of a forward bend: To stretch the hamstring muscles, you extend (straighten) the knee and flex the hip, bringing the torso and the front of the thigh closer together. Doing straight-leg forward bends like Paschimottanasana(Seated Forward Bend) and Janu Sirsasana (Head-of-the-Knee Pose) is an excellent way to stretch your hamstrings.

Muscle Rebellion

The problem is, when the hamstrings are pushed to the limit of their flexibility, they rebel and avoid further stretching by either bending the knee or extending the hip. Hip extension means that as you sit on the floor, the short hams will pull the ischial tuberosities toward the back of the knees, which will tilt your pelvis backward, putting your spine into a major slump and flattening the natural curve of your lower back. The front body and internal organs—including the heart, lungs, and digestive organs—will be compressed, and the back of the body—including the back muscles and spinal ligaments—will overstretch. The tighter your hamstrings are, the more likely it is that this will happen. And that, in a nutshell, can be bad news for your back.

If you are bending forward and get pulled or pushed too far by a teacher or helper, you can seriously injure the spinal disks and ligaments. As you bend forward, more weight gets transferred to the front of the disks. With excessive force, the gel-like center of the disk can be pushed backward into the support ligaments, which can then bulge out. A bulging, or herniated, disk or an injured sacroiliac joint will disrupt your life and yoga practice for months, and may require expensive, time-consuming treatment.

There is a notable exception to the guidelines about low-back pain and forward bends: If your low-back pain is due to a swayback, you may actually find that forward bends ease your discomfort by stretching tight low-back muscles. The swayed, overarched, hyperextended lower back is usually caused by an anterior, or forward-tilted, pelvis, which is most often accom-panied by long, flexible hamstrings. So if you’ve got a swayback, you can usually move into the forward bend and find the back stretch pleasurable.

There’s a simple way to check whether you might be vulnerable to low-back strain or injury in Paschimottanasana and other forward bends. First, lie on your back on the floor. Come into Supta Padangusthasana (Reclining Hand-to-Big-Toe Pose). Bring your right leg up, catch your foot with a strap, and straighten the right knee, while keeping the left leg straight on the floor. If you can make a 90-degree angle between your right leg and torso, you should be able to sit safely in Dandasana(Staff Pose). If you can’t bring the leg to perpendicular (don’t bend those knees!), your pelvis will tip backward in Dandasana, and you’ll be sitting slumped before you’ve even tried to fold forward.

How to Avoid Back Injury

So before doing sitting forward bends like Paschimottanasana, you should have at least 90 degrees in Supta Padangusthasana. If you don’t, you risk hurting your back. Instead of rushing into ill-advised forward bends, take time to improve your hamstring flexibility by consistently working on Supta Padangusthasana with a strap, and on Utthita Hasta Padangusthasana (Extended Hand-to-Big-Toe Pose), standing tall with your foot on a chair seat. Both of these poses will stretch your hamstrings while taking your lower back out of the equation.

See alsoYoga for Back Pain

If you’ve already been working on your hamstring flexibility, and you can bring your leg to 90 degrees in Supta Padangusthasana, that means your hamstrings are flexible enough to allow your pelvis to sit upright in Dandasana but not yet flexible enough to allow it to rotate forward over your thighs. So if you go too far, the forward movement will come from your low back, causing strain or injury. In other words, to fold forward safely without bending your knees, you’ll need to have enough flexibility that your leg can easily come past 90 degrees toward your torso when you’re in Supta Padangusthasana.

In the meantime, the solution is to sit up with a folded blanket or firm cushion under your sitting bones to help tip your pelvis forward. You can also defuse the urge to pull forward by sitting with your back against a wall or by placing a folding or kitchen chair directly in front of you, with your legs placed to the inside of the chair legs. Rest your head on the chair seat and focus on relaxing into the stretch rather than forcing your body to go further than it’s ready to.

No Cheating

You may have heard the instruction to contract your quadriceps (the muscles on the front of your thighs) in forward bends. If your hamstrings are tight, this is an excellent way to help them loosen up. The quads will stabilize your knees and hold them straight in forward bends while the hams try to “cheat" and bend the knees. Not only that, but, by contracting your quads, you’ll be taking advantage of a kinesiological law called “reciprocal inhibition," in which your nervous system tells a muscle to let go of its contraction when the opposing muscle has work to do. In forward bends, contracting your quads facilitates the release of the hamstrings.

And finally, a word about patience. The hamstrings are layered with lots of tough connective tissue—the gristly fibers that help hold the muscles’ structure together. So you can’t rush or hurry the hamstrings into flexibility; they need time to change their length—time in the sense that longer stretches (90 to 120 seconds) seem most effective with connective tissue. And time in the sense that it can take months, if not years, for tight hamstrings to loosen their grip and become flexible. So don’t get your back up. Instead, relax, practice patience, and enjoy the ride.

See also5-Minute Guided Meditation to Cultivate Patience

Teachers, explore the newly improved TeachersPlus. Protect yourself with liability insurance and build your business with a dozen valuable benefits, including a free teacher profile on our national directory. Plus, find answers to all your questions about teaching.

Julie Gudmestad is a physical therapist and Iyengar Yoga teacher in Portland, Oregon. She regrets that she cannot respond to requests for personal health advice.

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進擊的藤井聰太 再創將棋史新篇章|張進逸

進擊的藤井聰太 再創將棋史新篇章|張進逸

進擊的藤井聰太 再創將棋史新篇章










The Anatomy of a Satisfying Side Stretch

The Anatomy of a Satisfying Side Stretch

Help even your stiffest students get the most from sidebends.
Story Image 5616

Help even your stiffest students get the most from sidebends.

Sitting in a narrow, confined space, such as a plane seat, car seat, or office cubicle, can leave you feeling like you’ve been wearing a straitjacket or full-body cast. You may long for some twists and sidebends to loosen up your spine and torso. But while sitting sidebend stretches may feel great to experienced yoga practitioners and teachers, beginners and stiffer students may struggle to find any enjoyment in them—and they may in fact strain or injure their low backs in the attempt. As a teacher, your understanding of these poses and their benefits can help you motivate students to work appropriately on these asanas, avoid injury, and appreciate their benefits.

Sidebending poses include Parighasana (Gate Pose) and seated forward bends such as Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana (Revolved Head-to-Knee Pose) and Parivrtta Upavistha Konasana (Revolved Wide-Angle Seated Forward Bend). In these positions, the torso bends sideways, which is also called lateral flexion. For example, in lateral flexion to the right (Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana to the right), the left side of the torso stretches and lengthens, while the right side of the ribs and waist shorten. Utthita Trikonasana (Extended Triangle Pose) and Utthita Parsvakonasana(Extended Side Angle Pose) aren’t true side-stretching poses because you’re working in them to keep length in both sides of the waist and ribs.

Side-stretching poses lengthen the muscles between the ribs and pelvis, including parts of the low back, and open the sides of the rib cage, improving rib cage mobility and the expansiveness of the lungs, which makes breathing easier in all situations, including aerobic activities and Pranayama. In sidebends where an arm stretches overhead to reach for the foot, the latissimus dorsi muscle, which extends from the back waist to the armpit, will also stretch.

The All-Important QL

One of the most important muscles stretched during a sidebend is the quadratus lumborum (QL). It sits deep in the back of the waist, attaching to the top of the back pelvis and running up to the lowest rib in the back. When it contracts, it pulls the bottom rib and the pelvis closer together. In standing, the left QL hikes the left pelvis and leg up away from the floor. When you do Trikonasana (Triangle Pose) to the right, it is the strength of the left QL contracting to support the weight of your torso (pulling the left ribs and pelvis toward each other, minimizing sidebending to the right and keeping length in the right waist). The QL can become short and stiff if you regularly spend long hours sitting in chairs, and it can become tight and painful, and even go into spasm, with lower-back and sacroiliac injuries.

In theory, it’s a good idea to regularly practice sidebends to keep the QL, latissimus dorsi, and rib cage supple and flexible. However, tight hamstrings and adductors (inner thigh muscles that pull the thighs together) can throw a wrench into this theory. That’s because these leg muscles attach to the sitting bone (ischial tuberosities) and pubic bone, and when they’re tight, they limit the ability of the pelvis to move, which “freezes" the pelvis in an upright position.

Ideally in Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana to the right side, flexible adductors and hamstrings on the right allow the pelvis to tip to the right, so when the torso bends over the right thigh, it lengthens out over the right thigh, with the right ribs approaching the right thigh. If the tight hams and adductors have “frozen" the pelvis upright, the right torso compresses down into itself during sidebending, which can cause painful pinching in the low back and may contribute to arthritis in the lumbar spine.

Help for Stiffness in Legs and Low Backs

For a student with a tight low back and hamstrings, especially one who has a history of lower-back pain or injury, it’s probably best to work first on sidebends while leaving the legs out of the equation. One relaxing way to do this is by sidebending over a bolster or stack of blankets. Ask the student to sit on the right buttock on the floor, with legs folded to the left beside her. Pull the long side of a bolster (flat on the floor) in beside the right hip, and have her lie sideways over the bolster so the right side, between the waist and armpit, will be supported by the bolster. (It’s important to support the weight of the torso so the side muscles are relaxing, not contracting.) Bend the bottom arm (which supports the head) and leg while stretching the top arm and leg out in line with the torso, as though the back of the body, top leg, and arm were lined up against a wall. In this position, the pelvis naturally tips to the right and the left waist and ribs are gently lengthening. This gentle stretch is an excellent one to teach to your stiff or injured students.

As your students work toward increasing their side-body flexibility, have them continue practicing poses to improve their adductor and hamstring flexibility. They can accomplish this without risking lower-back strain or injury in poses such as Supta Padangusthasana (Reclining Big Toe Pose) and Utthita Hasta Padangusthasana (Extended Hand-to-Big-Toe Pose), with their top foot supported on a chair or ledge.

How will you know when they’re ready to combine the two for Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana? When their flexibility has improved, have them sit on the floor as they would for Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana to the right. Can the pelvis tip a bit to the right? Sitting them up on a folded blanket under the sitting bones will help their chances. If the pelvis will tip a little, they’re ready to start working on the pose. I recommend placing a folding chair, with the seat facing the torso, over the right leg. This way, they can reach for the back of the chair with the left hand, which helps lengthen the torso horizontally rather than compressing down. The chair seat can support the head, which will help them relax. With a little preparation and support, you can set the stage for your students to enjoy the benefits of side-stretching sitting poses.

Teachers, explore the newly improved TeachersPlus to protect yourself with liability insurance, build your business with a dozen valuable benefits including a free teacher profile on our national directory, plus find answers to all your questions about teaching.

Julie Gudmestad is a certified Iyengar Yoga teacher and licensed physical therapist who runs a combined yoga studio and physical therapy practice in Portland, Oregon. She enjoys integrating her Western medical knowledge with the healing powers of yoga to help make the wisdom of yoga accessible to all.

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包威爾的態度惹怒了委員會,聽證會主席印第安納州參議員稱他為美國叛徒,並宣布將聽證資料移送法務部,要求檢察總長以叛國罪起訴。包威爾的妻子Sylvia Powell亦參與雜誌社的寫稿,她與另一編輯舒曼 (Julian Schuman) 也被委員會傳訊,兩人與包威爾採一致的態度。1956年四月25日,舊金山大陪審團以煽動叛亂 (sedition) 罪名起訴包威爾夫妻與舒曼。此罪在台灣的戒嚴法下是家常便飯,但在美國對記者以此起訴可是天大的事。






包威爾的態度惹怒了委員會,聽證會主席印第安納州參議員稱他為美國叛徒,並宣布將聽證資料移送法務部,要求檢察總長以叛國罪起訴。包威爾的妻子Sylvia Powell亦參與雜誌社的寫稿,她與另一編輯舒曼 (Julian Schuman) 也被委員會傳訊,兩人與包威爾採一致的態度。1956年四月25日,舊金山大陪審團以煽動叛亂 (sedition) 罪名起訴包威爾夫妻與舒曼。此罪在台灣的戒嚴法下是家常便飯,但在美國對記者以此起訴可是天大的事。




難題最後意外解決, 1959年一月進入審判後不久,法官以審判過程出現瑕疵,以至包威爾無法獲得公平審判為由,宣布終止審判。法官表示,他沒注意到一個陪審員尚未進入隔離室,聽到他認為定罪包威爾證據充分的看法,此疏失足以影響陪審員獨立判斷的心證,故必須終止審判。檢方立刻另起爐灶,只是這次無法說服大陪審團起訴。但檢方還是不放棄,要拖到麥卡錫時代結束,甘迺迪上台,1961年檢察總長羅伯甘迺迪下令撤銷所有控訴,全案才告終結。












[1] An Executive Account of Taiwan’s Blood Bath as Detailed by Eyewitnesses, by John W. Powell, in The China Weekly Review, Volume 105, Number 5, PP 115-117.   March 29, 1947.


Learning to Fly: Crane Pose

Learning to Fly: Crane Pose

Play with being fearless as you build balance and strength in Bakasana.
Crane Yoga Pose

As an arm balance, Bakasana (Crane Pose) is a royal gateway to more advanced poses that have you standing on your hands, and for good reason: Confidence starts here. You may be hesitant even to try this pose for fear of taking an ignoble face-plant on your mat. But balance and strength arise from starting at a place of comfort and taking a risk of falling down. Balance isn’t something that happens when you’re standing perfectly still. It happens when you’re staying strong and at ease with all of the fluctuations inside you. Practicing this pose is a good way to prove to yourself that you have it in you to face your fears, find your balance and strength, and take flight.

Preparing for and practicing Crane doesn’t just build confidence. It also presents an opportunity to embrace a playful attitude as you find your balance and tap into your strength, pulling up your heels tight to your bottom and lifting off. To come into such a compact arm balance, the tailbone draws down, and the hip flexors contract. The strength of the hip flexors, core, and upper back helps you get compact and create an evenly rounded spine. Meanwhile, the arms and legs hug in toward the midline.

Watch! Our model, Mark Gonzales, is one of two winners of the Yoga Journal Talent Search, sponsored by Athleta. He teaches Power Yoga and works as a holistic life coach and personal trainer for executives at tech companies such as Google in the San Francisco Bay Area. Go behind the scenes with Talent Search winner Mark Gonzales at


In order to create a long, flexed spine that will allow you to hug in tight and lift both feet off the floor, you’ll want to warm up your upper back, activate your core strength, and begin to open up your hip flexors with a somewhat vigorous vinyasa. Begin in Balasana (Child’s Pose) with the arms stretched forward, and take eight breaths. Then come onto your hands and knees, and do several rounds of Cat-Cow Pose, pressing your palms firmly into the mat and rounding the upper back. Shift into Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward-Facing Dog Pose), and hold for eight breaths. Lift your right leg, externally rotate it, bend the right knee, and reach through your raised foot. Straighten your right leg, square off the hips, and step forward into Anjaneyasana (Low Lunge). Hold for eight breaths, and then lift your back knee and rise up into High Lunge for eight more. Repeat on the second side. Take five rounds of Surya Namaskar A (Sun Salutation A). Now you’re ready to set up and take flight!

1. Malasana (Garland Pose), variation

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To prepare your lower back, come into a low squat on your mat with your inner heels and big toes touching. Balancing on the balls of your feet, part your knees slightly wider than your hips. Lean your torso forward between your legs, bring your arms out in front of you, and place your hands on your mat. Walk your hands out as far as they will reach, dropping the chest and head toward the ground. Now, start to counter this action by drawing the tailbone down to create a long, round spine. Your heels may or may not touch the ground depending on the flexibility of your Achilles tendon. If your head reaches the floor, let it rest there. Take 8 deep breaths, feeling the roundness in your spine, and then slowly walk your hands in toward your feet to come out of the pose.

2. Bakasana (Crane Pose), supported

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One of the hardest parts of Bakasana is getting over the fear of falling on your face. The block is a nice safety net to get you ready for flight. Place a yoga block at its lowest height in front of you on a mat. Step onto the block on the balls of your feet with the inner edges of your feet touching. Come into a low squat with your knees slightly wider than your hips, leaving your feet in place. Lean forward, and place your palms on your mat, shoulder-width apart and several inches in front of the block. Wrap your knees around the upper outer edges of your arms as high up as they’ll comfortably go. Walk your hands in a little closer to the block, and lift your tailbone. Shifting more weight onto your hands, bring the elbows forward in line over the heels of your hands, and keep your gaze forward, ahead of your fingertips. See if you can come onto your tippy toes, and round the upper back. Hold for 5 breaths, or practice lifting one foot at a time toward the tailbone. With time and confidence, practice lifting both.

After taking these two prep poses, practice coming into full Crane at least twice.

3. Bakasana (Crane Pose)

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Now it’s time to combine your strength, balance, and playful nature. Start in a low squat, balancing on the balls of your feet with the big toes and inner heels touching. Separate your knees, and lean your torso forward between your thighs. Bring your arms forward, and place your hands on the floor. Walk your hands in toward your feet until your palms are 6 to 8 inches in front of your toes.

Next, wrap your inner knees around your upper outer arms, and give your arms a solid squeeze with your knees. Keep this grip, but lift your tailbone high enough so you can bring your elbows in line with the heels of your hands as you lean your weight forward. Bend your elbows, and firm your forearms toward the midline to create height and support—in this pose, you want to think “in" before “up."

From here, begin to lift one foot, and then the other, toward your tailbone. Keep your gaze forward while concentrating on rounding the upper body, firming your forearms toward the midline, and breathing softly and easily. Keep rounding the upper back as you press into the floor. Hug your forearms in, and draw your heels tight toward your tailbone. To go further, find your core strength, and push down to straighten your arms for even greater height. Enjoy the lift and strength of Crane for 5 to 8 breaths before coming out and taking the pose a second time.


After you’re finished, do a few backbends and hip openers to counter all the contracting of the hip flexors and the core work necessary for creating the long, rounded back in Bakasana.

First, lie on your back and prepare for either Setu Bandha Sarvangasana (Bridge Pose) or Urdhva Dhanurasana (Upward Bow Pose). Take three backbends, and then roll up to Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Bend). To release the hips, take Eka Pada Rajakapotasana (One-Legged King Pigeon Pose) for a few breaths on both sides, or come into Sukhasana (Easy Pose) and fold forward for a few breaths. Then sit and enjoy a couple of minutes of seated meditation before releasing into Savasana (Corpse Pose).

Kathryn Budig is a vinyasa teacher based in Los Angeles.


Learn Crane Pose


Crane (Crow) Pose

Side Plank Yoga Pose

Get More Vertical in Side Plank

Make the migration into crane yoga pose

Make the Migration Into Crane Pose

Side Crow Pose

Side Crane (Crow) Pose

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Prepare for Liftoff in Side Crow Pose

jason crandell in eka pada galavasana yoga pose

Flight Club: 5 Steps to Flying Pigeon Pose

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Twist and Lift: Revolved Crane









即使抽離二二八的脈絡,年輕包威爾在美國新聞史上的地位,應該享有比他已得到的注意還要高許多的尊敬,對當代的新聞從業人員,仍不失為典範。以下是包威爾父子的故事,從1947年三月的一期The China Weekly Review談起,以下稱「中國評論」。


1947年三月初,老約翰・班・包威爾 (John Benjamin Powell) 過世,同年三月八日發刊的中國評論,以社論悼念了這位主持了近三十年的總編兼發行人。老包威爾的確是位值得尊敬的記者,中國每周評論1917年於上海創刊,自包威爾1918年接手以來,一直扮演著英語世界了解中國事務的重要窗口。包威爾十分同情中國的處境,對帝國主義的譴責不遺餘力,尤其對日本的侵略深惡痛絕,也譴責戰前美國的姑息主義。他對國民黨的批判不輕,對蔣介石的獨裁十分不以為然,但基本上他把希望放在中國民族主義者身上,希望他們能盡快學習自己治理中國事務。

老約翰・班・包威爾(John Benjamin Powell)。來源:紐約時報




雜誌社因戰爭停刊四年,戰後1945年十月復刊,交由年輕的包威爾主持,是本文的主角,約翰・威廉・包威爾 (John William Powell),1919年出生於上海,隔年父親把他送回美國,除了六歲回到上海與父母同住一年,他與母親的家人在美國中西部成長,受教育。虎父無犬子,年輕包威爾之後的事蹟更應該讓所有媒體人都肅然起敬。

1938年進入父親的母校,密蘇里大學,主修歷史與新聞,決定追隨父親的步伐,從事記者工作。太平洋戰爭爆發後,尚未完成學業就在1940年烽火中回到上海, 1941年上海淪陷被迫離開,父親留在上海英雄式的決定讓他震撼。回美國後自願受戰地記者訓練,1942年再次以記者的身分投入戰爭,來到中國重慶。戰後回到上海,直到1953年中國評論關閉。











Wake Up and Flow: A 60-Minute Yoga Playlist to Slay the Day

Wake Up and Flow: A 60-Minute Yoga Playlist to Slay the Day

Roll out of bed onto your mat and hit play. This 60-minute A.M. playlist will wake and warm you up for your day.
morning yoga

Wake up and flow with Yoga Journal on Spotify. Download the free software to listen to our playlists. And check back weekly for more of our fave tunes to flow to.

Roll out of bed onto your mat and hit play. This 60-minute A.M. playlist will wake and warm you up for your day.

See also Sadie Nardini’s Yoga Playlist: Get Hooked on Her Original Music

60-Minute Morning Flow

  1. “trip.fall.,” Denitia and Sene
  2. “Someone new,” Hozier
  3. “Today,” ODESZA
  4. “Someone That Loves You,” HONNE, Izzy Bizu
  5. “Tired of Talking,” LEON
  6. “It’s All I Know,” Monarchy
  7. “From Nowhere,” Dan Croll
  8. “Capsize,” FRENSHIP, Emily Warren
  9. “Always,” Panama
  10. “Dreams,” Blood Diamonds
  11. “Gold – Thomas Jack Radio Edit,” Gabriel Rios
  12. “Is this Love – Montmartre Remix,” Bob Marley & The Wailers
  13. “Soak It Up,” Houses
  14. “Get Good (Infinitefreefall Remix),” St. South
  15. “Wake Me,” Message to Bears
  16. “Nectar Drop,” DJ Drez

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Understanding Your Muscle Tissue

Understanding Your Muscle Tissue

Get to know the different ways your muscles contract to power up your asana practice.

Get to know the different ways your muscles contract to power up your asana practice.

There’s a reason your yoga teachers say things like, “Eccentrically contract your triceps to slowly lower into Chaturanga,” instead of just, “Contract your triceps.” It’s because there are three different ways a muscle can contract, and how you utilize these actions can affect strength and safety in a pose. So, what is really going on inside the muscle tissue when we flex, and why does it matter?

Explore All Three Types of Muscle Contractions

To get a feel for the mechanics in question, bend your elbow. The biceps on the front of your arm contracts to lift your forearm, creating a shortening of muscle fibers, or concentric contraction. If you keep your elbow bent, your biceps stays contracted to resist gravity in a static (nonmoving), or isometric, contraction. These types of contractions probably feel familiar—they’re what you’d do if you wanted to “make a muscle.”

Now slowly lower your forearm. You might assume that the triceps muscle on the back of your arm, which is responsible for straightening your elbow, is working now. However, because gravity pulls your forearm down, your triceps doesn’t need to do anything. Rather, your biceps continues to contract as it lengthens, resisting gravity. If it didn’t, your forearm would simply fall. Such lengthening, or eccentric contractions, are critical to controlling many movements, from folding forward into Uttanasana (Standing Forward Bend) to jumping back to Chaturanga Dandasana (Four-Limbed Staff Pose) to moving into an arm balance like Parsva Bakasana (Side Crane Pose).

See alsoAnatomy 101: Understand Your Pectoralis Minor

Use All Three Muscle Contractions in Your Yoga Practice

Targeting concentric, isometric, and eccentric contractions in your asana practicewill work your muscles through their full range of motion, helping you to develop balanced strength and lessening your risk of injury. To understand these contractions, you need to know what happens in your muscles when they’re working. Muscle cells, or fibers, contain many smaller strands called myofibrils, each of which in turn is comprised of a series of contractile units called sarcomeres. Within the sarcomere, two types of protein filaments—thick filaments called myosin and thin filaments called actin—overlap like interlaced fingers.

When a muscle like the biceps contracts concentrically, a signal from the central nervous system prompts the thick myosin filaments to catch hold of nearby thinner actin filaments, forming linkages called cross-bridges. If the pull is strong enough to overcome opposing resistance (usually from the force of gravity), the actin strands slide between the myosin filaments and the muscle shortens—in this case, pulling up your forearm.

A similar thing happens during an isometric contraction, except the force generated by the myosin cross-bridges exactly matches the opposing resistance, so there is no movement and your arm stays fixed.

And, if the resistance is greater than the force the muscle generates, such as what happens to the biceps when lowering from a pull-up, the biceps muscle will be stretched, producing an eccentric contrac-tion that allows your arm to lengthen with control. Scientists don’t yet fully understand this process, but it appears that during an eccentric contraction, some myosin cross-bridges continue to latch onto actin filaments, while others are pulled apart.

Perhaps surprisingly, muscles generate more force eccentrically than concentrically, meaning you can lower a heavier weight than you can lift. You can use this principle to build strength by focusing on lowering movements. For instance, controlling the descent from Plank Pose to Chaturanga will eccentrically contract and strengthen your triceps, while pushing back up to Plank is a concentric contraction of your triceps.

See also Anatomy 101: Understand + Prevent Hamstring Injury

Because eccentric contractions produce more force than concentric ones, they also put more stress on muscles. If you’re not used to it, eccentric exercise can damage muscle proteins, triggering delayed-onset muscle soreness, or DOMS—usually at its worst one to two days after a tough workout. While DOMS may be annoying, it is rarely serious. Your muscles adapt by becoming stronger after a bout of DOMS so that the next time you do the same routine, you’re less likely to be sore.

Another caveat about eccentric exercise: It may also stress tendons, the connective tissue that binds muscles to bones. Repeatedly overloading your tendons in this way without allowing for recovery increases your risk of tendon damage, or tendinopathy, a painful condition that can interfere with your practice. Due to their slow metabolic rate, tendons recover gradually; once tendinopathy develops, it can take months for full recovery.

But that doesn’t mean you should avoid eccentric exercise. In fact, strengthening your muscles eccentrically will help build stronger, more resilient muscles and tendons that are less likely to get injured in the future—as long as you allow them to adapt slowly. In fact, physical therapists frequently use eccentric exercises to rehab injured tendons.

Exploring the entry into Side Crane Pose will help you understand how to use eccentric contractions wisely in your yoga practice.

side crow, parsva bakasana

How to Use Eccentric Contractions in Parsva Bakasana (Side Crane Pose)

The transition into an arm balance like Side Crane Pose can be scary. There is a very real risk of falling onto your head, given that one arm is supporting most of your weight. Eccentrically engaging your triceps will allow you to come into the pose safely and with control, avoiding a painful face plant.

Squat with your feet and knees together, then twist your upper body to the right, bringing your left upper arm against the outside of your right knee. Place your hands on the floor alongside your right thigh, shoulder-width apart. As you shift your weight forward onto your hands, lift your feet. Imagine that you are pressing the floor away with your hands. This will keep your triceps eccentrically engaged as your elbows bend, controlling how far your head lowers toward the floor.

When you find your balance, your triceps muscles will work isometrically to keep you there. However, at the sweet spot where your upper and lower body exactly counterweight each other—like the two arms of a scale—your triceps won’t need to do much. If you sense yourself falling forward, lightly press the floor away with your fingers, concentrically contracting your triceps to return to the balance point. Eventually, as you get even stronger, you can work toward straightening your elbows by further concentrically engaging your triceps.

See also Ask the Expert: Are Shaking Muscles Healthy?

A NYC–based yoga teacher and Feldenkrais practitioner, Joe Miller teaches anatomy and physiology trainings for yoga teachers and students around the world. Learn more at Model Lindsay Gonzalez (breatheonboard
.com) is a teacher at Kindness Yoga in Denver, where she helps run their 200-hour yoga teacher trainings. She also offers SUP yoga trainings and international retreats.

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Understand Your Anxiety + 5 Fixes


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Understand Your Anxiety + 5 Fixes

Understand Your Anxiety + 5 Fixes

Getting to the root of your anxiety can help you overcome it.
Yoga Fashion girl

It is an ordinary day. Perhaps you’re at the office, walking down the street, or reading your email. All of a sudden, you think about a task you haven’t finished. Or you think about your friend who hasn’t called in several weeks, or about your college roommate who is doing so well in his law practice (much better than you!), or about your upcoming date, or about the fact that you have to give a presentation tomorrow. Suddenly, your shoulders seize up. Your neck tightens. Maybe your breath constricts or your belly starts to hurt. The tendrils of anxiety—that most modern of afflictions—have wound themselves around your body and mind like The Claw in an old sci-fi movie. And if you’re anything like the rest of us, it feels…normal. Anxiety is often so ingrained in the body that we live with it for years without noticing how much it drives us. Take Grayson, an architect just beginning a career with a new firm. He wakes up every day with tight shoulders and a feeling of dread. It’s fear of failure, he says, and it gets worse whenever he’s assigned to a new project. As it turns out, he did blow it a few times on graduate school projects, so his anxiety is related to the very real possibility that he could mess up again. Grayson’s anxiety is bad for his health and kills off his joy, but it has a powerful hold on him. He believes that his anxiety reminds him to check and double-check his work, protecting him against a tendency to carelessness. Just as paranoids sometimes have real enemies, anxious people often have real worries. That’s why merely telling yourself “There’s nothing to worry about" usually won’t help you feel less anxious. Instead, it’s much more useful to own your anxiety—to observe its flavors and patterns, to look at what might be setting it off, and then to find ways to work with it.

Teachable Moment

Anxiety can be a powerful teacher. It can show you where you’re hiding stress or holding unprocessed emotions. It might even remind you that there’s something you need to take care of. Most important, anxiety often signals the need for growth or for some inner shift. In fact, whenever you are being asked to move to a new level of skill or a new stage of life, you’re sure to encounter anxiety. This is true whether you’re facing something as simple as getting into a handstand, as exciting as getting married, or as fraught with complexity as opening up to a professional, psychological, or spiritual transformation. It’s only when you are willing to bring consciousness to your anxiety—to pay attention to the bodily sensations it brings, the thoughts that go along with it, and the situations that trigger it—that you can begin to learn from it. This isn’t always easy. Anxiety, like stress, is a subset of fear. (The root of the word “anxious" is the same as the root of the word “anger," the Indo-German word “angh," which means “to constrict.") According to Patanjali’s Yoga Sutra, fear is the last link in a chain that starts with a primal misunderstanding about our identity: our feeling of being disconnected from the universe. This inevitably leads us to identify with a limited notion of who we are. Then we crave some experiences while trying to push away others. Craving and aversion lead to fear of either not getting what we want (the professional breakthrough, the great love affair) or getting what we don’t want (a disease, being broke, having a friend stop liking us). The ultimate fear, of course, is of dying. Since fear always calls into question our capacity to survive and thrive, it’s a deep cause of suffering. Perhaps that’s why Indian iconography often depicts deities such as Shiva, Lakshmi, and others with one hand raised, palm facing forward, fingers pointing up in a gesture that signals to the viewer, “Fear not!" At the same time, as evolutionary biologists point out, fear has its uses. It’s designed to protect us. Even if you don’t know much about brain science, you’ve probably heard of the amygdala, the almond-shaped gland in the midbrain that generates primal emotions such as anger or fear. The amygdala is notoriously trigger-happy—it has to be because when you’re in real danger, you need to act quickly. When activated by a danger signal, the amygdala fires up, connects with the brainstem, and sets off an immediate physical reaction that bypasses the rational, executive part of the brain. This primal response is so much faster than your rational response that you could be in the midst of a fight-or-flight reaction before you’ve figured out whether the slithery shape in front of you is really a snake. Often, the “snake" is just a memory from the past that’s been triggered by something in the present. Likewise, you may associate a raised voice with your mother’s anger, which when you were small seemed to threaten your survival. So when someone raises her voice simply to emphasize a point, it feels like a threat. Your gut tightens, your neck spasms, and you start to speak defensively. The source of anxiety is in your past, but the emotional reactivity operates in the present.

Future Tense

Yet anxiety is also, paradoxically, mostly about the future. Brain scientist Joseph Ledoux defines anxiety as anticipatory. The woman who is worrying about her upcoming routine mammogram is not actually sick. She’s anxious about something the doctor might discover. The man whose palms sweat when the flight takes off is just anticipating that something might happen to the plane. Sometimes, we even begin to believe that our anxiety is keeping the bad thing from happening, like the man I know who subconsciously thinks that worrying about the plane crashing actually helps keep it aloft. Neuroscientists know that neuronal wiring does not discriminate between actual events and imaginary ones. So if you live in an environment that triggers the amygdala’s fight-or-flight reactivity, or if you keep nourishing your anxiety by letting worry feed on itself, your anxiety becomes like a motor with no off button. The more this happens, the more you wire yourself to be anxious. What’s more, many of us tend to confuse anxiety with diligence and believe that our anxiety helps keep us safe. I’ve had parents tell me that if they don’t worry, they are being bad mothers and fathers. Maggie, a lawyer who works in the district attorney’s office in a Midwestern city, is convinced that if she doesn’t feel anxious about a case, she isn’t doing her job right. In fact, when she feels relaxed about a case she’s working on, she worries that she’s losing her edge. No matter how many times her doctor and her yoga teacher tell her that stress isn’t good for her, Maggie remains convinced that she needs to feel anxious in order to function. She isn’t just victimized by her own wiring; she cuddles her anxiety. That’s part of the problem with anxiety. It is physiologically and psychologically addictive. You can get so habituated to it that you believe that the stories it tells are not only real, but helpful, necessary, and even obligatory. When the anxiety gets acute, the intense activity in your emotional brain can make it difficult to think creatively, much less change the situation you’re in. Moreover, since most anxiety comes from early childhood conditioning, feeling anxious takes you back to a much younger stage when you may have felt powerless to cope. In other words, far from helping us cope or keeping us safe, anxiety actually gets in the way of our functioning. And learning how to manage, understand, and let go of anxiety is one of the most powerful ways to lead a more creative and satisfying life.

Loosening Anxiety’s Grip

What does it take to loosen the hold of anxiety on your body and mind? The crucial first step is simply to become aware of it. As you read this, see if you can become aware of how anxiety feels in your physical body. What part of you tightens when you feel nervous? When you’re keyed up for a task or performance, do you hunch your shoulders? Does your throat get constricted? How about your lower back? Then, the next time you notice these physical symptoms, notice what is going on in your mind. What kind of mental dialogue are you having with yourself? When Maggie did this, she became aware of two or three habitual mental scenarios that were so mixed up with feelings and bodily sensations that she could hardly tell which came first! She often would assume the worst possible outcome of any situation. “They won’t like me," was one of her defaults. Others were “I’m going to lose" or “It looks OK now, but if I am not careful, it will fall apart." She realized that she continually looked for the ways in which the people around her could let her down, criticize her, or fail to give her credit for her good work. As Maggie looked more closely at her inner dialogue, she realized how much of her anxiety came from being a perfectionist. She was constantly asking herself, “Could I be doing more?" The answer was always “yes." Some of that came from her father’s perfectionism—he would, she told me, examine the copper-bottomed pots after she scrubbed them to make sure there were no marks left. If there were, he would make her redo them. His voice had become deeply lodged in her brain. And, like Grayson, she was convinced that she couldn’t survive any sort of negative outcome. She was constantly judging herself for possible failure and worrying about whether things were going to work out. Maggie also saw how much of her habitual anxiety came from unprocessed emotions. This tendency to carry around feelings that we haven’t given ourselves a chance to work with is common for many of us. Suppose you have a difficult conversation with your boyfriend. You go to work with a tight feeling in your gut; maybe there’s an ache in your heart. You feel angry and sad, but you don’t stop to name the feelings, much less work with them. So the anger, sadness, tight gut, and achy heart become part of the undertow of your psyche. Later, when you blow up at someone or notice how jumpy you are, you don’t know why. If you can trace that feeling back to its source—which might be an incident from several hours or even several years ago—you can work with the original feeling by recognizing the emotion and its cause. If you can’t find the source, just naming the emotion can make a difference. Once you’ve learned to bring some awareness to your anxiety, you can find your way to greater ease through physical, mental, and emotional practices that will help you assimilate and even release anxiety. Even if the anxiety is pointing to something that needs to be taken care of in the “real" world, you can still work with the hooks that anxiety has stuck into you, both physically and mentally. Just becoming conscious of how anxiety feels can show you where to look deeper into your body and mind, where to let go of something you’re holding, and where to examine more closely a situation you’ve been ignoring.

Six Steps to Ease

I offered Maggie a six-part process that I use myself. At first, she found that the process took a lot of attention. But after a few weeks, it became almost automatic. First, when she noticed the familiar feelings of anxiety—the tight breath, the worried thoughts—she would look for where tension was showing up in her body. She nearly always found it in her shoulders and neck. Using the technique of mindfulness, she would become aware of the sensation as a warm, prickly, radiant mass. Second, she would focus on her heart. Sometimes she would actually imagine herself breathing horizontally as though she were breathing in and out through the chest wall. And at other times, she would concentrate on following the path of her breath from the nostrils down to the center of the chest and then focus on the area behind the breastbone as she tuned into the breathing process. Third, after taking a few minutes to center in the heart, she would ask herself, “What about my situation is contributing to the anxiety?" I suggested she do this as if she were running through a checklist: Am I tensing up because I’m worried about my performance? Am I rushing? Am I reacting to pressure from the outside? Is there something I’m neglecting that I should be paying attention to? She doesn’t analyze at this stage; she just notices what seems to be going on. Fourth, she would bring awareness to the thoughts running through her mind. Sometimes she would experience her anxiety as a kind of mental squeeze or constriction—not discrete thoughts, just a general inner miasma of negativity. Then she would ask herself, “Can I let go of that?" Often, just asking this question eased the mental constriction. Fifth, if she still felt anxiety, she would tune into any emotions that might be present, such as sadness, anger, resentment, or envy. She would try to notice if there was something she was overriding, like a feeling of social discomfort, or impatience, or a worry about an unfinished task. If need be, she would make a note of the feeling. And then she would ask herself if this, too, could be let go. Finally, I suggested that she summon up a feeling of warmth or pleasure. She often did this by remembering what it felt like to sit in the sun by the ocean. Sometimes, she would remember an especially sweet moment of satisfaction—the feeling of having won a case or of a certain moment with her boyfriend—and bring it into her heart. This practice is aligned with a skill that the Yoga Sutra calls pratipaksha bhavana, or “practicing the opposite"—countering a negative feeling with a positive one.

Radiant Energy

In the process of working through anxiety in the present moment, you can, as Maggie did, eventually become familiar with the sensations, thoughts, and emotions that trigger your habitual anxiety. It may not happen quickly. It often takes a while even to be able to pick up on the physical sensations and to recognize the negative thoughts. But when you practice with your habitual reactions to anxiety, its tendrils will start to dissolve. Your shoulders will become more relaxed, your inner dialogue will become kinder, and your emotions will be less reactive. One day, perhaps, you might notice that what you have perceived as anxiety is, at its core, just pure energy. This energy can be experienced as anxiety, but it can also be experienced as excitement or a feeling of being keyed up and ready for action. It can signal the necessary tension, the inner fire, that accompanies growth. The more you can be present with that tension and work with it—even, at times, allowing it to be there without resisting it—the more your anxiety can melt into its essence. When you use feelings of anxiety as a signal to let go, you begin to discover your own ways to free your primal energies from the lock-hold of old mental and emotional patterning. That’s when you’ll recognize one of the greatest secrets of the human organism: All of our energies, even the negative ones that can be so painful and limiting, have at their core the pure energy of life. That energy, if you go into it deeply enough, will reveal itself as inherently blissful. Sometimes, it’s enough just to sit with your feelings of anxiety to realize the existence of the powerful life energy behind them. This is the promise that some of the greatest yogis realized: As we resolve the issues that lock anxiety into the body and as we release the emotions and mental habits that create so much of our suffering, something radical happens. These primal negative emotions, centered in the amygdala and brainstem, start to show us their other face. They point us to the energy that yoga calls shakti—the leaping, dancing energy that can make any moment a creative moment and any experience a potential doorway to joy.

Fast Anxiety Soothers

When anxiety makes you feel physically constricted, these practices can help: Tighten and Release: Breathe in as you tighten and squeeze the muscles in your feet, arms, legs, shoulders, neck, and stomach. Exhale and quickly release the contractions. Continue until you feel a subtle warmth in your muscles. Shake Out Your Worries: Lift your right foot and leg and shake them seven times. Then do your left. Next, shake your right arm and hand and then your left. Start with seven shakes of each. Then count down, shaking your limbs 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. Dance It Away: Put on your earphones, stand up, and dance hard for three to five minutes—the length of a song. If you choose a fast-paced kirtan, the sacred sounds of the mantras will help release mental anxiety. Soothe Deeply: Sometimes what is required is a warm bath or hot shower. Other times, you need a massage. Breathe and Let Go: Find the parts of your body that feel tight and breathe into each with the thought, “Let go."

Sally Kempton is an internationally recognized teacher of meditation and yoga philosophy and the author of Meditation for the Love of It.

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