Anatomy 101: Can You Safely Jump Back to Plank?


https://www.yogajournal.com/teach/anatomy-101-can-you-safely-jump-back-to-plank

Anatomy 101: Can You Safely Jump Back to Plank?

Learn what muscles are activated when you jump back to Chaturanga or Plank Pose, and how to do it safely.
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Rick Cummings

At some point, most yogis will be cautioned during Sun Salutations or vinyasas to “never jump back to Plank Pose—only to Chaturanga Dandasana (Four-Limbed Staff Pose). But this warning doesn’t exist in the fitness world, where jumping back to Plank is part of one of the most popular bodyweight exercises: the burpee.

This basic exercise is simple— start standing; jump straight up; bend forward, and place your hands on the ground; jump back to Plank, then hop your feet to your hands, and repeat. Sound familiar? Eliminate the initial vertical jump, add a backbend (Cobra or Upward-Facing Dog) and Down Dog, and you have a classic Sun Salutation.

According to Mark Singleton’s book Yoga Body, it was Tirumalai Krishnamacharya—the grandfather of Western yoga—who borrowed the jumpback to Chaturanga from Western gymnastics in the 1930s while he was developing the system that became Ashtanga Yoga. With most modern forms of vinyasa and Power Yogaspringing from the Ashtanga lineage, jumping back to Chaturanga became widespread and is now included in most vigorous yoga classes in the West. But given the shoulder and wrist injuries that are emerging lately, it seems like a good idea to revisit a few commonly circulated misconceptions about the biomechanics of the transition.

See also Why You May Want to Start Cross-Training for Chaturanga

First, let’s look at one myth you’ve likely heard: Jumping to Plank is jarring on your joints, forcing your wrists, elbows, and shoulders to absorb shock that would otherwise be dispersed by bending the elbows into Chaturanga. This misconception seems to be based on the false premise that because Plank Pose is a bone-stacked position, the ligaments and tendons within your wrists, elbows, and shoulders must absorb more impact on the landing than they would in Chaturanga.

However, a 2011 study in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies showed that the muscles around your wrists, elbows, and shoulders have to produce more torque (a rotational force) in the Chaturanga position (with bent arms) than in Plank Pose (with straight arms). This finding also holds true for jumping back to these poses. Think about it: When you jump back to Plank, your shoulders stay stacked above your wrists, and your elbows stay relatively extended or straight, which means the muscles around your elbows don’t need to produce as much torque as they would for a Chaturanga landing. Instead, the larger (and in most bodies, stronger)muscles around your shoulders and back control the movement, which makes you less susceptible to injury in your shoulders, elbows, and wrists.

See also Building Strength for Chaturanga

Another misconception about landing in Plank Pose is that the bone-stacked position leads to ligament strain. Strain is simply a change in length from an original state—a.k.a. a stretch. So, when you stretch your body, you experience strain, which means strain itself is not synonymous with injury.

Injury occurs when you stretch your tissues beyond their capacity to bounce back. For example, when you bend your elbows into Chaturanga, the ligaments and tendons crossing the joint have to stretch. Ligaments and tendons only undergo strain when a joint is flexed or hyperextended—not when bones are stacked. In Plank Pose, the ligaments and tendons crossing the elbow joint don’t change lengths—which means they aren’t strained.

Finally, you’ve also likely heard the myth that jumping back to Plank Pose is harder on your lower back than landing in Chaturanga. It’s true that if your core isn’t engaged when jumping back to either Plank or Chaturanga, your lower back can sag. This, in turn, can compress the facet joints—the points of articulation between the vertebrae that allow your spine to flex and extend—and lead to bone degeneration if done repeatedly over time.

On the flip side, if your back is over-rounded on either landing, your abdominal muscles can create too much torque on your vertebrae, which can lead to compression in the discs, resulting in injury. Prevent either scenario by jumping back to either pose with an engaged core, which will keep your spine neutral.

See also Strengthen Your Shoulder Muscles + Improve Shoulderstand

Enter the Biomechanics Lab

When we weren’t able to find scientific research examining the biomechanical differences between both transitions, we headed to the Applied Biomechanics Lab at the University of Colorado, Boulder, to investigate. The lab has a 10-camera motion-capture system and special plates that record ground reaction force—the force the ground exerts onto the body in reaction to body weight exerting force onto the ground.

We placed sensors on a yogi’s hands and lower back as reference points to determine where the center of gravity moved during these two transitions. The verdict: Peak vertical ground reaction force—the highest ground reaction force in the vertical direction—was equal for both transitions (about 1.5 times body weight). That means neither landing can actually be classified as more jarring.

In fact, the peak vertical ground reaction force in both jumpbacks was closer to that of walking (1.3 times body weight) than running (2.5 times body weight). That means that with the required strength and proper form, jumping back to either Plank Pose or Chaturanga produces only a slightly higher impact on the body than walking.

See also Anatomy 101: Why Anatomy Training is Essential for Yoga Teachers

Next, we did some follow-up testing to measure the ground reaction forces on the subject’s hands and feet separately during both transitions. As it turns out, jumping back to Chaturanga resulted in a ground reaction force at the upper body that was 10 pounds more than jumping back to Plank (7 percent of the model’s body weight). Yet the reverse was true when jumping back to Plank: It was easier on the shoulders and wrists, but slightly harder on the feet—about additional eight pounds of ground reaction force (5 percent of the model’s body weight).

Perhaps our most important finding was that the center of gravity stayed closer to the hips in the jumpback to Plank and moved about four inches closer to the head in the jumpback to Chaturanga. That means, when combined with ground reaction force, more body weight has to be supported by the arms in the jumpback to Chaturanga, which increases the amount of torque your shoulders, elbows, and wrists must produce in order to land and maintain safe joint positioning in Chaturanga. The more muscular force required, the more opportunity for injury—particularly at the joints if the muscles around them can’t produce enough force to land or hold Chaturanga.

Anatomy of a Jumpback

Wondering what muscles are activated when you jump back to Chaturanga or Plank Pose? Here they are.

Anatomy_Biomechanics_301

See also A Yogi’s Guide to the Shoulder Girdle + Its Actions

The Jumpback to Chaturanga vs. Plank

We tested the ground force reaction—the force the ground exerts on a body in contact with it—of both jumping back to Plank Pose and Chaturanga. Our key findings below indicate that there is not much difference between jumping back to Plank Pose or Chaturanga when you look at the combination of ground reaction force and center of gravity.

Jumping back to Chaturanga resulted in a ground reaction force at the upper body that was 10 pounds more than that of jumping back to Plank (which amounts to 7 percent of the model’s body weight).

Though jumping back to Plank was easier on the shoulders and wrists, it was slightly harder on the feet by about 8 additional pounds of ground reaction force— 5 percent of the model’s body weight.

See also Dolphin Plank Pose

Jumpback_Biomechanics_302

So Which Jumpbacks Should You Practice?

Now that you understand the biomechanics of both jumpbacks, you can make informed choices about the best transition for addressing your needs and goals—and, if you’re a teacher, those of your students. Here are some recommended guidelines:

Step back to Plank and lower through Chaturanga to the ground if you’re looking for the option with the least potential for injury. It’s a great choice for beginners and yogis with sensitive wrists, elbows, shoulders, lower backs, or poor foot mobility.

Jump back to Plank if you can hold Plank Pose with good form (upper back muscles engaged and no sagging in your lower back) without pain and you want to introduce an additional challenge. Just be sure to keep this movement safe by jumping back to Plank Pose with your core, arms, and shoulders engaged and your arms relatively straight.

Jump back to Chaturanga if you can hold the pose with good form (with your upper back muscles engaged, no sagging in your low back or belly, and your shoulders in line with your elbows) and can also successfully jump back to Plank and lower from Plank to Chaturanga without pain. When you practice this, keep your core and shoulders engaged—and stop if you feel any pain or discomfort in your joints.

See also DIY Plank Challenge: How Long Can You Hold It?

About Our Pros
Author and model Robyn Capobianco, PhD, is a yogi whose curiosity about the science of yoga led her to a doctoral program in neurophysiology. She brings more than 20 years of yogic study, practice, and teaching to her scientific research on the neural control of movement. Her research aims to fundamentally alter the way yoga teachers teach—and provide the scientific foundation that she feels is missing from the yoga community. Learn more at drrobyncapo.com.

Jana Montgomery, PhD, is a lifelong learner and athlete. Her passion for science and sports led her to pursue her PhD in the biomechanics of human movement. Her research specializes in understanding how external forces or equipment affect the way people move­—specifically adaptive equipment and technology. Learn more at activeinnovationslab.com.

 

How 30 Days of Barre Transformed My Yoga Practice (Plus, 5 Moves Every Yogi Should Try)


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/how-30-days-of-barre-transformed-my-yoga-practice

How 30 Days of Barre Transformed My Yoga Practice (Plus, 5 Moves Every Yogi Should Try)

Fueled by visions of a strong and sculpted ballerina body, our writer signed up for 30 days of barre classes at The Bar Method in NYC. Here’s what she learned about her yoga practice, plus 5 barre moves every yogi should try.
A model performs exercises at The Bar Method.

A model performs exercises at The Bar Method.

As a yoga teacher, I’m expected to be energetic and motivated—all of the time. However, even the most dedicated yogi’s routine can become, well, routine. With little time for my own practice outside of teaching, I was feeling stuck, drained, and yes, bored. Fueled by visions of a strong and sculpted ballerina body, I decided it was time to belly up the bar(re) for a different type of happy hour: 30 days of classes at The Bar Method in Soho, NYC.

See also 6 Yoga-Inspired Barre3 Poses to Try

How Bar Method Works

According to Amy Duffey, the Soho studio owner who has been with Bar Method since its California beginnings over 16 years ago, students notice significant changes in muscle tone in less than 10 classes, specifically in common trouble spots like arms and abs. To achieve these goals, classes are taught in intervals that target and isolate small muscle groups. Each sequence utilizes precise movements with a small range of motion in order to “turn on and fire up" muscles. Classes are formatted with a cardio warm-up, shoulder/arm work with 2-5 lb. weights, tricep dips, Planks, exercises to target thighs and and sculpt a “dancer’s dent" (the defined indentation where the thighs meet the backside), ab exercises done on mats, and finally, “back dancing" to define quads and glutes. Active, rather than passive, stretches are done in between sets, allowing you to safely remain working within small muscle groups, which shapes, tones, strengthens, and elongates the body, creating a long, lean, supple silhouette. Think: flat abs, sculpted arms, lifted seat, improved posture, more flexibility, and increased body awareness. “You feel better at the end of the class, rather than decimated such as [after] other workouts," Duffey says.

See also 4 Yoga Warm-Ups for Barre Class

According to Duffey, attending at least 3-5 Bar Method classes per week creates the most effective (and quickest) results. Ever the overachiever, I committed to taking an hour-long class daily, even though this often meant a packed schedule between teaching and taking my mentor’s yoga class three days per week. But all my hard work was more than worth it. Here are 5 ways my 30-day Bar Method experience changed and complemented my yoga practice, and how you can use barre to enhance your practice, too.

5 Ways The Bar Method Transformed My Yoga Practice

1. I learned to be more patient.

Patience is key when learning anything new, including workouts. During the first few classes, I found myself becoming frustrated as I watched other students go through the movements quickly and with ease, while I was struggling to keep up with the movements and pace. However, after about three classes, the format and moves became more familiar; as I grew more relaxed, comfortable, and patient, I was able to learn the details of the movements, and each workout became more effective.

The lesson: Learning to practice patience is helpful on (and off) the mat, especially when you find yourself challenged by a pose, situation, or circumstance.

2. I realized that less can be more.

In yoga, we are accustomed to creating and taking up as much openness and space as possible. Barre, however, is quite the opposite. In fact, the less space the better, especially when it comes to small, isolated actions. The smaller the movement, the harder the muscles have to work, to the point of fatigue.

The lesson: This idea lends itself to yoga practice: Often, the second we start to overthink or try to do more, we find ourselves falling out of an asana or losing our alignment.

3. I became more present.

After many years of yoga, muscle memory makes it easy to flow through certain poses on autopilot. Barre classes forced me to think about each action, its alignment, and the specific details of each movement in a different way than I was accustomed. Focusing on isolated muscles made me aware of one group I clearly hadn’t been paying enough attention to (hello, glutes!). For one full hour, I had to concentrate on on the movements of my own body and be present in what was happening in the now.

The lesson: While teaching, I am fully focused on each student and what they are experiencing in the moment. Barre classes helped me realize I need to incorporate this same concentrated pattern of presence in my own yoga practice, rather than automatically flowing through poses.

4. I appreciated the gift of change.

Humans are meant for new experiences. Even the smallest or most simple change can and typically does yield big results. By learning new movements and varying my workouts, I noticed a dramatic physical change—despite years of yoga—in my abs/core, glutes, and arms. Aside from the physical, the classes helped shift my thinking, boosted my creativity in sequencing, and reminded me of my interest in deepening my anatomy studies.

The lesson: Variety is the spice of life!

5. I listened to my body.

While I often tell my students to listen to their bodies, when it comes to myself, I tend to ignore my own advice. I power through advanced classes, all types of workouts, and, as an empath, take on the energy and emotions of others while not prioritizing my own self-care. Committing to a schedule that meant taking a daily barre class, in addition to teaching and taking advanced yoga classes, left me physically and emotionally exhausted. In the final week of my self-imposed challenge, I did something unheard of for my dedicated, perfectionist nature and cancelled a barre class. It was the day after Valentine’s Day and after a late night out with a new-ish flame, I actually listened to my body and its inability to attend class. Even now, it’s hard for me admit that I “failed" the challenge. Instead of 30 straight days, it ended up as only 29 days. However, learning to accept my own limitations and prioritize my wellness was an important lesson.

The lesson: The same applies to the yoga mat. Your body will tell you when a sensation is simply discomfort that you can push past, or an injurious pain or pose that is too much for your body at that time. It’s your job to listen to what your body is telling you and respect its wishes. Equally important, forgive yourself and reframe the negative as positive. For me, this was not beating myself up for the one missed class, but thanking my body for being healthy and strong enough to have accomplished 29 classes.

5 Barre Moves Every Yogi Should Try

About Our Writer

Crystal Fenton is a yoga teacher and freelance writer. She is passionate about yoga and sharing the practice with others, as well as a lover of the outdoors, ocean, coastal destinations, and dogs.

 

Where Exactly do Essential Oils Come From?


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/where-exactly-do-essential-oils-come-from

Where Exactly do Essential Oils Come From?

Creating pure and honest essential oils requires care in each step of the process. From the farmers around the world, to distillation and quality testing, here is how essential oils are expertly crafted for you.
Gurunanda-Infographic_v04[1]

About the Oils // GuruNanda 
Guru Nanda made it his personal mission to bring 100% Pure and Natural essential oils From Farm To You®. He personally traveled across 6 continents to form a global alliance of honest farmers to eliminate the middlemen and get the cost and quality under control. Learn more here.

 

9 Surprising SUP Yoga Poses You’ll Want to Try This Summer


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/9-surprising-sup-yoga-poses-youll-want-to-try-this-summer

9 Surprising SUP Yoga Poses You’ll Want to Try This Summer

If you already have a steady SUP yoga practice, you might be eager to try more challenging postures on your board. Enter this sequence, which is filled with familiar postures that have unexpected variations.
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For many of us, standup paddleboard (SUP) yoga has come to be synonymous with summer. After all, it’s a great way to enjoy being out on the water and to sneak in some core-challenging yoga poses—not to mention have your Instagram husband snap a wow-worthy photo while you’re holding Headstand on your board.

If you’re a beginner SUP yoga student, you’re likely discovering that practicing yoga on a paddleboard can inform your “land" practice by challenging your balance and helping you realize the importance of focus. Once you feel comfortable with the basics and you’ve got a steady SUP yoga practice, you might be eager to try more challenging postures on your board. Enter this sequence, which is filled with familiar postures that have unexpected variations.

SUP Yoga Warm-Up

Begin to warm up the hips and shoulders with postures like Child’s Pose, holding the sides (or rails) of one side of the board and then the other. Include several vinyasas like Cat/Cow or Downward-Facing Dog to Plank, going with the flow of the breath coupled with the feel of the water beneath the board. Place yourself on this small, private island-like space, pairing each movement with a long breath. This is not a race. Take your time, not just to assist with balance, mindfully building a foundation, but also to widen your attention and commune with nature above, around, and below.

9 Surprising SUP Yoga Poses to Try This Summer

About Our Pro

Danielle Brown is a Academy of Surfing Instructors SUP certified Instructor, a PaddleFIT Coach, and a RYT 200-hour Yoga Teacher. She has been teaching SUP Yoga in Connecticut since 2012 and loves the way it guides her to go with the flow. Danielle leads SUP & Yoga Retreats to escape New England’s winters and trains teachers to assist in building the SUP Yoga community. Learn more at www.thumbsupyoga.com.

 

《 Albert Cummings – Finally In Love (05:58) 》


《 Albert Cummings – Finally In Love (05:58) 》

How a Sattvic (Pure) Diet Brings You Into Balance + 2 Ayurvedic Recipes


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/how-a-sattvic-pure-diet-brings-you-into-balance

How a Sattvic (Pure) Diet Brings You Into Balance + 2 Ayurvedic Recipes

Learn how to find balance and cultivate sattva with these healthy Ayurvedic recipes.
food

Cara Brostrom

In Ayurveda, eating a sattvic diet is a way to promote, and keep, sattva—a clear head space of truth, contentment, and stability.

You can get there by eating more fresh, local foods; being thoughtful about how you prepare them; and sitting down to enjoy them. This way of eating can be a companion to your yoga practice and may help you pay attention to how foods make you feel—not just in your gut, but in your heart—and how they can affect your mood.

What Is a Sattvic (Pure) Diet?

When you follow a sattvic diet, you eat foods that in Ayurveda are considered to have higher frequencies to help cultivate a higher mind that comprehends deep truths and a kind of spiritual contentment—while staying grounded enough to carry on. A food’s frequency, or energy, comes from how it is grown, its freshness, preparation, and how it is enjoyed. High-frequency foods that are full of prana (life force) are vegetarian, organic, non-GMO, and straight from the farm or garden; they’re prepared mindfully and eaten slowly. Low-frequency foods (which are canned, frozen, fried, or out of a box) are limited or avoided.

See also Ayurveda 101: Self-Care Tips, Poses, Recipes + More

Sattvic meals are designed to help balance the three mental energies called the maha gunas. The essential energy of the mind is sattva, or a pure and content state, while tamas (the maha guna of rest, inertia, and stagnation) and rajas (the maha guna of movement, creativity, and passion) disturb sattva. Tamas and rajas aren’t bad per se; they just have trickier energy and a tendency toward imbalance. Tamas slows down your mind, while rajas speeds it up. Too much tamas can make you feel unmotivated and tired. Overdo rajas and you’ll experience racing thoughts and an inability to sit still. The qualities of your mind can change often, so you may have too much tamas one day and too much rajas another.

Use these recipes to bring your mind into balance. There are recipes to support sattva and clear thinking, as well as those to motivate tamas or calm rajas—although you’ll benefit from each of these meals regardless of your state of mind.

See also Transform Your Life with Ayurveda

In a balanced state, your mind is clear.

Sattvic meals digest easily, nourish your tissues, and utilize the six tastes in Ayurveda (sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter, astringent) to help balance your sattva, rajas, and tamas maha gunas (mental energies). The six tastes describe the flavors of different foods and their vital essences. For example, the sweet taste is the staple of a sattvic diet; it brings the soft, juicy qualities of earth and water and is equated to the experience of love. Sour and salty tastes bring regenerative qualities to your body and nourish and ground you. The lighter tastes—pungent, bitter, and astringent—purify, tone your tissues, and assist in the breakdown of fats and proteins. A well-rounded meal will incorporate both nourishing and purifying qualities.

When you sit down to a balanced sattvic meal, it’s also important to pause for a few breaths and eat mindfully. Notice the flavors of a dish and how it makes you feel. In time, slowing down to truly enjoy your food will become second nature, and mealtimes will become touchstones in your busy day.

See also Ayurveda 101: 3 Ways to Balance Pitta and Cool Down This Summer

Ayurvedic Recipes to Cultivate Sattva

These dishes help naturally bring your mind into a content, satisfied state. Use them to infuse your days with a creative, sustainable spirit. Recipes for sattva balance warming and cooling qualities and are delicate enough to help you keep a clear mind, but tasty enough to satisfy.

See also What a Traditional 21-Day Ayurvedic Detox Looks Like

 

《 Albert Cummings – Man On Your Mind(True To Yourself) (03:55) 》


《 Albert Cummings – Man On Your Mind(True To Yourself) (03:55) 》

Rainy Day Yoga Playlist: 11 Songs to Go with the Flow


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/11-songs-for-a-rainy-day-flow

Rainy Day Yoga Playlist: 11 Songs to Go with the Flow

This rain-inspired playlist will put a spring in your step and add vigor to your yoga practice.
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Rainy days don’t always call for blankets and hot cocoa. Roll out your mat and go deep into a transcendent flow with this playlist.

See also 7 Poses for a Rainy Day Energy-Boost

Rainy Day Flow

1. “Om Zone 2.0 – I," Steven Halpern
2. “La femme d’argent," Air
3. “Anagram," Dousk
4. “Hibernation," Hibernation
5. “Elephant – Dub Mix," Spiral System, Lottie Child
6. “Motherboard," Daft Punk
7. “Rain," Madonna
8 . “It’s In The Rain," Enya
9. “Purple Rain," Prince
10. “Balance," Benjy Wertheimer
11. “Om Zone 2.0 – III," Steven Halpern

See also A Home Practice to Find Peace and Possibility

 

《 Albert Cummings – Let Me Be (05:33) 》


《 Albert Cummings – Let Me Be (05:33) 》

【書摘】《阮ê青春夢─日治時期的摩登新女性》:社會運動與女性


土匪婆,葉陶;台灣共產黨主席,謝雪紅;高雄高女雙璧,簡娥和張玉蘭⋯⋯女性參與社會運動,大都是個人行動或在離開學校之後。
#楊逵 #謝雪紅 #辜顏碧霞 #丁窈窕 #葉陶 #白色恐怖
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/7004

【書摘】《阮ê青春夢─日治時期的摩登新女性》:社會運動與女性

友善列印版本

書名:《阮ê青春夢─日治時期的摩登新女性》(link is external)
作者:鄭麗玲
出版社:玉山社出版公司
出版時間:2018年6月

《阮ê青春夢─日治時期的摩登新女性》書封。

1920–30年代台灣的男子普通中等學校、師範學校、工業學校、商工學校,甚至是台北高校,學生運動風起雲湧,從台北師範學校、台中師範學校、台北工業學校、台北商工學校、台中一中、台北高校,幾乎每年都發生規模不一的學生罷課或抗議事件。1922年2–3月間甚至同時有台北師範學生在校門包圍警察;台北工業200多位學生,集體退出宿舍展開罷課一週以上的情況。1927年台中一中學生在宿舍發動罷課,校長親自入駐並引進警察壓制,台北高校亦發生學生佔領宿舍的罷課風潮。在女子學校罷課對抗情況則比較少見,但在1932年靜修女中曾發生類似事件。據林雅慧研究,該年四年級學生由3名日籍教師帶領前往中南部畢業旅行,但是據說旅途中荒井老師對學生非常不客氣,學生返回學校後聚集在裁縫室商討對策,除了向校長陳情,更決定罷上該名教師的課,經校長出面協調後才順利解決。

女性參與社會運動,大都是個人行動或在離開學校之後。除了因為理念而投入社會運動的少數女性菁英之外,女性進入現代職場,和男性一樣都會面對職災與遭遇不平對待的勞資糾紛。工時、工作環境、工作權等問題,不只是曲高和寡的理念,而是切身相關的利益。1931 年有一則新聞報導:「高雄共榮的運轉手被戫首,同僚女車掌講對策」。這裡所說的「戫首」,可不是真的是被砍頭,而是日文的「くび」(音「枯逼」),意指被解聘。高雄共榮自動車株式會社以經營問題,把公車部門的2 名台灣人司機解聘,但實際上該公司經營不佳的是租賃巴士部門,公司先砍了主要由台灣人擔任司機的公共巴士部門人員,再將租賃部門的日本人調到公車部。於是台灣人居多的公車司機與女性車掌集結商討對策,他們從晚上10點徹夜討論到隔日上午4點,提出各種意見,有要求會社保障他們的職業安定、也有主張強力對抗進行罷工,要求會社取消台人司機的解職命令。這個行動很快就被無孔不入的日警偵知,非常有效率的傳喚相關人等到警局審問。

1920–30年代全世界各地的知識分子在思想意識形態上劇烈波動,台灣的政經變化也和世界局勢同步發展,尤其台灣在經濟上受制於日本殖民政策,基層農民辛勤工作的收穫,受到政策性的掠奪,促使部分台灣知識分子轉向社會主義尋求解決之道。擔任公學校教師的簡吉,發現貧窮學生往往因農忙缺課,意識到農民貧窮問題與殖民地剝削的情況,激發他投入農民運動。除了現實生活的觀察,不可諱言部分是日本自明治維新以來的西式教養文化,以左翼青年自居也是當時文青風潮。蔣渭水就曾言:「以左為時髦,不左為不時髦,故特異粉飾做左派的幼稚病者是很多的。」曾經被指為加入共產黨的前總統李登輝也坦言,當時只要是青年大概沒有不傾向左派的。左派與社會主義所標舉平等、扶掖弱小的精神,對年輕人有吸引力。當時的女學生,也有不少人同情中下階層農民,她們接觸相關人物、書籍或演講之後,積極投入社會運動。

土匪婆——葉陶

出身高雄旗津的葉陶,1920年擔任打狗公學校、高雄第三公學校的教師,簡吉是她的同事。簡吉因為組織農民組合(農民團體)辭去教職,參與1920年代的農民運動。葉陶也和簡吉一起行動辭去教職,投入農運,擔任農民組合的婦女長。葉陶由於皮膚黑、聲音大,被學生起了個「黑母雞」的綽號。1927年楊貴甫自日本回來,個性爽朗的葉陶拿著扇子請楊貴題字,文采洋溢的楊貴,毫不客氣的在扇子上大書「土匪婆」。這個稱號成了她最響亮的外號。共同參與社會運動的兩人在1929年2月結婚,隨即遭逢總督府對農民組合展開大逮捕的二一二事件,雙雙入獄。因社會運動而相識相知走向婚姻,在監獄展開「蜜月」。

楊貴的筆名楊逵,著有《送報伕》、《壓不扁的玫瑰花》、《鵝媽媽要出嫁》等作品,刻畫底層農工的生活,強調反抗與不屈服的樂觀精神。1947年二二八事件之後,有鑒於人民之間隔閡日深,他發表「和平宣言」,卻因此賈禍入獄。

高雄高女雙璧

高雄高女學生簡娥,台南新化出身,高雄第三公學校畢業後考上高雄高女,就讀公學校時受到簡吉影響,常和高雄高女同學張玉蘭一起去聽農民組合的演講。張玉蘭則是屏東大埔人,哥哥張添丁(台南師範學校出身)和陳崑崙(台北工業學校出身)也都加入農民組合,她常去農組幫忙,上街頭發傳單。

簡娥、張玉蘭兩人的行動,在當時應該是「不良」到學校很難容忍的地步,果然入學第3年時,兩人在屏東聆聽農民組合的演講,張玉蘭被請上台演說,遭到警察以「思想惡化」逮捕,學校隨即將她退學。被退學的張玉蘭沒有哭哭啼啼,而是發表一篇題為「告諸姐妹」的聲明,頗有「姊姊妹妹站起來」的氣魄,再度因言論賈禍,入獄3個月。出獄後仍不改其志,持續參與農民組合的街頭活動。張玉蘭的演講十分受到歡迎,她也在農民運動中遇見意氣相投的對象,與台北工業學校建築科畢業,屏東東港郡的陳崑崙結婚。

簡娥因為一同參與的好友被退學,對學校更加反感,更加積極參加農民組合,協助教導農民識字。由於受到學校嚴密監視,她乾脆離家,前往台中市農民組合本部,同時以明信片向高雄高女校方表明:「我自今以後,決參加農民運動。已經不得以我為生徒看待。」簡娥家經營旅館,因為她投入農民運動受到不少壓力,當時日本警察喜用「浮浪者取締法」,以這些從事社會運動者無固定職業與居所,引起治安敗壞為由加以逮捕拘禁。警察要將她以該法逮捕,她也毫不畏懼,申請正式裁判,結果無罪開釋。1929年二一二事件農民組合遭到日警大搜捕,前述新婚的楊貴與妻子葉陶都被捕,據說簡娥善易妝沒有被捕,她化身為農婦在中壢、桃園活動,直到1931年日警大肆逮捕台灣共產黨,簡娥計畫從基隆港出逃中國,在基隆港被捕入獄。

台灣共產黨主席——謝雪紅

在台灣的政治社會運動中最知名的女性領袖,非謝雪紅莫屬,她的事蹟實在太多,短短篇幅很難詳述。謝雪紅原名謝阿女,11歲就失去雙親成為童養媳,17 歲成為張樹敏小妾前往日本、中國,受到日、中當時社會主義、共產主義的衝擊,而後脫離張樹敏。期間認識從台北師範大學退學的林木順,1928 年與林木順在上海召開台灣共產黨成立大會。台灣共產黨的產生與當時中國共產黨組織類似,都有蘇聯的支持,他們先在莫斯科「史達林東方勞動者共產主義大學」學習社會主義,並認識日本共產黨人士。當時日本政府並不承認以打倒天皇制為宗旨的日共為合法政黨,當然主張台灣獨立的台灣共產黨也不是合法政黨或社團組織。台灣共產黨成立未久即發生「上海讀書會事件」,謝雪紅被遣送回台,未久她與終身伴侶楊克煌在台北開設「國際書局」,並取得台灣文化協會與農民組合的領導權,台灣文化協會在1927 年因為左右意識形態的對決而分裂,林獻堂與蔣渭水都退出。

左轉後的文化協會與農民組合讓台灣共產黨有檯面上合法的組織可動員,也是謝雪紅在台灣最活躍的時期,不過1931年3月台灣總督府的大逮捕,謝雪紅與楊克煌都被捕入獄。1940年謝雪紅出獄與楊克煌合開三美堂,直到日本戰敗,這段期間沒有從事社會運動。戰後她領導「人民協會」,在《和平日報》對陳儀的施政提出批評,開始重新積極參與政治運動,1947年二二八事件爆發,她更積極參與二七部隊,以武力對抗陳儀政府,在國民黨政府的掃蕩下與楊克煌逃往香港,並成立「台灣民主自治同盟」,簡稱台盟,擔任主席。1949年她成為中共建國後政治協商會議台盟代表。不過她和楊克煌在往後中共的「整風運動」、「反右鬥爭」都被抓出來批鬥,喪失台聯的領導權。退隱之後仍逃不過文化大革命被戴上大右派的牌子,公開羞辱,1970年以肺癌病逝北京,楊克煌也在8年後過世。

以上幾位女性是比較突出的特例。普遍而言,1920–30年代男子學校學生集體串連,對抗學校、政府的行動,並未在高等女學校或家政女學校出現。接受現代教育的女性,多數是在離開學校以後,才投身社會運動。50年代白色恐怖時期有不少女性遭到拘禁,出身三峽書香世家的辜顏碧霞,嫁入台灣五大家族之首的辜家,仍不能免於身陷囹圄。辜顏碧霞1914年出生於三峽,台北第三高女畢業,曾是熱愛文學的文學少女。1932年19歲嫁入台灣五大家族的鹿港辜家,為辜顯榮長子辜岳甫之妻,次年生下長子辜濂松(即中信金控已故董事長)。1942年31歲時出版一本日文自傳性小說《流》,1947 年她因為借錢給文學家呂赫若受到牽連,入獄5年,名下財產高砂鐵工廠遭國民黨政權充公,轉變成為白色恐怖時期關押犯人的保密局北所。

辜顏碧霞在1942年31歲時出版一本日文自傳性小說《流》。(玉山社提供)

白色恐怖時期還有多位日治時期接受高女教育的女性,因受牽連遭到槍決,如台南第二高女出身的丁窈窕。1954年任職郵政總局台南支局,她與好友施水環遭誣陷入獄。丁窈窕被捕時已大腹便便,入獄不久生下一女,新生兒同母親一起入獄。施水環當時未婚,據說可能是因為有人要追求施水環,好友丁窈窕曾勸阻,此人因此挾怨報復檢舉丁窈窕桌上有「禁書」。

據李禎祥的研究,軍法看守所為壓榨受刑人,在監獄裡面成立縫衣工廠,丁窈窕帶著孩子,與施水環一起工作。有時施水環會在寫回家的家書中交代家人帶幾碼布,要縫給小孩子。1956年7月24日,丁窈窕正在做衣服,她的女兒和其他孩子在一旁嬉戲。女性獄官向丁窈窕說有特別接見,丁窈窕抱起女兒要走去大廳,獄卒突然從丁窈窕的懷裡把孩子硬扯過來,將丁銬手銬腳後拉出去槍斃。另一位因案被判12年的女性張常美回憶:丁窈窕的孩子哭到抱回來時,下氣不接上氣,誰抱她都一直哭。最後才叫丁窈窕的丈夫抱回去。她丈夫知道她死了,也差一點發瘋。而和丁窈窕同時押出去槍斃的,還有好友施水環,她可能是因為藏匿逃亡的弟弟施水成而遇難。施水環從入獄到被槍決前寫出68 封書信給家人。施水環的遺書可以參考書林出版社2012年出版的《流麻溝十五號:綠島女生分隊及其他》。丁窈窕是1945年3月畢業於台南第二高女,筆者訪問了其同學王翠月、田淑珠,田淑珠和丁窈窕十分要好,對丁窈窕之遭遇,不勝唏噓。

除了投身政治社會運動的反抗行動,也有像辜顏碧霞這樣以身為大家族下女性成員,撰寫《流》這本小說,內容有別於許多作家以文載道的刻畫社會不公或政治歧視,而是反觀自己生活的空間,直白的描述大家族下的生活樣態,描寫大家族人物糾葛、傳統婚喪節慶時的各種互動。不像男性對這些陋習的批判,常是以國家民族進步的角度出發,《流》以美鳳這位受新式教育女性的觀點,描繪傳統家庭的束縛,著眼於這些陋習對於家族骨肉親情的傷害,另外,小說同情的理解到,這些「陋習」的另一面是傳統長輩表達的關愛。

這本小說寫實的呈現像辜顏碧霞這樣接受現代教育洗禮的台灣女性,其現實生活與理想的落差,新女性如何和傳統家庭與社會相處。小說在1942年出版時,據說因為太像是描寫辜家,家族在無法阻止她出版後,動員各種關係大量收回小說,集中銷毀。如果這個說法可信,1942年讓小說出版的舉措,毋寧是一個靜默卻堅定的反抗。事隔50餘年,1999年辜顏碧霞已成為中信集團人人尊重的阿嬤,她將這本書再度出版,也在這一年她早年資助呂赫若的5年冤獄也獲得平反。《流》一書50多年後的再版,是1942年「反抗——噤聲」遭遇的自我平反,也像是對自己生命中過往的回顧與再肯定,2000年底,她以87歲高齡辭世。

日治時期出現在檯面上參與領導政治社會運動的女性,不少並非受過高女、家政學校等中等以上教育的女性。如最有名的領導左翼社會運動者謝雪紅,出身製帽女工。有些也不是台灣人,如啟發連溫卿社會主義思想的小山靜子,是在台日本人。清水照子在施乾喪偶後僅憑著媒體報導,不顧家人反對,以行動支持來到台灣與施乾結婚,改名施照子。在施乾死後,即便經歷改朝換代,施照子仍然堅持留在台灣,奉獻一生給「愛愛寮」,接續施乾照顧這些社會邊緣人。20世紀初在台灣的女性,無論是台灣人、日本人,無論是家境富裕、有地位的,或者童養媳出身,都開始展現其自我主張,並付諸行動。

 

《 Albert Cummings – Rock Me Baby (06:26) 》


《 Albert Cummings – Rock Me Baby (06:26) 》

Healing Heartbreak: A Yoga Practice to Get Through Grief


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/healing-heartbreak-yoga-practice-get-grief

Healing Heartbreak: A Yoga Practice to Get Through Grief

Move through and beyond loss with a practice that opens both heart and mind, offers strength and comfort in the present, and prepares you for the next leap of faith or love.
Healing Heartbreak Anjali Mudra

The holidays should be a time of joy, celebration, and connecting with loved ones, but navigating them can sometimes feel like an emotional roller-coaster ride. One minute, you’re laughing with family during a festive feast, the next you’re in tears, overwhelmed by sudden memories of a deceased sister or a recent breakup.

Whether you’re dealing with a recent loss this season—in the form of an ended relationship, divorce, death of a loved one or pet, losing a job or home, even infertility—or if old, unresolved grief starts bubbling up, a nurturing, heart-opening yoga practice may help you move through the holidays with greater ease and grace. Using yoga as a form of self-care can help you process grief and recharge your emotional batteries, says Seane Corn, a yoga teacher who leads Yoga for a Broken Heart workshops around the world.

Why Loss Can Physically Hurt

First, understanding why loss hurts can help you process it. Studies show, for example, that when you’re in the throes of romantic love, areas of your brain’s pleasure centers are overloaded with feel-good neurochemicals, including dopamine and oxytocin. But if you lose that love, those chemical levels plummet and stress hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and epinephrine flood in, bringing with them anxiety and sadness. That influx of stress hormones also launches your nervous system into fight-or-flight mode. As a result, extra blood flows to your muscles, which tense up for action, sometimes causing that tight, squeezing sensation in your chest. Losing a parent, pet, job, or anything you felt a strong attachment to can evoke a similar psychological, emotional, and stress response.

How Yoga Can Help Heal Heartbreak

There are many other reasons heartbreak literally hurts. But the good news is, like physical pain, heartache will fade, too. And that’s where yoga can prove transformative—yoga practices have been shown to effectively treat the stress and depression that can be associated with any kind of loss. In fact, a growing body of research shows that asana and pranayama can improve your mood and soothe your nerves so that you can be happier and calmer under pressure, and therefore more resilient during times of grief. So, taking time out for self-care during the hustle and bustle of the holidays can pay off. By devoting even 15 minutes a day to yoga, you can free up some of your physical and emotional energy and be more open to the joy of the season.

Corn, for example, knows firsthand how yoga can help you recover. For a year, her father, a man she describes as her best friend and mentor, died a slow and painful death from kidney cancer. “I can’t tell you how many times in the hospital room, watching my father die, I realized I was holding my breath. And I’d have to consciously stop, breathe, and feel,” she says. “After my father died, the grief was so overwhelming that I would become hyper-reactive or numb,” Corn recalls. “I realized you can’t just process heartbreak in your mind. You have to process it physically, too.” Corn designed a targeted grief-processing practice that she began doing every day to get her body grounded, release muscle tension, breathe out physical and emotional pain, and “keep the energy moving” to keep depression at bay. She adapted that practice for us on the following pages (SeeYoga Sequence for a Healing Heart.) “If we trust the grieving process and give it time, eventually grief opens itself up to a level of love we’ve never known before,” she says.

Set an Opening Intention for Your Yoga-for-Heartbreak Practice

Sit tall, your hips higher than your knees. (This may require a blanket or cushion.) Gently close your eyes, bring your hands to Anjali Mudra, take 5 deep breaths, and then recite this intention:

May this practice reconnect me to my body, ground me in the here and now, and heal me from my grief. I ask for clarity and for the strength to let go of any limited beliefs that keep me resistant to change and unavailable to growth. Instead, may I open my heart, see beyond reason, accept without condition, and love without hesitation. May this practice be blessed.

See also Seane Corn’s pose sequenceThe Yoga Sequence for a Healing Heart

Shannon Sexton is a freelance writer, editor, and digital-content strategist in Cincinnati.

 

《 Albert Cummings – Working Man (57:00) 》


《 Albert Cummings – Working Man (57:00) 》

【滬尾經濟學】消費便利與環保之間,我們可以做什麼?


有鑑於塑膠製品的汙染越來越嚴重,2025年將開始限制提供一次性塑膠吸管,以避免製造更多環境和生態汙染。
#海洋塑膠廢棄物 #塑膠袋 #塑膠吸管
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/7002

【滬尾經濟學】消費便利與環保之間,我們可以做什麼?

友善列印版本

有鑑於塑膠製品的汙染越來越嚴重,2025年將開始限制提供一次性塑膠吸管,以避免製造更多環境和生態汙染。雖然距離政策生效還有一段時間,但由於吸管的使用是非常普遍的,故此一政策宣布已引起社會各界的討論。

來源:Pixabay

事實上,早在去年六月,聯合國所召的海洋大會已將海洋塑膠廢棄物的改善列為當前重要工作。不管我們到台北市立木柵動物園、台中的科博館或屏東的國立海洋生物博物館參觀,都可以看到海洋廢棄物對於海底生態的破壞程度。此外,我們夏天到海灘玩水,一定也會看到沙灘上有許多廢棄物與垃圾,這樣的現象在颱風過後更為明顯。也就是說,這些垃圾對於環境造成的傷害是極為顯著的。

類似限用塑膠吸管的政策從2002年的塑膠袋減量政策開始,當時的政策並沒有成功,最後僅有少數店家配合,當然,造成過去限塑政策失敗的因素非常多元。今年1月1日起,環保署針對「藥粧、美粧、藥局、醫療器材行、3C零售、書店、文具店、洗衣店、飲料店、西點麵包店」等業者納入塑膠袋使用限制的對象。亦即,只要消費者需要塑膠袋,就必須付費。當此政策正式執行時,只買一個麵包或一杯飲料的消費者多數不會有誘因付費購買塑膠袋。因此,塑膠垃圾的數量將會減少,這就是經濟學所強調的誘因機制。將塑膠袋對環境所可能造成的危害反映於消費者的成本上,自然會降低消費者使用塑膠袋的數量。

在消費者或廠商從事消費與生產或其他行為的過程中,可能會對環境產生負向影響卻不需付出任何代價時,我們稱之為負的外部性 (negative externality)。例如,你與朋友聊天過於大聲而使得室友無法入睡,卻無需付出代價。大學好友聚一起打麻將使得樓上或樓下室友無法專心念書,也不須付出成本。學生喝完飲料或吃完便當後,不做垃圾分類而隨意丟棄,會造成環境汙染與清潔人員的工作負擔。上述情況都是我們日常生活中常見的現象。

要解決上述負向外部性的情況,就必須將上述行為所產生的負向成本由製造外部性者來負擔,例如,製造擾人噪音者或製造垃圾者需要被罰款或付費補貼受影響的人。塑膠袋收費或垃圾費隨袋徵收就是這樣的作法。換言之,政府可以做的是將負的外部性內部化到消費者或廠商的成本中,就可以減少廠商或消費者製造外部性的情況。

除了上述生活常見的外部性外,過去核能發電非常便宜的說法也是一個嚴重忽略外部性的宣傳方式。核能發電之所以便宜是因為忽略了核廢料的處理成本所致。若台電願意給你一億補償放置核廢料在你住家,多少人會願意,即使你自己願意,你的鄰居也不願意。因此,核廢料的處理成本有多高,是沒有人可以說出具體數字的,這是忽略計算負的外部性的實際案例。

由上述討論可知,政府的限制塑膠吸管政策並非新的政策,但是,減少吸管使用量的方式非常多,除了直接限制外,透過收費來減少吸管的使用量,都也是我們可以思考的方向。此外,外帶飲料者往往會使用一次性的杯子,所產生的環境汙染可能會較內用者多,若政府只限制內用者使用吸管,反而是對於重視環保者的懲罰,這些都是制定政策時需要更多討論與思考的。

 

《 Albert Cummings – Barrel House Blues (08:55) 》


《 Albert Cummings – Barrel House Blues (08:55) 》

用最少的能源重新定義舒適 Transsolar用氣候改寫建築


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211887?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=056ff6acec-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-056ff6acec-84956681

用最少的能源重新定義舒適  Transsolar用氣候改寫建築

德國建築節能報導04
2018年06月15日
環境資訊中心特約記者 陳文姿報導

承接上篇)很難簡單解釋Transsolar是一家什麼樣的公司。許多知名建築或是都市計畫都有他們的蹤跡,例如泰國曼谷機場、漢堡的易北愛樂廳,但他們的名字卻鮮少出現在介紹裡。他們擅長挑戰不可能的任務,例如為2022年卡達世界盃足球賽場地,在沙漠高熱下打造環境友善開放式冷卻系統,或是在阿拉伯聯合大公國打造零碳排的馬斯達城(Masdar City)。

他們自創單字KlimaEngineer,由德文的氣候Klima與英文的工程Engineer所組成,代表他們的核心工作。他們不是建築師,你可以稱他們為「氣候工程師」,他們是一群善用氣候知識與現代科技,與建築師合作打造節能又舒適空間的人。

Transsolar 工程師在泰國曼谷機場​的運用cloudscape的設計概念來節省空調使用。圖片來源:​Nomad YC(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
泰國曼谷機場。圖片來源:​Nomad YC(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

掌握關鍵 用最少的能源重新定義舒適

2010年威尼斯建築雙年展中有個獨特的作品Cloudscapes,一層層由水蒸氣堆積成的雲在建築物中升起,參觀的人們順著斜坡道步入雲中,享受漫步雲端的感覺。看似不切實際的浪漫,展現的是Transsolar掌握局部溫溼度的功力。

Transsolar創始成員兼現任主管,並在慕尼黑工業大學建築系任教的奧爾(Thomas Auer)教授解釋,真實世界裡,人們並不想在建築物裡看到雲。這個作品想傳達一件事:如果工程師可以在局部或特定區域創造舒適感,就不需要把空調浪費在挑高或寬廣的空間裡。Transsolar將這個概念應用在曼谷機場的設計,對人們活動的高度,相當大約兩公尺以下的範圍提供舒適環境。

Transsolar希望盡量利用自然的力量,空調不是唯一的解答。奧爾說,在高溫高濕的環境下,一個常用的技巧是創造空氣的流動,把熱空氣帶走。

曾經在六月間到過香港的奧爾說,他了解大太陽底悶熱潮濕的痛苦,每隔幾分鐘就想衝進去購物中心冷卻一下,「有冷氣真好啊」那瞬間的感覺。但時間久了就會太冷,這麼做不僅耗能,經常在高溫與冷房間進出對人體也不健康。

對於台灣的環境,他說,他不會抗拒使用空調,但會尋找更聰明的作法。一種可能的做法是──讓溫度像洋蔥一層層改變狀況,入口處較冷,但進到辦公區後維持正常溫度,而不同區域間溫度不要有太大的變化。

4950750101_4abb4e85d9_o
Transsolar 與建築師Tetsuo Kondo合作的作品 Cloudscape,不僅設計出雲而且控制雲的高度與範圍。 圖片來源:準建築人手札(CC BY 2.0)
1122px-Cloudscapes,_Transsolar_&_Tetsuo_Kondo_Architects,_Architecture_Biennale_(5177886133)
Transsolar 與建築師Tetsuo Kondo合作的作品 Cloudscape,不僅設計出雲而且控制雲的高度與範圍。圖片來源:維基百科

用現代科技與古老智慧 KlimaEngineer 找尋永續解答

數百年來,建築都是因應氣候變化而生,奧爾說,氣候工程KlimaEngineer並沒有不同,差別是在現代工程師運用電腦模擬與預測,讓設計更精準並達到最佳化。此外,現代科學對「舒適」的認識也更深入。溫度、濕度、輻射、光線、氣流與人們的感知都重新定義「舒適」。即便溫度不一樣,人們還是可以感覺愉快,可見「舒適」絕非只是維持恆溫這麼簡單的事。

Transsolar的故事始於1980、1990年代德國的反核運動。在使用核能與否的爭辯中,幾個在斯圖加特熱動力與熱傳工程機構工作的年輕人想找尋另類的解答。他們想透過他們在工程上的專業,讓人們一樣保有高品質生活,卻不需使用核能。

透過一次次的計畫,Transsolar試著尋找答案。觀察 Transsolar接下的計畫,可以找到小到一個房間的氣流與窗戶,也可以大到一個開放空間,甚至是一座沙漠城區,例如位在阿布達比的馬斯達城(Masdar City)。馬斯達城位在阿拉伯聯合大公國阿布達比外圍的沙漠,面積約六平方公里,約略是一個台北市大同區。不同於杜拜,馬斯達城不想耗竭能源去打造奢華風,立志成為零廢棄、零碳排城市先驅。

「不是規模、不是預算,而是看任務。每個計畫都應該讓我們更往前進。」奧爾說。

image001
奥地利建築事務所soma設計2012韓國麗水世博會主題館One Ocean,Transsolar 協助空間微氣候規劃。圖片授權:Transsolar (本圖不適用CC授權)

百年尺度看建築 不嘗試就沒有機會

氣候變遷對建築是個很大的挑戰,奧爾說,德國已經訂下2050年零碳建築的目標。這個時程對於一棟可以使用100年的建物來非常艱鉅,這代表從現在起每一棟建築就要符合2050年零碳標準,建築師、工程師們都應該要更具野心。

「不做新嘗試就失去機會了」奧爾堅定地說。(系列報導,未完待續)

0404-1

Transsolar創始成員兼主管,慕尼黑工業大學建築系任教的奧爾(Thomas Auer)。攝影:陳文姿

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作者

陳文姿

理工科系畢業的打字人~

 

《 Albert Cummings – Lonely Bed (07:35) 》


《 Albert Cummings – Lonely Bed (07:35) 》

挑戰循環建築 台糖沙崙園區將成全台首例


http://e-info.org.tw/node/212235?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=056ff6acec-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-056ff6acec-84956681

挑戰循環建築 台糖沙崙園區將成全台首例

2018年06月15日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導

台糖計畫在台南沙崙園區建置智慧綠能循環建築,將是台灣第一例嘗試將循環經濟落實在建築上,涵蓋了循環建築、木構造、租貸住宅、建築物預鑄及模組化工法等。15日台糖公司為此進行論壇,以此例作為藍本,探討循環建築在營建產業鏈合作的機會與課題。

蔡政府上台後,將循環經濟列為重要政策,與新農業一起納入「5+2」產業之中。台糖董事長黃育徵指出,台糖身為國營企業,必須配合與落實政策,而且台糖的角色不是要和其他企業競爭,而是要設法與其他產業合作,因此從去年6月起,陸續舉行循環經濟系列論壇,帶動國內產、官、學界的討論。光是在營建這個主題上,就以舉行「循環建築」、「木構造」、「租賃住宅」及「建築物預鑄及模組化工法」等討論,而這些想法,也要從沙崙園區建置智慧綠能循環建築來實踐。

台糖15日舉行循環住宅論壇。
台糖15日舉行循環住宅論壇。賴品瑀攝。

台糖於今年年初拋出沙崙智慧綠能循環住宅開發計畫,選在沙崙智慧綠能科學城園區內興建,面積約1萬3994平方公尺(建蔽率50%,容積率200%),將是約400戶的大樓型住宅,7月就要展開招標,目標2020年初申請使用執照並供科學城從業人員租用,而且未來還打算在台北、台中、台南、高雄四地繼續興建綠能循環住宅。

台糖土地開發處副處長張榮吉表示,沙崙智慧綠能循環建築主要向蘭取經,循環建築比起綠建築,更著重建材要可以重新再利用,且內外部成本都要考量。

包括建材、水、食物的循環,與能源、智慧管理、及創新商業模式等,都是循環建築需要設計的。

沙崙智慧綠能循環住宅設計,建材要藉著模組化、建材銀行、建材護照等機制,快速且有規模的讓建材可以回到市場再使用;設置雨水收集、中水處理有效水資源並強化用水品質;食物的部分,則從社區農園、城市養蜂、魚菜共生、生態池等設計,利用中水與廚餘;以運用再生能源、節能改善能源使用;以租代買的租用家電服務、共享交通工具等創新商業模式;與智慧電網、智慧管理的調配資源的使用。

台糖沙崙智慧綠能循環住宅設計圖
台糖沙崙智慧綠能循環住宅設計圖,取自沙崙智慧綠能科學城籌備處網頁。

而台糖也表示,目前的設計還沒有用完容積率,他們預估未來會有再擴建的需要,屆時就會將建材拆解後重建,展示這些循環建材透過設計與管理,可以循環使用。

除了台糖在沙崙的嘗試,台北市都發局局長林洲民也分享這三年推動北市社會住宅的經驗與計畫。林洲民表示,目前已有近1.3萬戶已完工與施工中、年底前將再開工23處,且這些社會住宅,都導入智慧住宅的設計。林洲民強調,除了在數量大幅增加外,北市府更將這些社會住宅視為社會服務的基地,除了住宅,也將帶來公園、育嬰托老、社區活動空間等社會福利功能。

台灣微軟AI事業開發部經理蕭博仁解釋,智慧建築回歸使用者的角度來設計,包括透過科技的感測、監測與管理來聰明使用能源,也可以做到安全監控、老人小孩的居住安養照護,與自動化的個人化生活便利設計等。

不過,循環住宅也面臨挑戰,例如資誠事務所會計師李宜樺提醒,循環經濟提出「以租代售」、納入外部成本等,將改變既有的財務模式,是企業需要因應與轉型的。像是以租代售模式的現金與成本流出的時間點也可能跟傳統的線性經濟有所不同,例如折舊等因素就要納入估算,而銀行的融資也並需要以新的思維方式去評估,並以資金控管、屢約保證、第三方監控等機制去確保。李宜樺認為,循環經濟可以對銀行與企業帶來長期穩定可預測的現金流、損益表,但須各方跳脫既有線性經濟的框架。

成大建築系教授蔡耀賢也直言,雖然台糖、台北市府都已展開嘗試,但他認為,能帶頭有大突破的可能還是民間企業,因為公家機關實在太受限於政府採購法,嘗試過程中面臨不少阻礙。

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【妖言惑眾】豐富的生活


【妖言惑眾】

這是,

羅伯。威爾森(Robert E, Willson)

對『豐富的生活』所做的釋義:

人生的真理:

在我們生活的這個世界裡面,

我們增加了許多的知識,

但是,

並未能夠增加更多的智慧。

在我們生活的這個世界裡面,

我們增加了許多的財富,

但是,

並未能夠完全學會善用這些財富。

在我們生活的這個世界裡面,

我們增開發了許多的天然資源,

但是,

並未能夠開發同樣多的精神文化資源。

【◎心靈研磨坊 - 曼陀羅藏◎】

《心靈研磨坊 ─ 身心體能極限的突破,放慢步調,邁開腳步,輕鬆地悠遊著....》

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