Anatomy 101: Can You Safely Jump Back to Plank?

Anatomy 101: Can You Safely Jump Back to Plank?

Learn what muscles are activated when you jump back to Chaturanga or Plank Pose, and how to do it safely.

Rick Cummings

At some point, most yogis will be cautioned during Sun Salutations or vinyasas to “never jump back to Plank Pose—only to Chaturanga Dandasana (Four-Limbed Staff Pose). But this warning doesn’t exist in the fitness world, where jumping back to Plank is part of one of the most popular bodyweight exercises: the burpee.

This basic exercise is simple— start standing; jump straight up; bend forward, and place your hands on the ground; jump back to Plank, then hop your feet to your hands, and repeat. Sound familiar? Eliminate the initial vertical jump, add a backbend (Cobra or Upward-Facing Dog) and Down Dog, and you have a classic Sun Salutation.

According to Mark Singleton’s book Yoga Body, it was Tirumalai Krishnamacharya—the grandfather of Western yoga—who borrowed the jumpback to Chaturanga from Western gymnastics in the 1930s while he was developing the system that became Ashtanga Yoga. With most modern forms of vinyasa and Power Yogaspringing from the Ashtanga lineage, jumping back to Chaturanga became widespread and is now included in most vigorous yoga classes in the West. But given the shoulder and wrist injuries that are emerging lately, it seems like a good idea to revisit a few commonly circulated misconceptions about the biomechanics of the transition.

See also Why You May Want to Start Cross-Training for Chaturanga

First, let’s look at one myth you’ve likely heard: Jumping to Plank is jarring on your joints, forcing your wrists, elbows, and shoulders to absorb shock that would otherwise be dispersed by bending the elbows into Chaturanga. This misconception seems to be based on the false premise that because Plank Pose is a bone-stacked position, the ligaments and tendons within your wrists, elbows, and shoulders must absorb more impact on the landing than they would in Chaturanga.

However, a 2011 study in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies showed that the muscles around your wrists, elbows, and shoulders have to produce more torque (a rotational force) in the Chaturanga position (with bent arms) than in Plank Pose (with straight arms). This finding also holds true for jumping back to these poses. Think about it: When you jump back to Plank, your shoulders stay stacked above your wrists, and your elbows stay relatively extended or straight, which means the muscles around your elbows don’t need to produce as much torque as they would for a Chaturanga landing. Instead, the larger (and in most bodies, stronger)muscles around your shoulders and back control the movement, which makes you less susceptible to injury in your shoulders, elbows, and wrists.

See also Building Strength for Chaturanga

Another misconception about landing in Plank Pose is that the bone-stacked position leads to ligament strain. Strain is simply a change in length from an original state—a.k.a. a stretch. So, when you stretch your body, you experience strain, which means strain itself is not synonymous with injury.

Injury occurs when you stretch your tissues beyond their capacity to bounce back. For example, when you bend your elbows into Chaturanga, the ligaments and tendons crossing the joint have to stretch. Ligaments and tendons only undergo strain when a joint is flexed or hyperextended—not when bones are stacked. In Plank Pose, the ligaments and tendons crossing the elbow joint don’t change lengths—which means they aren’t strained.

Finally, you’ve also likely heard the myth that jumping back to Plank Pose is harder on your lower back than landing in Chaturanga. It’s true that if your core isn’t engaged when jumping back to either Plank or Chaturanga, your lower back can sag. This, in turn, can compress the facet joints—the points of articulation between the vertebrae that allow your spine to flex and extend—and lead to bone degeneration if done repeatedly over time.

On the flip side, if your back is over-rounded on either landing, your abdominal muscles can create too much torque on your vertebrae, which can lead to compression in the discs, resulting in injury. Prevent either scenario by jumping back to either pose with an engaged core, which will keep your spine neutral.

See also Strengthen Your Shoulder Muscles + Improve Shoulderstand

Enter the Biomechanics Lab

When we weren’t able to find scientific research examining the biomechanical differences between both transitions, we headed to the Applied Biomechanics Lab at the University of Colorado, Boulder, to investigate. The lab has a 10-camera motion-capture system and special plates that record ground reaction force—the force the ground exerts onto the body in reaction to body weight exerting force onto the ground.

We placed sensors on a yogi’s hands and lower back as reference points to determine where the center of gravity moved during these two transitions. The verdict: Peak vertical ground reaction force—the highest ground reaction force in the vertical direction—was equal for both transitions (about 1.5 times body weight). That means neither landing can actually be classified as more jarring.

In fact, the peak vertical ground reaction force in both jumpbacks was closer to that of walking (1.3 times body weight) than running (2.5 times body weight). That means that with the required strength and proper form, jumping back to either Plank Pose or Chaturanga produces only a slightly higher impact on the body than walking.

See also Anatomy 101: Why Anatomy Training is Essential for Yoga Teachers

Next, we did some follow-up testing to measure the ground reaction forces on the subject’s hands and feet separately during both transitions. As it turns out, jumping back to Chaturanga resulted in a ground reaction force at the upper body that was 10 pounds more than jumping back to Plank (7 percent of the model’s body weight). Yet the reverse was true when jumping back to Plank: It was easier on the shoulders and wrists, but slightly harder on the feet—about additional eight pounds of ground reaction force (5 percent of the model’s body weight).

Perhaps our most important finding was that the center of gravity stayed closer to the hips in the jumpback to Plank and moved about four inches closer to the head in the jumpback to Chaturanga. That means, when combined with ground reaction force, more body weight has to be supported by the arms in the jumpback to Chaturanga, which increases the amount of torque your shoulders, elbows, and wrists must produce in order to land and maintain safe joint positioning in Chaturanga. The more muscular force required, the more opportunity for injury—particularly at the joints if the muscles around them can’t produce enough force to land or hold Chaturanga.

Anatomy of a Jumpback

Wondering what muscles are activated when you jump back to Chaturanga or Plank Pose? Here they are.


See also A Yogi’s Guide to the Shoulder Girdle + Its Actions

The Jumpback to Chaturanga vs. Plank

We tested the ground force reaction—the force the ground exerts on a body in contact with it—of both jumping back to Plank Pose and Chaturanga. Our key findings below indicate that there is not much difference between jumping back to Plank Pose or Chaturanga when you look at the combination of ground reaction force and center of gravity.

Jumping back to Chaturanga resulted in a ground reaction force at the upper body that was 10 pounds more than that of jumping back to Plank (which amounts to 7 percent of the model’s body weight).

Though jumping back to Plank was easier on the shoulders and wrists, it was slightly harder on the feet by about 8 additional pounds of ground reaction force— 5 percent of the model’s body weight.

See also Dolphin Plank Pose


So Which Jumpbacks Should You Practice?

Now that you understand the biomechanics of both jumpbacks, you can make informed choices about the best transition for addressing your needs and goals—and, if you’re a teacher, those of your students. Here are some recommended guidelines:

Step back to Plank and lower through Chaturanga to the ground if you’re looking for the option with the least potential for injury. It’s a great choice for beginners and yogis with sensitive wrists, elbows, shoulders, lower backs, or poor foot mobility.

Jump back to Plank if you can hold Plank Pose with good form (upper back muscles engaged and no sagging in your lower back) without pain and you want to introduce an additional challenge. Just be sure to keep this movement safe by jumping back to Plank Pose with your core, arms, and shoulders engaged and your arms relatively straight.

Jump back to Chaturanga if you can hold the pose with good form (with your upper back muscles engaged, no sagging in your low back or belly, and your shoulders in line with your elbows) and can also successfully jump back to Plank and lower from Plank to Chaturanga without pain. When you practice this, keep your core and shoulders engaged—and stop if you feel any pain or discomfort in your joints.

See also DIY Plank Challenge: How Long Can You Hold It?

About Our Pros
Author and model Robyn Capobianco, PhD, is a yogi whose curiosity about the science of yoga led her to a doctoral program in neurophysiology. She brings more than 20 years of yogic study, practice, and teaching to her scientific research on the neural control of movement. Her research aims to fundamentally alter the way yoga teachers teach—and provide the scientific foundation that she feels is missing from the yoga community. Learn more at

Jana Montgomery, PhD, is a lifelong learner and athlete. Her passion for science and sports led her to pursue her PhD in the biomechanics of human movement. Her research specializes in understanding how external forces or equipment affect the way people move­—specifically adaptive equipment and technology. Learn more at


How 30 Days of Barre Transformed My Yoga Practice (Plus, 5 Moves Every Yogi Should Try)

How 30 Days of Barre Transformed My Yoga Practice (Plus, 5 Moves Every Yogi Should Try)

Fueled by visions of a strong and sculpted ballerina body, our writer signed up for 30 days of barre classes at The Bar Method in NYC. Here’s what she learned about her yoga practice, plus 5 barre moves every yogi should try.
A model performs exercises at The Bar Method.

A model performs exercises at The Bar Method.

As a yoga teacher, I’m expected to be energetic and motivated—all of the time. However, even the most dedicated yogi’s routine can become, well, routine. With little time for my own practice outside of teaching, I was feeling stuck, drained, and yes, bored. Fueled by visions of a strong and sculpted ballerina body, I decided it was time to belly up the bar(re) for a different type of happy hour: 30 days of classes at The Bar Method in Soho, NYC.

See also 6 Yoga-Inspired Barre3 Poses to Try

How Bar Method Works

According to Amy Duffey, the Soho studio owner who has been with Bar Method since its California beginnings over 16 years ago, students notice significant changes in muscle tone in less than 10 classes, specifically in common trouble spots like arms and abs. To achieve these goals, classes are taught in intervals that target and isolate small muscle groups. Each sequence utilizes precise movements with a small range of motion in order to “turn on and fire up" muscles. Classes are formatted with a cardio warm-up, shoulder/arm work with 2-5 lb. weights, tricep dips, Planks, exercises to target thighs and and sculpt a “dancer’s dent" (the defined indentation where the thighs meet the backside), ab exercises done on mats, and finally, “back dancing" to define quads and glutes. Active, rather than passive, stretches are done in between sets, allowing you to safely remain working within small muscle groups, which shapes, tones, strengthens, and elongates the body, creating a long, lean, supple silhouette. Think: flat abs, sculpted arms, lifted seat, improved posture, more flexibility, and increased body awareness. “You feel better at the end of the class, rather than decimated such as [after] other workouts," Duffey says.

See also 4 Yoga Warm-Ups for Barre Class

According to Duffey, attending at least 3-5 Bar Method classes per week creates the most effective (and quickest) results. Ever the overachiever, I committed to taking an hour-long class daily, even though this often meant a packed schedule between teaching and taking my mentor’s yoga class three days per week. But all my hard work was more than worth it. Here are 5 ways my 30-day Bar Method experience changed and complemented my yoga practice, and how you can use barre to enhance your practice, too.

5 Ways The Bar Method Transformed My Yoga Practice

1. I learned to be more patient.

Patience is key when learning anything new, including workouts. During the first few classes, I found myself becoming frustrated as I watched other students go through the movements quickly and with ease, while I was struggling to keep up with the movements and pace. However, after about three classes, the format and moves became more familiar; as I grew more relaxed, comfortable, and patient, I was able to learn the details of the movements, and each workout became more effective.

The lesson: Learning to practice patience is helpful on (and off) the mat, especially when you find yourself challenged by a pose, situation, or circumstance.

2. I realized that less can be more.

In yoga, we are accustomed to creating and taking up as much openness and space as possible. Barre, however, is quite the opposite. In fact, the less space the better, especially when it comes to small, isolated actions. The smaller the movement, the harder the muscles have to work, to the point of fatigue.

The lesson: This idea lends itself to yoga practice: Often, the second we start to overthink or try to do more, we find ourselves falling out of an asana or losing our alignment.

3. I became more present.

After many years of yoga, muscle memory makes it easy to flow through certain poses on autopilot. Barre classes forced me to think about each action, its alignment, and the specific details of each movement in a different way than I was accustomed. Focusing on isolated muscles made me aware of one group I clearly hadn’t been paying enough attention to (hello, glutes!). For one full hour, I had to concentrate on on the movements of my own body and be present in what was happening in the now.

The lesson: While teaching, I am fully focused on each student and what they are experiencing in the moment. Barre classes helped me realize I need to incorporate this same concentrated pattern of presence in my own yoga practice, rather than automatically flowing through poses.

4. I appreciated the gift of change.

Humans are meant for new experiences. Even the smallest or most simple change can and typically does yield big results. By learning new movements and varying my workouts, I noticed a dramatic physical change—despite years of yoga—in my abs/core, glutes, and arms. Aside from the physical, the classes helped shift my thinking, boosted my creativity in sequencing, and reminded me of my interest in deepening my anatomy studies.

The lesson: Variety is the spice of life!

5. I listened to my body.

While I often tell my students to listen to their bodies, when it comes to myself, I tend to ignore my own advice. I power through advanced classes, all types of workouts, and, as an empath, take on the energy and emotions of others while not prioritizing my own self-care. Committing to a schedule that meant taking a daily barre class, in addition to teaching and taking advanced yoga classes, left me physically and emotionally exhausted. In the final week of my self-imposed challenge, I did something unheard of for my dedicated, perfectionist nature and cancelled a barre class. It was the day after Valentine’s Day and after a late night out with a new-ish flame, I actually listened to my body and its inability to attend class. Even now, it’s hard for me admit that I “failed" the challenge. Instead of 30 straight days, it ended up as only 29 days. However, learning to accept my own limitations and prioritize my wellness was an important lesson.

The lesson: The same applies to the yoga mat. Your body will tell you when a sensation is simply discomfort that you can push past, or an injurious pain or pose that is too much for your body at that time. It’s your job to listen to what your body is telling you and respect its wishes. Equally important, forgive yourself and reframe the negative as positive. For me, this was not beating myself up for the one missed class, but thanking my body for being healthy and strong enough to have accomplished 29 classes.

5 Barre Moves Every Yogi Should Try

About Our Writer

Crystal Fenton is a yoga teacher and freelance writer. She is passionate about yoga and sharing the practice with others, as well as a lover of the outdoors, ocean, coastal destinations, and dogs.


Where Exactly do Essential Oils Come From?

Where Exactly do Essential Oils Come From?

Creating pure and honest essential oils requires care in each step of the process. From the farmers around the world, to distillation and quality testing, here is how essential oils are expertly crafted for you.

About the Oils // GuruNanda 
Guru Nanda made it his personal mission to bring 100% Pure and Natural essential oils From Farm To You®. He personally traveled across 6 continents to form a global alliance of honest farmers to eliminate the middlemen and get the cost and quality under control. Learn more here.


9 Surprising SUP Yoga Poses You’ll Want to Try This Summer

9 Surprising SUP Yoga Poses You’ll Want to Try This Summer

If you already have a steady SUP yoga practice, you might be eager to try more challenging postures on your board. Enter this sequence, which is filled with familiar postures that have unexpected variations.

For many of us, standup paddleboard (SUP) yoga has come to be synonymous with summer. After all, it’s a great way to enjoy being out on the water and to sneak in some core-challenging yoga poses—not to mention have your Instagram husband snap a wow-worthy photo while you’re holding Headstand on your board.

If you’re a beginner SUP yoga student, you’re likely discovering that practicing yoga on a paddleboard can inform your “land" practice by challenging your balance and helping you realize the importance of focus. Once you feel comfortable with the basics and you’ve got a steady SUP yoga practice, you might be eager to try more challenging postures on your board. Enter this sequence, which is filled with familiar postures that have unexpected variations.

SUP Yoga Warm-Up

Begin to warm up the hips and shoulders with postures like Child’s Pose, holding the sides (or rails) of one side of the board and then the other. Include several vinyasas like Cat/Cow or Downward-Facing Dog to Plank, going with the flow of the breath coupled with the feel of the water beneath the board. Place yourself on this small, private island-like space, pairing each movement with a long breath. This is not a race. Take your time, not just to assist with balance, mindfully building a foundation, but also to widen your attention and commune with nature above, around, and below.

9 Surprising SUP Yoga Poses to Try This Summer

About Our Pro

Danielle Brown is a Academy of Surfing Instructors SUP certified Instructor, a PaddleFIT Coach, and a RYT 200-hour Yoga Teacher. She has been teaching SUP Yoga in Connecticut since 2012 and loves the way it guides her to go with the flow. Danielle leads SUP & Yoga Retreats to escape New England’s winters and trains teachers to assist in building the SUP Yoga community. Learn more at


《 Albert Cummings – Finally In Love (05:58) 》

《 Albert Cummings – Finally In Love (05:58) 》

How a Sattvic (Pure) Diet Brings You Into Balance + 2 Ayurvedic Recipes

How a Sattvic (Pure) Diet Brings You Into Balance + 2 Ayurvedic Recipes

Learn how to find balance and cultivate sattva with these healthy Ayurvedic recipes.

Cara Brostrom

In Ayurveda, eating a sattvic diet is a way to promote, and keep, sattva—a clear head space of truth, contentment, and stability.

You can get there by eating more fresh, local foods; being thoughtful about how you prepare them; and sitting down to enjoy them. This way of eating can be a companion to your yoga practice and may help you pay attention to how foods make you feel—not just in your gut, but in your heart—and how they can affect your mood.

What Is a Sattvic (Pure) Diet?

When you follow a sattvic diet, you eat foods that in Ayurveda are considered to have higher frequencies to help cultivate a higher mind that comprehends deep truths and a kind of spiritual contentment—while staying grounded enough to carry on. A food’s frequency, or energy, comes from how it is grown, its freshness, preparation, and how it is enjoyed. High-frequency foods that are full of prana (life force) are vegetarian, organic, non-GMO, and straight from the farm or garden; they’re prepared mindfully and eaten slowly. Low-frequency foods (which are canned, frozen, fried, or out of a box) are limited or avoided.

See also Ayurveda 101: Self-Care Tips, Poses, Recipes + More

Sattvic meals are designed to help balance the three mental energies called the maha gunas. The essential energy of the mind is sattva, or a pure and content state, while tamas (the maha guna of rest, inertia, and stagnation) and rajas (the maha guna of movement, creativity, and passion) disturb sattva. Tamas and rajas aren’t bad per se; they just have trickier energy and a tendency toward imbalance. Tamas slows down your mind, while rajas speeds it up. Too much tamas can make you feel unmotivated and tired. Overdo rajas and you’ll experience racing thoughts and an inability to sit still. The qualities of your mind can change often, so you may have too much tamas one day and too much rajas another.

Use these recipes to bring your mind into balance. There are recipes to support sattva and clear thinking, as well as those to motivate tamas or calm rajas—although you’ll benefit from each of these meals regardless of your state of mind.

See also Transform Your Life with Ayurveda

In a balanced state, your mind is clear.

Sattvic meals digest easily, nourish your tissues, and utilize the six tastes in Ayurveda (sweet, sour, salty, pungent, bitter, astringent) to help balance your sattva, rajas, and tamas maha gunas (mental energies). The six tastes describe the flavors of different foods and their vital essences. For example, the sweet taste is the staple of a sattvic diet; it brings the soft, juicy qualities of earth and water and is equated to the experience of love. Sour and salty tastes bring regenerative qualities to your body and nourish and ground you. The lighter tastes—pungent, bitter, and astringent—purify, tone your tissues, and assist in the breakdown of fats and proteins. A well-rounded meal will incorporate both nourishing and purifying qualities.

When you sit down to a balanced sattvic meal, it’s also important to pause for a few breaths and eat mindfully. Notice the flavors of a dish and how it makes you feel. In time, slowing down to truly enjoy your food will become second nature, and mealtimes will become touchstones in your busy day.

See also Ayurveda 101: 3 Ways to Balance Pitta and Cool Down This Summer

Ayurvedic Recipes to Cultivate Sattva

These dishes help naturally bring your mind into a content, satisfied state. Use them to infuse your days with a creative, sustainable spirit. Recipes for sattva balance warming and cooling qualities and are delicate enough to help you keep a clear mind, but tasty enough to satisfy.

See also What a Traditional 21-Day Ayurvedic Detox Looks Like


《 Albert Cummings – Man On Your Mind(True To Yourself) (03:55) 》

《 Albert Cummings – Man On Your Mind(True To Yourself) (03:55) 》

Rainy Day Yoga Playlist: 11 Songs to Go with the Flow

Rainy Day Yoga Playlist: 11 Songs to Go with the Flow

This rain-inspired playlist will put a spring in your step and add vigor to your yoga practice.

Rainy days don’t always call for blankets and hot cocoa. Roll out your mat and go deep into a transcendent flow with this playlist.

See also 7 Poses for a Rainy Day Energy-Boost

Rainy Day Flow

1. “Om Zone 2.0 – I," Steven Halpern
2. “La femme d’argent," Air
3. “Anagram," Dousk
4. “Hibernation," Hibernation
5. “Elephant – Dub Mix," Spiral System, Lottie Child
6. “Motherboard," Daft Punk
7. “Rain," Madonna
8 . “It’s In The Rain," Enya
9. “Purple Rain," Prince
10. “Balance," Benjy Wertheimer
11. “Om Zone 2.0 – III," Steven Halpern

See also A Home Practice to Find Peace and Possibility


《 Albert Cummings – Let Me Be (05:33) 》

《 Albert Cummings – Let Me Be (05:33) 》


#楊逵 #謝雪紅 #辜顏碧霞 #丁窈窕 #葉陶 #白色恐怖



書名:《阮ê青春夢─日治時期的摩登新女性》(link is external)



女性參與社會運動,大都是個人行動或在離開學校之後。除了因為理念而投入社會運動的少數女性菁英之外,女性進入現代職場,和男性一樣都會面對職災與遭遇不平對待的勞資糾紛。工時、工作環境、工作權等問題,不只是曲高和寡的理念,而是切身相關的利益。1931 年有一則新聞報導:「高雄共榮的運轉手被戫首,同僚女車掌講對策」。這裡所說的「戫首」,可不是真的是被砍頭,而是日文的「くび」(音「枯逼」),意指被解聘。高雄共榮自動車株式會社以經營問題,把公車部門的2 名台灣人司機解聘,但實際上該公司經營不佳的是租賃巴士部門,公司先砍了主要由台灣人擔任司機的公共巴士部門人員,再將租賃部門的日本人調到公車部。於是台灣人居多的公車司機與女性車掌集結商討對策,他們從晚上10點徹夜討論到隔日上午4點,提出各種意見,有要求會社保障他們的職業安定、也有主張強力對抗進行罷工,要求會社取消台人司機的解職命令。這個行動很快就被無孔不入的日警偵知,非常有效率的傳喚相關人等到警局審問。










在台灣的政治社會運動中最知名的女性領袖,非謝雪紅莫屬,她的事蹟實在太多,短短篇幅很難詳述。謝雪紅原名謝阿女,11歲就失去雙親成為童養媳,17 歲成為張樹敏小妾前往日本、中國,受到日、中當時社會主義、共產主義的衝擊,而後脫離張樹敏。期間認識從台北師範大學退學的林木順,1928 年與林木順在上海召開台灣共產黨成立大會。台灣共產黨的產生與當時中國共產黨組織類似,都有蘇聯的支持,他們先在莫斯科「史達林東方勞動者共產主義大學」學習社會主義,並認識日本共產黨人士。當時日本政府並不承認以打倒天皇制為宗旨的日共為合法政黨,當然主張台灣獨立的台灣共產黨也不是合法政黨或社團組織。台灣共產黨成立未久即發生「上海讀書會事件」,謝雪紅被遣送回台,未久她與終身伴侶楊克煌在台北開設「國際書局」,並取得台灣文化協會與農民組合的領導權,台灣文化協會在1927 年因為左右意識形態的對決而分裂,林獻堂與蔣渭水都退出。


以上幾位女性是比較突出的特例。普遍而言,1920–30年代男子學校學生集體串連,對抗學校、政府的行動,並未在高等女學校或家政女學校出現。接受現代教育的女性,多數是在離開學校以後,才投身社會運動。50年代白色恐怖時期有不少女性遭到拘禁,出身三峽書香世家的辜顏碧霞,嫁入台灣五大家族之首的辜家,仍不能免於身陷囹圄。辜顏碧霞1914年出生於三峽,台北第三高女畢業,曾是熱愛文學的文學少女。1932年19歲嫁入台灣五大家族的鹿港辜家,為辜顯榮長子辜岳甫之妻,次年生下長子辜濂松(即中信金控已故董事長)。1942年31歲時出版一本日文自傳性小說《流》,1947 年她因為借錢給文學家呂赫若受到牽連,入獄5年,名下財產高砂鐵工廠遭國民黨政權充公,轉變成為白色恐怖時期關押犯人的保密局北所。



據李禎祥的研究,軍法看守所為壓榨受刑人,在監獄裡面成立縫衣工廠,丁窈窕帶著孩子,與施水環一起工作。有時施水環會在寫回家的家書中交代家人帶幾碼布,要縫給小孩子。1956年7月24日,丁窈窕正在做衣服,她的女兒和其他孩子在一旁嬉戲。女性獄官向丁窈窕說有特別接見,丁窈窕抱起女兒要走去大廳,獄卒突然從丁窈窕的懷裡把孩子硬扯過來,將丁銬手銬腳後拉出去槍斃。另一位因案被判12年的女性張常美回憶:丁窈窕的孩子哭到抱回來時,下氣不接上氣,誰抱她都一直哭。最後才叫丁窈窕的丈夫抱回去。她丈夫知道她死了,也差一點發瘋。而和丁窈窕同時押出去槍斃的,還有好友施水環,她可能是因為藏匿逃亡的弟弟施水成而遇難。施水環從入獄到被槍決前寫出68 封書信給家人。施水環的遺書可以參考書林出版社2012年出版的《流麻溝十五號:綠島女生分隊及其他》。丁窈窕是1945年3月畢業於台南第二高女,筆者訪問了其同學王翠月、田淑珠,田淑珠和丁窈窕十分要好,對丁窈窕之遭遇,不勝唏噓。





《 Albert Cummings – Rock Me Baby (06:26) 》

《 Albert Cummings – Rock Me Baby (06:26) 》

Healing Heartbreak: A Yoga Practice to Get Through Grief

Healing Heartbreak: A Yoga Practice to Get Through Grief

Move through and beyond loss with a practice that opens both heart and mind, offers strength and comfort in the present, and prepares you for the next leap of faith or love.
Healing Heartbreak Anjali Mudra

The holidays should be a time of joy, celebration, and connecting with loved ones, but navigating them can sometimes feel like an emotional roller-coaster ride. One minute, you’re laughing with family during a festive feast, the next you’re in tears, overwhelmed by sudden memories of a deceased sister or a recent breakup.

Whether you’re dealing with a recent loss this season—in the form of an ended relationship, divorce, death of a loved one or pet, losing a job or home, even infertility—or if old, unresolved grief starts bubbling up, a nurturing, heart-opening yoga practice may help you move through the holidays with greater ease and grace. Using yoga as a form of self-care can help you process grief and recharge your emotional batteries, says Seane Corn, a yoga teacher who leads Yoga for a Broken Heart workshops around the world.

Why Loss Can Physically Hurt

First, understanding why loss hurts can help you process it. Studies show, for example, that when you’re in the throes of romantic love, areas of your brain’s pleasure centers are overloaded with feel-good neurochemicals, including dopamine and oxytocin. But if you lose that love, those chemical levels plummet and stress hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and epinephrine flood in, bringing with them anxiety and sadness. That influx of stress hormones also launches your nervous system into fight-or-flight mode. As a result, extra blood flows to your muscles, which tense up for action, sometimes causing that tight, squeezing sensation in your chest. Losing a parent, pet, job, or anything you felt a strong attachment to can evoke a similar psychological, emotional, and stress response.

How Yoga Can Help Heal Heartbreak

There are many other reasons heartbreak literally hurts. But the good news is, like physical pain, heartache will fade, too. And that’s where yoga can prove transformative—yoga practices have been shown to effectively treat the stress and depression that can be associated with any kind of loss. In fact, a growing body of research shows that asana and pranayama can improve your mood and soothe your nerves so that you can be happier and calmer under pressure, and therefore more resilient during times of grief. So, taking time out for self-care during the hustle and bustle of the holidays can pay off. By devoting even 15 minutes a day to yoga, you can free up some of your physical and emotional energy and be more open to the joy of the season.

Corn, for example, knows firsthand how yoga can help you recover. For a year, her father, a man she describes as her best friend and mentor, died a slow and painful death from kidney cancer. “I can’t tell you how many times in the hospital room, watching my father die, I realized I was holding my breath. And I’d have to consciously stop, breathe, and feel,” she says. “After my father died, the grief was so overwhelming that I would become hyper-reactive or numb,” Corn recalls. “I realized you can’t just process heartbreak in your mind. You have to process it physically, too.” Corn designed a targeted grief-processing practice that she began doing every day to get her body grounded, release muscle tension, breathe out physical and emotional pain, and “keep the energy moving” to keep depression at bay. She adapted that practice for us on the following pages (SeeYoga Sequence for a Healing Heart.) “If we trust the grieving process and give it time, eventually grief opens itself up to a level of love we’ve never known before,” she says.

Set an Opening Intention for Your Yoga-for-Heartbreak Practice

Sit tall, your hips higher than your knees. (This may require a blanket or cushion.) Gently close your eyes, bring your hands to Anjali Mudra, take 5 deep breaths, and then recite this intention:

May this practice reconnect me to my body, ground me in the here and now, and heal me from my grief. I ask for clarity and for the strength to let go of any limited beliefs that keep me resistant to change and unavailable to growth. Instead, may I open my heart, see beyond reason, accept without condition, and love without hesitation. May this practice be blessed.

See also Seane Corn’s pose sequenceThe Yoga Sequence for a Healing Heart

Shannon Sexton is a freelance writer, editor, and digital-content strategist in Cincinnati.


《 Albert Cummings – Working Man (57:00) 》

《 Albert Cummings – Working Man (57:00) 》


#海洋塑膠廢棄物 #塑膠袋 #塑膠吸管







在消費者或廠商從事消費與生產或其他行為的過程中,可能會對環境產生負向影響卻不需付出任何代價時,我們稱之為負的外部性 (negative externality)。例如,你與朋友聊天過於大聲而使得室友無法入睡,卻無需付出代價。大學好友聚一起打麻將使得樓上或樓下室友無法專心念書,也不須付出成本。學生喝完飲料或吃完便當後,不做垃圾分類而隨意丟棄,會造成環境汙染與清潔人員的工作負擔。上述情況都是我們日常生活中常見的現象。





《 Albert Cummings – Barrel House Blues (08:55) 》

《 Albert Cummings – Barrel House Blues (08:55) 》

用最少的能源重新定義舒適 Transsolar用氣候改寫建築

用最少的能源重新定義舒適  Transsolar用氣候改寫建築

環境資訊中心特約記者 陳文姿報導

承接上篇)很難簡單解釋Transsolar是一家什麼樣的公司。許多知名建築或是都市計畫都有他們的蹤跡,例如泰國曼谷機場、漢堡的易北愛樂廳,但他們的名字卻鮮少出現在介紹裡。他們擅長挑戰不可能的任務,例如為2022年卡達世界盃足球賽場地,在沙漠高熱下打造環境友善開放式冷卻系統,或是在阿拉伯聯合大公國打造零碳排的馬斯達城(Masdar City)。


Transsolar 工程師在泰國曼谷機場​的運用cloudscape的設計概念來節省空調使用。圖片來源:​Nomad YC(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
泰國曼谷機場。圖片來源:​Nomad YC(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

掌握關鍵 用最少的能源重新定義舒適


Transsolar創始成員兼現任主管,並在慕尼黑工業大學建築系任教的奧爾(Thomas Auer)教授解釋,真實世界裡,人們並不想在建築物裡看到雲。這個作品想傳達一件事:如果工程師可以在局部或特定區域創造舒適感,就不需要把空調浪費在挑高或寬廣的空間裡。Transsolar將這個概念應用在曼谷機場的設計,對人們活動的高度,相當大約兩公尺以下的範圍提供舒適環境。




Transsolar 與建築師Tetsuo Kondo合作的作品 Cloudscape,不僅設計出雲而且控制雲的高度與範圍。 圖片來源:準建築人手札(CC BY 2.0)
Transsolar 與建築師Tetsuo Kondo合作的作品 Cloudscape,不僅設計出雲而且控制雲的高度與範圍。圖片來源:維基百科

用現代科技與古老智慧 KlimaEngineer 找尋永續解答



透過一次次的計畫,Transsolar試著尋找答案。觀察 Transsolar接下的計畫,可以找到小到一個房間的氣流與窗戶,也可以大到一個開放空間,甚至是一座沙漠城區,例如位在阿布達比的馬斯達城(Masdar City)。馬斯達城位在阿拉伯聯合大公國阿布達比外圍的沙漠,面積約六平方公里,約略是一個台北市大同區。不同於杜拜,馬斯達城不想耗竭能源去打造奢華風,立志成為零廢棄、零碳排城市先驅。


奥地利建築事務所soma設計2012韓國麗水世博會主題館One Ocean,Transsolar 協助空間微氣候規劃。圖片授權:Transsolar (本圖不適用CC授權)

百年尺度看建築 不嘗試就沒有機會




Transsolar創始成員兼主管,慕尼黑工業大學建築系任教的奧爾(Thomas Auer)。攝影:陳文姿






《 Albert Cummings – Lonely Bed (07:35) 》

《 Albert Cummings – Lonely Bed (07:35) 》

挑戰循環建築 台糖沙崙園區將成全台首例

挑戰循環建築 台糖沙崙園區將成全台首例

環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導



















羅伯。威爾森(Robert E, Willson)















【◎心靈研磨坊 - 曼陀羅藏◎】

《心靈研磨坊 ─ 身心體能極限的突破,放慢步調,邁開腳步,輕鬆地悠遊著....》

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