Decoding Sutra 1.15: Dispassion is the ‘Conscious Mastery of Desire’


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/decoding-sutra-1-15-dispassion-is-the-conscious-mastery-of-desire

Decoding Sutra 1.15: Dispassion is the ‘Conscious Mastery of Desire’

Learn how to master your desires and tap into creative forces through Tantric philosophy.
yoga-man

As interpreted by Ty Landrum

In the Yoga Sutra, Patanjali names abhyasa (practice) and vairagya (dispassion) as the two essential elements of yoga. And in Sutra 1.15, he dives more specifically into what “dispassion” actually means. Dispassion, he says, is “conscious mastery of desire.”

In traditional yogic asceticism, “conscious mastery of desire” is the ability to withstand urges and impulses, no matter how strong they might be. For ascetics, the purpose of vairagya is to realize a kind of autonomy by severing all attachments to the body—not exactly a compelling goal for a modern yoga practitioner.

The Purpose of Vairagya (Dispassion)

When this sutra is viewed through the lens of later Tantric philosophy, “conscious mastery of desire” is no longer the ability to withstand desire, but instead to release the animating force of desire from its object so we can experience that force as pure creativity. In this view, the purpose of vairagya is not to separate ourselves from our bodies, but instead to cultivate a deeper intimacy with them by tapping into innate creative forces.

See also How to Access Prana and Let Your Light Shine

Asana practice is an excellent opportunity to practice this more-engaging, less-repressive Tantric form of vairagya. As we move and breathe through the postures, we arouse primitive impulses of all kinds. But if we remain focused on the steady flow of our breath, we can remain grounded in our bodies. Instead of allowing impulses to disturb us or distract us into fantasy, we can hold them in perspective and see them for what they are: ephemeral formations of prana, the underlying energetic force that sustains us.

When desires arise during our asana practice, we can opt to breathe into them and to watch in wonder as the solvent of the breath dissolves desires into the open space of consciousness. When desire dissolves, it releases its creative and motivating force, and we experience that release as a cathartic wave, usually accompanied by feelings of exultation. For the force behind our desires—the force that draws us toward particular objects and people and places—is love. And when love is released from desire, we experience it as something selfless and blissful. Revel in that experience and continuously cultivate it through the abhyasa (practice) of vairagya.

See also Balancing Effort and Surrender

 

Plug Into the Wall + Recharge: 4 Soothing Restorative Poses


https://www.yogajournal.com/poses/plug-into-wall-recharge-4-soothing-restorative-poses

Plug Into the Wall + Recharge: 4 Soothing Restorative Poses

No energy to set up for restorative yoga? Plug yourself into a wall and reboot with Kathryn Budig’s simple poses.

 

Kino MacGregor’s 7-Pose Yoga Break for Stress Relief


https://www.yogajournal.com/intermediate-section/kino-macgregor-yoga-break-stress-relief

Kino MacGregor’s 7-Pose Yoga Break for Stress Relief

Next time you find yourself bogged down with emails and to-dos, take 10 minutes to disconnect from the computer screen and practice this short yoga sequence.

After three days of vacation I sat down and opened my computer to meet nearly 300 emails. As I sent replies to a few, more came in. I felt buried under a mountain of e-stress. While I don’t work a typical 9-to-5 desk job, I am never not working. If I’m not on the mat, then I’m in front of my computer writing blogs like this one, answering emails, and generally planning how to take over the world. Just kidding—sort of.

Staring at a computer screen for what feels like endless hours is daunting and emotionally draining. It also makes your hips really tight and puts stress on the back. We all know that hunched over, rounded back position that somehow takes over any good intentions to sit up straight. And we all feel it the next day on our mats. It’s as though the more difficult the assignment, the more you have to concentrate and the worse your posture becomes. My secret tip for keeping my hips relatively open and the back supported during long hours of work or travel is to sit cross-legged as often as possible. Switch up the dominant or top leg repeatedly to distribute the weight. Keep the belly drawn in and the chest expanded. From a physiological point of view strengthening your posture helps you breathe deeply and keep an emotionally resilient spirit. If your desk chair is too small to cross your legs in, then get a bigger chair. Or exchange your chair for an exercise ball to build balance and core strength while working.

Posture by itself is no magic solution. Even if you sit in Padmasana with perfect posture all day, there are always distractions. My biggest temptation while working on the computer is to drift away from the task at hand into the infinite world of online shopping. But there is a difference between distracting yourself and truly relieving stress. Next time you find yourself bogged down with emails and to-dos with no motivation to dive in and get the job done, take 10 minutes to disconnect from the computer screen and practice this short yoga sequence to clear your mind, release tension in the hips, and strengthen the back. Return to work refreshed, recharged, and inspired.

See alsoElena Brower’s Office Yoga Sequence to Restore and Rejuvenate

7-Pose Midday Yoga Break

 

4 Ways to Satisfy Your Urge to Side Bend


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/4-ways-side-bend

4 Ways to Satisfy Your Urge to Side Bend

Try these four poses to lengthen and stretch your side when the urge hits you.

In a yoga popularity contest, side bends may not get a lot of votes. But I will wildly raise my hand in support of these amazing postures. First off, side bending is not a common action in our daily lives, which means we are majorly lacking in—and longing for—the release and space a side bend offers. They improve breathing capacity by stretching your intercostal muscles, relieve lower back pain by releasing your QL, and serve as a fantastic prep for backbends. Here, choose from four side bends to suit your current mood.

See also The Anatomy of a Satisfying Side Stretch

About Kathryn Budig
Kathryn Budig is the yoga teacher behind AIM TRUE, a regular writer for Yoga Journal, and a presenter at Yoga Journal LIVE!

Catch up with her on:
kathrynbudig.com
Twitter: @kathrynbudig
Instagram: @kathrynbudig
Facebook: @kathrynbudig

 

3 Ways To Modify Dolphin Pose With Props


https://www.yogajournal.com/intermediate-section/3-ways-modify-dolphin-pose

3 Ways To Modify Dolphin Pose With Props

Modify Dolphin if needed to find safe alignment for your body.

Modify Dolphin Pose if needed to find safe alignment for your body.

PREVIOUS STEP IN YOGAPEDIA 4 Steps To Master Dolphin Pose
NEXT STEP IN YOGAPEDIA 3 Prep Poses for Forearm Balance
SEE ALL ENTRIES IN YOGAPEDIA

 

3 Hip-Openers to Prep for Lotus Pose


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/3-hip-openers-to-prep-for-lotus-pose

3 Hip-Openers to Prep for Lotus Pose

Increase hip flexibility and learn how to keep your knees safe with these prep poses for Padmasana.

Increase hip flexibility and learn how to keep your knees safe with these prep poses for Padmasana.

Next in YOGAPEDIALotus Pose Step-By-Step Instructions to Release Tension >
BACK TO YOGAPEDIA

 

Live Be Yoga: Charlotte’s ‘Fractured’ Yoga Community Declares Call to Action Through Uplifting Summits


https://www.yogajournal.com/livebeyoga/live-be-yoga-charlotte-yoga-community-amplify-and-activate-summits

Live Be Yoga: Charlotte’s ‘Fractured’ Yoga Community Declares Call to Action Through Uplifting Summits

When yoga teachers and practitioners come together to confront difficult conversations, the Live Be Yoga team joins and looks beyond its own lenses to understand how to foster inclusivity in classes and studios.
charlotte-panel-1

Live Be Yoga ambassadors Jeremy Falk and Aris Seaberg are on a road trip across the country to share real talk with master teachers, explore innovative classes, and so much more—all to illuminate what’s in store for the future of yoga. Follow the tour and get the latest stories @livebeyoga on Instagram and Facebook.

While in Charlotte, we attended an eye-opening event that for the first time in the area brought together local studios, teachers, students, and community activists to discuss ethics in yoga. Activist and local teacher Jasmine Hines created Amplify and Activatea series of summits to “uplift the voices that aren’t normally heard” in the yoga community. What began as a conversation around #metoo ultimately addressed a lack of inclusivity in mainstream yoga studios that has led many community members to practice in other spaces. Panel members and participants shared their pain, vulnerability, and courage, while powerfully demonstrating how to truly live and be yoga by applying the principles of the practice to address these challenging issues.

Before the discussion began, co-organizer of the summit Grace Millsap and activist Kelley Carboni-Woods (both local teachers) led a slow, sweet, and accessible class that utilized asana and partnered eye-gazing to transition into a more receptive place of listening and understanding. They mitigated expectations of the evening by clarifying that the intention was less about solving problems and more about opening the doors to change. “The teachings of yoga help facilitate difficult conversations, because they invite us to go into the space that’s not comfortable," said Millsap, “and what blossoms out of that is understanding, truth, acceptance, and all-around unity—the true meaning of yoga."

Yogis practice partnered eye-gazing to facilitate openness at Amplify and Activate.

After the practice, the panelists began discussing abuse in the yoga community, and eventually the topic shifted as Carboni-Woods spoke up about the fractured yoga community in Charlotte. It forced us to open our eyes and see beyond our own white and able-bodied lenses of privilege when we discovered that there were a significant number of students with larger bodies, people of color, yogis with disabilities, and seniors who were practicing outside yoga studios because they didn’t feel supported or empowered in many mainstream yoga classes.

Carboni-Woods, who teaches packed classes in alternative spaces, feels that these groups have been marginalized by underrepresentation in both yoga media and yoga studios, whose advertising doesn’t reflect that diverse populations are welcome and perpetuates the idea that yoga is only for thin white women with disposable income. Also, studios offer “all levels" classes that are more concerned with “selling asana and getting bodies in the door” but aren’t always appropriate for all bodies, Carboni-Woods said. Studios can only benefit from having “more tools around helping bigger bodies into the poses as well as some investigation into who [their offering] is really for.”

We reflected deeply on this and committed ourselves finding ways to diversify our offerings and create more inclusivity. I know I’ve contributed to this problem by teaching classes labeled as “all levels” that were too athletic in nature to be suitable for every level of practitioner. I’ve always felt conflicted with the accuracy of such a description, and I can’t think of any subject matter in academia that is taught this way. I imagine a 60-minute “all levels” math class claiming to be suitable for students learning addition and subtraction as well as those working through advanced trigonometry. Eventually one of the groups won’t feel addressed, and this contributes to the lack of inclusivity. According to Millsap, one of the ways studios can amend this issue is to diversify the types of classes offered. “Be clear on what level of practitioner the class is appropriate for. It will send a message that all people can come into the space,” she said.

Yogis practice at Amplify and Activate, a series of su

At the end of the summit, though the problems weren’t solved, a sense of relief came from voicing the issues and beginning to ask the right questions. How can we further increase the inclusiveness of yoga? Aris and I wish to use the platform we have with Live Be Yoga to highlight the stories and voices of those that are underrepresented in mainstream yoga. Aris is also inspired to study trauma-informed teachings and support healing for all while I am eager to support more men stepping onto the mat to grow a mindful masculine presence on the planet. As Millsap said, “It definitely starts with the teachers and how they’re trained.” From there, we can start to address the entire scope of human shapes, sizes, and colors often unacknowledged in the yoga community. “It’s like it doesn’t exist,” said Hines, “so we’re here to make you know it exists.”

Charlotte has made it clear that the future of yoga is inclusive. Get information on the local panels on the Amplify and Activate Facebook page here. If you’re ready to initiate these conversations in your community, Hines and Millsap are more than willing to come to your city and help organize a summit. Find them at amplifyandactivate.com

 

Yin Yoga 101: Does Alignment Matter in Yin Poses?


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/yin-yoga-101-does-alignment-matter-in-yin-poses

Yin Yoga 101: Does Alignment Matter in Yin Poses?

Every yogi in a Yin class looks different in the postures, so it’s a good question. Josh Summers explains the difference between aesthetic vs. functional alignment.
Yin Meditation with Josh Summers

Want to learn a style of yoga that’s focused on bringing balance—physically, energetically, and mentally? Join Josh Summers, founder of the Summers School of Yin Yoga, for our new online course Yin Yoga 101—a six-week journey through the foundations and principles of Yin Yoga, along with asana practice and meditation. Click here to sign up!

“In Yin Yoga, alignment doesn’t matter.” That’s one of the most common myths about Yin Yoga. It’s also easy to dispel. Often, people unfamiliar with the practice notice everyone in a Yin class doing the same pose with slightly different alignment and then conclude that anything goes. Or they take a Yin class and don’t hear the teacher give exact instructions on how to place the body and then conclude that the teacher doesn’t understand or care about alignment. Neither is true.

In Yin Yoga, as in all intelligent forms of physical yoga, alignment matters. But alignment in Yin Yoga has little to do with whether your foot is pointed in the “right” direction, or whether your knee is at a precise 90-degree angle. Focusing on how a pose looks is an approach referred to as aesthetic alignment. However, what is aesthetically pretty may not be functionally beneficial.

Yin Yoga instead looks for functional alignment. Thanks largely to Yin Yoga pioneer Paul Grilley, the practice recognizes that our anatomy varies, especially at the skeletal level. The angles and curves of your bones differ from those of the person on the mat next to you. So in a Yin class—and increasingly, in other styles of yoga, too—the same pose looks different on everyone. That means each person can align his or her body to serve the pose’s functional intention, which is the specific way the pose is meant to stress, stimulate, or stretch the body.

In Yin Yoga, the functional intention is the only reason to do the pose. It is tied to a pose’s target areas, the main areas of the body that the pose is intended to gently stress and the places you want to feel mild-to-moderate sensation. Sometimes you will stress all the target areas, sometimes a few, or sometimes just one.

Exploring Functional Alignment in Dragon Pose

If you pursue aesthetic alignment in Dragon, also known as Anjaneyasana (Low Lunge)the intention is to align the body to “look” correct. Your front knee is directly ahead of its corresponding hip and directly over your front heel. Your front thigh is parallel to the long edges of the mat. Your hips are squared to the front of the mat. Your torso and arms stack over your hips.

Now, shifting to functional alignment, the intention is to align the body in a way that is functionally beneficial. Before you even get into the pose, ask yourself, “Why am I doing this pose?” Your alignment will be based on your intention, your target areas. Dragon has two target areas: the back leg’s hip flexors and the front leg’s outer hip, adductors, and inner hamstrings. Your alignment will also depend on the variation because Yin poses, such as Dragon, sometimes have many. Here, you’ll explore two different target areas. (Keep in mind that your alignment may not look like mine because our bodies have unique shapes.)

hip-flexors

Target Area: Hip flexors of the back leg
I align my body in a way that increases hip extension of my back leg. To do that, I place one hand on my front thigh and the other hand on a block, raising my torso. That way both my hips and spine extend more, which will likely increase the tensional stress on my back leg’s hip flexors. Once in position, I try to relax my hips down to the floor, softening the hip flexors to bring a gentle Yin stress to the dense connective tissue in that area. This works for me. It may not work for you; it may generate excessive stress on your hip flexors. Instead, placing your hands on the floor may be a better way to successfully target your hip flexors. Another alternative is to rest both hands on the front knee or simply to cross your forearms on your forward thigh. Remember your intention, and adjust accordingly.

inner-groin

Target Area: Adductors and outer hip of the front leg
I align my body in a way that gently stresses the tissues of my front leg’s inner groin. To do that, I move my front foot farther out from my midline and lower my torso. Taking my front foot to the side increases the abduction of the front femur, and bringing my torso down increases the flexion of the front hip and spine; both actions tend to increase tensile stress on the adductors and possibly the hamstrings of the front leg. Once in position, I try to relax my front leg out to the side. Again, this works for me. It may not for you; it may create intense stress on your adductors. If that’s the case, bringing your forearms or your hands to blocks may create the mild-to-moderate sensation the pose intends to generate.

Target Area Takeaway
Yin Yoga is an ideal practice for focusing on functional alignment because you hold the poses for several minutes, giving you time to feel and observe the results of the alignment choices you make.

Want to learn more about the fundamentals of Yin Yoga with Josh? Click here to sign up for his six-week online course!

 

【科哲絮語】靈魂可以被證明為存在或不存在嗎?(下)


我們無法證明「超越自然的靈魂並不存在」,而且使人類的心靈保有一個希望:靈魂仍然有可能證明自己的存在。

#靈魂 #存在與否
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6998

【科哲絮語】靈魂可以被證明為存在或不存在嗎?(下)

友善列印版本

往前閱讀:【科哲絮語】靈魂可以被證明為存在或不存在嗎?(上)

理論中心論的論證性質

目前大多數哲學家(心靈哲學家、科學哲學家、形上學家等等)通常採用「最佳說明推論」(inference to the best explanation, IBE)的論證形式,亦即提出一個哲學理論(假說)來說明已知的現象,然後比較誰的理論是「最好(佳)的說明」,如果一個理論可以針對一群現象提供最好的說明,那麼就推論該理論最有可能為真,因此也是「最可信的」或「最可靠的」(the most reliable)。這背後預設一個「從最好推到真」的假設──但,最好一定是真或逼近真嗎?「最好的傾向是真的或逼近真」這個「假設」本身是否能成立恐怕是個問題。

「最佳說明推論」的另一個問題是:如何判斷最佳?「最佳的說明」就意味著在各種具說明力的理論假設之間作比較,要判斷「最好」需要判準,一般的基本判準是「一致」(不能有矛盾)、「融貫」、「合理」等,麻煩的是,對手通常也會滿足這些判準才有可能成為對手,哲學傳統是把「簡潔」當成一個關鍵的判準──這來自形上學的傳統。形上學家常使用「奧坎剃刀原則」:如無必要,勿妄添實在。例如在「共相實在論」與「唯名論」的爭論中,唯名論不需要設定「共相」的存在,所以較簡潔。問題是,「共相實在論」正是認為有必要引入共相才可以說明抽象和述詞的指涉等等語言現象。唯名論在此訴諸於「奧坎剃刀」可能被說是「乞求爭點」。同樣的爭議也發生在十九世紀末的科學,像馬赫主張「感覺主義」和「實證主義」,認為不必設定「原子」甚至其它所有不可觀察的東西存在,這樣最簡潔,但是科學家終究接受原子的存在(雖然這原子不是古希臘的「原子」)。有太多太多例子顯示,「簡潔的」這個判準對「誰最好」的判斷很難提供什麼助力;何況,「簡潔」這判準本身又要如何應用?不易判斷「誰比較簡潔」也是一個問題。當然,我們可以引入更多判準如「預測力」、「精確」、「經驗內容」等等。但究竟要引入多少判準?判準太多,帶來判斷的複雜性,最後仍然很難解決問題。

通常哲學家可以採取另一個方式:製造對手的難題,顯示對手無法說明那個難題,再提出說服力很強的論證,顯示自己的理論可以解決此一難題,因此確實比其他對手更好。例如在心物二元論和唯物論的爭論中,唯物論即是拋出「心物互動」這個難題。但是,這仍然不足以完全解決爭議。因為對方也可以為自己製造難題,例如心物二元論可以說「心之不可化約性」是唯物論無法克服的難題,實體二元論則可以輕易解決這個問題。當然,唯物論發展了很多如性質二元論、概念二元論、消除論(eliminatism)等等來解決心之不可化約性,又可以避免實體二元論面對的「心物互動」難題。可是,實體二元論還是可以提出進一步的假設:正因為心和物是二個截然不同的存在範疇,因此,兩個存在範疇的因果互動是另一個因果範疇,和同一存有範疇下的因果互動截然不同。這個假設至少可以「說明」為什麼「心物互動不能用單一存在範疇下的因果觀念來說明」(亦即,「因果封閉原則」並不適用)。

環繞在比較誰的說明力更強更好是當代分析哲學的一個十分普遍的論證取向,這當然是一個十分有用的論證模式,但是它提供我們只是一種「說服力」或「理由強度」,使人更傾向於接受或相信他之前已接受的理論,卻無法真正解決爭議──特别是針對存在的假設,這也是為什麼形上學的理論始終爭論不休。不過,這正是哲學的一個特色,而且這樣的爭論通常發生在科學無法「證明」的情況下,形上學的爭論常可以打開新方向。

科學也會比較說明力的好壞。最典型的例子是達爾文的天擇演化論。很多生物哲學家論證,達爾文是使用IBE去建構他的天擇論,也使用IBE的模式為天擇論辯護,換言之,天擇論為大量的生物現象提供了最好的說明。反過來說,達爾文的對手如「創造論」也一直想為天擇論製造理論難題,例如提出「不可化約的生物組織或結構」的可能性。有些朋友會認為這是足以否證天擇論的證據,但即使我們真地發現了「不可化約的生物組織」,並不代表它就能否證天擇論,也不代表它能證明「創造論」,它其實只是構成一個天擇論的「異例」,有待天擇論作進一步的說明或解謎。

達爾文(圖片來源:維基共享資源,公有領域)

其實,聰明的讀者可以發現「(不可化約的)心靈」正是天擇論的一大難題(異例)。但天擇論被否證了嗎?沒有。相反地,支持科學(當然強烈地支持天擇論)的哲學家目前正努力想去說明人類的心靈(意識)如何從演化中產生。

科學實作的證明

科學除了提供理論說明力好的論證之外,科學也有能力提供「實作的證明」(practical demonstration),這種「證明」是可以解決爭議。而且,我們今天認為「最好的科學理論」,通常都有大量實作證明來支持,而不只是「能對現象提供很好的說明」。什麼是「實作的證明」?

針對「存在假設」,有一個很簡單的「實作的證明」:由探索或實驗而找出一個個例。例如如果科學家捕獲一個雪人或尼斯湖水怪,那就對「喜馬拉雅山雪人存在」或「尼斯湖水怪」存在的假設提供了實作的證明。同樣地,抓到罪犯而且他俯首坦承犯行也是對懸疑命案的犯罪假設提出一個「實作的證明」。就實際的科學而言,例如化學,如果科學家可以空氣中分離出性質截然不同的氣體,那麼就可以實驗地證明「空氣是混合物而不是元素」。

唯物論的支持者有一個機會實作地證明唯物論為真:實驗地創造出一個心靈!最有可能性的管道就是創造出一個具有自我意識(心靈)的機器人。實驗創造當然也意味一種實驗證明。如果我們能從純粹的物質中創造出具有自我意識的機器人,不就代表意識可以從物質世界中誕生?不管我們是否能說明物質如何互動而形成意識,也不管我們是否能說明為什麼意識會從物質世界中發生,只要有一個依賴於物質的意識(心靈)被創造出來,那麼就對唯物論提供了一個「實作的證明」。至於究竟是功能論、性質二元論、概念二元論、消除論等等哪個理論對?到時再進一步研究吧?至少爭議似乎變成可以解決的。

可是,這個實作的證明可以決定性地否證它的對手「實體二元論」嗎?它能證明「靈魂不存在」嗎?我的答案是:不行。

嚴格存在命題無法被否證

證明和否證的邏輯有一個很強的不對稱:嚴格存在命題可以用一個個例來證明,但無法被否證。這剛好和「全稱述詞命題」的印證和否證的不對稱相反。這是Popper提出來的。「嚴格存在命題」也就是不具時空定位的存在命題。像「地球上存在喜馬拉雅山雪人」、「火星存在火星人」這些都不是「嚴格存在命題」,因為它們假設存在的物項有其時空定位。這類存在命題可以否證,因為我們可以搜尋有限的時空範圍來證明它們不存在。然而,像「外星人存在」、「靈魂存在」、「神存在」這類存在命題是嚴格存在命題,因為它們假設的範圍是整個宇宙,原則上,我們無法搜尋整個宇宙來證明它們不存在。

「實體二元論」(蘊涵「非物質的靈魂存在」)在定義上就是拒絕我們使用科學證明的手段去檢驗和否證它,因為我們能檢驗和否證的只是這個物質世界,而心靈則是我們感覺、經驗與認知的預設。我們不能檢驗「檢驗」本身的預設。所以,早期的邏輯經驗論認為這是形上學的命題,無法檢驗,不屬於科學研究的範圍。可是,我們可以看到科學家其實是不管哲學論證的劃界工作的,他們總是會想法去「實作證明」他們的理論假設。因此,科學家可以去證明一個嚴格存在假設:要證明外星人存在,找出一個外星智能訊號提供了證據,但找出一個外星人提供最強的證明。可是,邏輯上,他們不能否證一個嚴格存在假設(證明某物項不存在)。當然,科學家照樣可以不管這哲學的邏輯,他們可以一致決議「外星人不存在」──但這實在不是證明。

即使科學家創造出一個具自我意識的機器人,實體二元論仍然可以提出(特置的)假設來保護自己。他們有兩種假設方式:

  • 被創造出自我意識(心靈)的機器人的心靈,也是一個靈魂,它是來自靈魂世界。它以人類靈魂進入人體的方式而進入機器人的身體。對於一些靈魂論的信仰者來說,靈魂當然可以依附在物質體上。機器人的創造者啟動了正確的物質結構,使其提供靈魂附身的結構。

第二、被創造的自我意識和心靈是人造意識和人造心靈,不是「真正的」(自然的)意識和心靈──因此也不是靈魂。靈魂仍然是存在的,只有自然人才有靈魂。

這兩個假設當然都是特置的,但特置性不過是降低一個假設的合理性,並不代表該假設就被否證,雖然 Popper 認為使用特置假設就意味「被否證」,問題是 Popper自己又提出「嚴格存在命題」無法被否證(其實,Popper自己是心物二元論者)。可以說,實體二元論就是不可檢驗的形上學假設,再增加什麼假設都是假設而已。當然,這裡複雜糾結的地方在於:科學家有可能「實驗創造」出一個心靈!

靈魂自我證明的希望

根據實體二元論的定義,非物質的心靈(靈魂)觸及自我存在的管道就是「自我意識」,但這個自我意識並不足以證明靈魂存在──因為根據定義,靈魂必須要能脫離肉體而持續存在,只有這樣的條件被滿足才能算是「證明」。因此,靈魂自我證明存在的唯一可能性就是當人死亡的那一剎那,靈魂意識到自己脫離肉體仍然存在,但不知為什麼(可能也是根據定義),在那種純靈魂的狀態下,靈魂無法把自己存在的證明訊息傳達給物質世界中還活著的人。相信靈魂存在的人因此想像了很多特殊的管道來傳遞這樣的訊息。

結論

當代哲學家和科學家都在努力提供更具說服力的論證,告訴我們唯物論是真的。確實不管從理論的說明力或者科學實作的證明力來看,唯物論為真的可能性相當大。可是,即使唯物論為真,大自然仍然為我們保留一個希望,它產生這樣的一個心智認知的結構,讓我們無法證明「超越自然的靈魂並不存在」,而且使人類的心靈保有一個希望:靈魂仍然有可能證明自己的存在。但,這的確只是一個希望。而希望最大的「希望」就是:它有可能成真(come into true)。


本文原載於「陳瑞麟的科哲絮語(link is external)」,經作者授權轉載。

 

 

How to Use Mula Bandha in Yoga Poses


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/mula-bandha-in-action

How to Use Mula Bandha in Yoga Poses

Begin experimenting with how to integrate Mula Bandha into your asana practice.
grace flowers, downward facing dog pose, adho mukha svasana

Mula Bandha may be the most befuddling, underinstructed technique in the world of yoga. Here, begin experimenting with how to integrate Mula Bandha into your asana practice.

The bandhas are mechanisms by which a yogi can direct the flow of prana, the universal life-force energy that animates and unites us all. With a few simple adjustments, you can learn to integrate Mula Bandha, one of four bandhas mentioned in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika and the Gheranda Samhita, into your daily asana practice.

Tadasanaalexandria-crow

Mula Bandha in Tadasana (Mountain Pose)

In Latin, “pelvis" means basin. In Tadasana, you want this basin to be in a neutral position so that if the basin were filled with a precious liquid, it wouldn’t spill out the front or the back. To find this neutral position, explore the potential placement of the pelvis. Stand upright with your feet together and your arms by your sides. As you inhale, draw the hips and buttocks slightly backward and increase the curvature in the lumbar spine. This is an anterior tilt. Then, exhale and bring the hips and buttocks forward, flattening the lumbar spine and pulling the pelvis into a posterior tilt.

Do this several times, and begin to notice that when the pelvis is in the anterior position, the muscles in the lower back tighten and the inner groins shorten. When it is in the posterior tilt, the buttocks clench and, again, the groins shorten.

To find neutral, stand with your pelvis anteriorly tilted, then lightly lift first the pubic bone and then the pelvic floor as you lengthen the groins—this is Mula Bandha. To find it from the posterior position, draw your hips slightly back until the buttocks relax and the lumbar spine regains its natural curve. As you do this, lift the pelvic floor and lengthen the waist and groins—again, this is Mula Bandha.

When your pelvis is neutral and you find Mula Bandha in Tadasana, you’ll feel a sense of stability without gripping.

See alsoA Woman’s Guide to Mula Bandha

Rina Jakubowicz downward facing dog

Mula Bandha in Adho Mukha Svanasana variations (Prana Dog and Apana Dog)

Downward-Facing Dog is an excellent pose in which to practice Mula Bandha, especially if you explore two different expressions of the pose: Prana Dog, which is linked to the inhalation, and Apana Dog, which is linked to the exhalation.

From Downward Dog, inhale and extend your spine by taking your head and shoulders toward the floor, drawing your hips away from your hands, and lifting and spreading your sitting bones. This is the Prana Dog.

Then exhale and flex your spine by tucking your pelvis, slightly rounding your shoulders, drawing your ribs up, and looking toward your navel. Now you’re in Apana Dog. Notice that at the end of the exhalation, the pelvic floor naturally draws upward—this is Mula Bandha.

With the next inhalation, create Prana Dog by extending your spine from your tailbone, but don’t allow your ribs to sink too far toward your thighs. Keep lengthening and lightly lifting the area between the coccyx and the pubic bone, between the pubic bone and the navel, and between the navel and the lower ribs. As you exhale, return to the Apana Dog flexion position of the spine, and again focus on how the pelvic floor lifts.

Here’s why: In Prana Dog it is more difficult to access the lift of the pelvic floor, whereas that lift happens naturally at the end of the exhalation in Apana Dog. With the subsequent inhalation, there is a natural tendency to release the pelvic floor and allow the rib cage to drop toward the thighs.

However, it is possible to retain the lift of the pelvic floor with the inhalation if it is accompanied by a light lift of the pubic bone, navel, and lower ribs. This action brings length and leanness to the waist so that the ribs and thighs are drawn slightly away from each other. This leads you into a hybrid pose, which contains both extension and flexion and creates a neutral pelvis, making it possible to engage Mula Bandha during both the inhalation and the exhalation.

grace flowers, warrior 2 pose, virahabdrasana 2

Mula Bandha in Virabhadrasana II (Warrior Pose II)

Virabhadrasana II, when done well, is a classic illustration of Mula Bandha in action. But all too often the pelvis listlessly drops into an anterior tilt, the front thigh turns in, and the belly becomes slack. From here, the buttocks go back and the lower ribs jut forward. The knees buckle inward, bringing too much weight to the inner edges of the feet.

To help remedy this, find Mula Bandha in Virabhadrasana II by lifting the pelvic floor, the pubic bone, and the sternum. Bring your pelvis into a more neutral alignment by moving your buttocks forward, so that they’re underneath your shoulders as you draw the lower ribs back. Next, move the sitting bones toward each other. This facilitates the widening of the front of the pelvis and helps draw the thighs and knees away from each other. Bring weight onto the outer edges of the feet and lift the arches.

Rina Jakubowicz Sirsasana

Mula Bandha in Sirsasana (Headstand)

In Headstand, just as in Virabhadrasana II, you’ll often see the pelvis dropped into an anterior position with the ribs jutting forward and the buttocks sticking out. This causes the lower back to compress, and it creates a sense of disconnection between the torso and legs. Applying Mula Bandha can realign the pelvis and provide a link that integrates it with the torso.

When you’re in an inverted position, Mula Bandha is often more natural and easier to find because gravity is already drawing the pelvic floor in the right direction. So, as the pelvic floor lifts, extend the front of the body by reaching strongly upward through the legs and feet and lengthening the groins and waist. To bring the bottom over the shoulders, lengthen the hip flexors, draw the sitting bones together, and draw the tailbone toward the pubic bone—this is Mula Bandha.

With Mula Bandha engaged, draw your inhalation up to the navel, sternum, throat, eyebrow center, and finally to the crown of the head, all the while lengthening the central axis of the body toward the ground. Follow the exhalation through the central axis and all the way back to the mula, or root of the spine.

See alsoMula Bandha: Your Ticket To Infinity and Beyond!

Two Fit Moms perform Seated Forward Bend.

Mula Bandha Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Fold)

Begin in Dandasana (Staff Pose), an excellent pose to feel the diamond shape of the pelvic floor, which is bordered by the pubic bone in the front, the coccyx in the back, and the sitting bones on the sides. Bring your weight forward on your sitting bones so that they get heavy and the lumbar spine comes into its natural curvature. As you press down into your sitting bones, lift your pelvic floor and draw your pubic bone up. Then lengthen your waist, lift your sternum, draw your shoulders back and down, and drop your chin toward your chest. Let the legs roll inward until the inner ankles touch.

Reach forward and grab your toes. Straighten your arms and extend your spine as you inhale; bend forward on an exhalation. Focus on drawing the sitting bones toward each other while pressing them down, and then lift the pelvic floor. This approach to Paschimottanasana naturally engages Mula Bandha. The effect will be less strain around the sitting bones where the hamstrings originate and less sensation of overstretching in the lower back.

claire missingham yogapedia december triangle bind

Mula Bandha In a Bind

Some teachers feel that Mula Bandha is overused in American yoga. “In our overdrive culture, there’s already too much tension on the pelvic floor due to overwork, sexual frustration, feelings of failure, disappointment, and the onslaught of images across the media," says Tias Little. “We overemphasize Mula Bandha, in part because it’s familiar to us." Ana Forrest purposely downplays Mula Bandha for similar reasons. “When I was in India, I had a realization about Mula Bandha," she says. “I got sick from the food there, and I began to understand its purpose in a country plagued with dysentery. In America, where we’re plagued with constipation, I don’t think going around contracting the anus is a wise thing."

For the already tense, stressed, and depressed, the unskillful use of Mula Bandha can have a negative impact. So how do you know if it’s working against—rather than for—you? “The first instruction is always to trust your inner knowing," says Joan Harrigan, a brahmacharini (monastic) in the Shankaracharya tradition of Advaita Vedanta who’s also a practicing psychotherapist. “With proper engagement of the bandha, there should be a sense of intensified vitality and greater awareness. If it doesn’t feel right, don’t do it!"

See alsoWork Your Core in Any Pose

 

《 Najee – The Love Of You (04:56) 》


《 Najee – The Love Of You (04:56) 》

【科哲絮語】靈魂可以被證明為存在或不存在嗎?(上)


靈魂可以被證明為存在或不存在嗎?這裡討論的「靈魂」是指「能脫離人類肉體而獨立存在的心靈」或者「能獨立於物質存在的心靈」。
#靈魂 #存在與否
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6997

【科哲絮語】靈魂可以被證明為存在或不存在嗎?(上)

友善列印版本

我曾在〈庶民存有觀與死刑存廢〉(link is external)一文中談到台灣民間普遍相信靈魂存在,而且會不斷地投胎、轉世、輪迴──這是一種「庶民存有觀」,它構成在台灣推動廢除死刑的障礙。不過,我也談到現在的年輕人似乎越來越多人接受唯物論,亦即這世界只有物質存在。若如此,蘊涵了「非物質的靈魂不存在」。然而,不管是「相信非物質的靈魂存在」或「相信非物質的靈魂不存在」都只是信念,頂多再加上各種支持或反對的論證(或理由),它們不是決定性的證明(demonstration)。這篇文章想問:靈魂可以被證明為存在或不存在嗎?

我在此提出一個很複雜的答案:

第一、支持「實體二元論」(蘊涵「靈魂存在」)和支持「唯物論」(蘊涵「靈魂不存在」)都有很強、很有說明力和說服力的論證(arguments)與理由,我們無法單從論證和理由來解決兩個理論假設的爭議。當然,我們可以去評估或評價種種論證和理由對於理論的支持強度、去比較它們的說服力、可靠度和可信度等等。我同意,唯物論的論證在目前是較好、較強的。

第二、我們有較大的可能性可以證明靈魂不存在、唯物論為真。但是,這不是決定性的證明,靈魂實在論者可以提出保護理論的新假設──雖然這假設可能是特置性的(ad hoc hypothesis)。

第三、我們有一個可能性可以對自己直接證明靈魂存在,但極不可能對他人證明靈魂存在。亦即,如果靈魂存在,那麼當我們死亡那一剎那,我們就可以對自己證明靈魂存在了(我們意識到自己以靈魂的狀態存在)。但是,由於靈魂的非物質特性,我們無法對其他還活著的人證明靈魂存在。這種證明對我們此生的唯一用處是:保留一個希望。

(圖片來源:維基共享資源)

概念的釐清與界定

這裡討論的「靈魂」是指「能脫離人類肉體而獨立存在的心靈」或者「能獨立於物質存在的心靈」。根據定義,靈魂是非物質的實體。如果靈魂存在,那麼人活著時意識到的心靈是靈魂在身體內的展現。主張靈魂存在的人可以稱作「靈魂實在論者」(realist about soul 或 soul realist)。一個靈魂實在論者也主張物質世界是存在的,那就是心物的「實體二元論」(substance dualism)。如果主張這世界只有物質存在,沒有非物質的心靈實體,就是「唯物論」(materialism)。

一旦談到「心靈」或「心智」(mind),就免不了涉及「心靈哲學」(philosophy of mind)。當代有很多專業的「心靈哲學家」,提出很多細膩的分析、討論和論證(arguments),這些論證傾向指出「實體二元論」是一個較不易被支持的立場。因此,當代具宗教信仰和立場的哲學家則仍主張實體二元論;反之,不具宗教立場的哲學家可能多數都接受唯物論。可是,唯物論無法完全說明心靈現象,特别是像主體性、意識、知覺內容等等──這「無法說明」被稱作「心之不可化約性」(irreducibility of mind)問題。有哲學家就提議其它二元論,例如心和物是物質世界的兩個不同的性質,稱「性質二元論」(property dualism);或者人類的認知能力使我們無法克服「心之不可化約性」這說明的鴻溝,心和物勢必要用兩套截然不同的概念系統來說明,因此有人又稱這是「概念二元論」(conceptual dualism)。但不管是「性質二元論」或「概念二元論」,在存有論上都是「唯物論」,並不承認心靈實體(即靈魂)的存在。

本文不打算進入那些細膩的、學術的哲學論證中,我同意那些論證提供很強的理由來反對實體二元論或靈魂實在論。例如,一個共識是「心物如何互動」是實體二元論無法克服的問題,亦即實體二元論很難解釋非物質的心靈如何與物質的身體互動。有些哲學家又提出所謂「因果封閉原則」,說兩個不同的世界不可能互為因果,因為因果具有封閉性──因與果必須是同質的存在範疇。可是,如果心靈哲學家承認「心之不可化約性」是目前物質(理)科學很難決的問題,但這不會降低哲學家對唯物論的信心;那麼為什麼實體二元論不易解決「心物互動」問題,卻會降低了哲學家對實體二元論的信心?是否在論證之先,心靈哲學家的立場已有所偏頗了?他們其實迎合當代「科學中心論甚至物理理論中心論」的理念傾向?很多論證似乎把物理理論的真理性和科學的化約論視為理所當然,例如「物理論」(physicalism)是心靈哲學的一大派。問題是,即使我們最好的物理理論如相對論和量子力學都只是假設,是否為真仍有很多爭議──至少在科學哲學上有各種實在論和反實在論的爭議。再者,沒有一個物理理論能直接用到心靈現象上,能用來研究心靈現象的是心理學、認知科學和神經科學,這些科學理論是否能被化約到物理理論上?如何化約?這些問題從來沒有被詳細分析過。很多心靈哲學家都把心理學可以被化約到生物學、生物學到化學、化學到物理視為理所當然。如果考慮當代科哲的反化約論(主張生物學甚至化學都不能被化約到物理理論上)主流,那麼心靈哲學家對於物理理論和化約論的信心實在是一個很奇特的現象。

如果我們把所有的科學理論──不管是物理、化學、生物學、心理學、神經科學、認知科學等等──都視為科學假設,它們提供很多經驗上的理由,讓我們用來支持或反對一個哲學(形上學)的假設(如「靈魂存在」或「靈魂不存在」這樣的假設),那麼我們就必須考慮「究竟科學如何可能證明或否證一個存在假設」,在這裏「否證靈魂存在的假設」等於「證明靈魂不存在」。

涉及某物存在的假設是不折不扣的形上學(存有學)問題,但也是不折不扣的科學問題。很多科學理論許諾(commit to)不可觀察的特别種類的東西或物項(entities)存在,然後科學家努力作實驗去證明他們許諾的物項是存在的。也有很多科學研究以尋找(證明)某東西存在為目標──例如搜尋外星人(證明外星人存在)的科學計畫。也就是說,科學研究總是蘊涵了形上學(存有學)的議題!而且科學研究是有可能解決存有學爭議的!問題是科學研究要如何解決存有學的爭議?(待續)

繼續閱讀:【科哲絮語】靈魂可以被證明為存在或不存在嗎?(下)

 

 

《 Najee – Broken Promises (05:11) 》


《 Najee – Broken Promises (05:11) 》

建築節能先做好 開冷氣不是問題──智能綠塔建築師專訪


http://e-info.org.tw/node/212197?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=03eaa39508-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-03eaa39508-84956681

建築節能先做好 開冷氣不是問題──智能綠塔建築師專訪

德國建築節能報導03
2018年06月14日
環境資訊中心特約記者 陳文姿報導

承接上篇)「如果冷氣只開一小時就能達到開24小時的效果,開冷氣會有問題嗎?」

跟建築師弗萊(Wolfgang Frey)的對話很有意思,這位正在德國綠色城市弗萊堡(Freiburg)打造新一代建築,配備百萬瓦儲能技術的智能綠塔(smart green tower)建築師,一開場談的不是智慧電網、不是儲能技術,而是「我的曾曾祖父」。

智能綠塔建築師建築師弗萊(Wolfgang Frey)
智能綠塔建築師建築師弗萊(Wolfgang Frey)。後方警察局為他的作品,照片為垂直的木頭外牆及空調設備。攝影:陳文姿

不忘傳統建築智慧  高科技更升級

弗萊父親、祖父都是建築師,家族在弗萊堡土生土長。他從電腦裡翻出一張德國南部黑森林地區木造老屋的照片,指著傳統房舍的共同語言──屋簷、迴廊、陽台,「這是我曾曾祖父留下來的房子,你看,150年來還是保存良好,而且遮陽與通風效果絕佳。」

弗萊解釋更多細節,過去木造老屋順著木頭紋理而建,木頭是垂直的,讓雨水可以快速排出。而現代建築師為了展現摩登潮流感,更喜歡用水平方式堆疊木材,所以木頭很快出現腐朽問題。現代建築師也不愛屋簷,這對夏天會飆過30度的弗萊堡非常不利,缺少遮蔭只會讓屋內更熱。

弗萊直言,不去善加利用太陽光,讓熱直接進到屋裡,再用化石燃料產生的電力去對抗資源,這是最愚笨的。在弗萊的建築師事務所與智能綠塔設計裡,他直接把太陽能板用做屋簷跟陽台。

「我們現在更聰明,太陽能板不僅可以遮蔭,還可以生產綠源,這就是科技!」

弗萊勇於挑戰別人不敢的新嘗試,但骨子裡仍依循傳統建築的基礎。為何沒跟著摩登的建築語言走?他指著頭笑說,「你看,我沒有頭髮,這就是我的優勢。我知道被太陽直射的苦,時時提醒我遮蔭的重要性。」

0613-2
弗萊事務所的外牆直接用太陽能板做陽台建材,省下原本陽台的成本。攝影:陳文姿

保溫隔熱確保省電  節能就是賺錢

建築節能的做法早就深植弗萊的每棟作品中。對於「節能代表吃苦」、「省電就不要開冷氣」,弗萊大表驚訝。他說建築師要了解人的需求。人們追求舒適的生活,要抵抗高溫炎熱,把溫度降低是必須的。「但是」,他反問,「如果冷氣只開一小時就能達到開24小時的效果,開冷氣會有問題嗎?」

他指著弗萊堡一棟警察局外的冷暖氣設備說,大家都搞不清楚這機器到底是什麼,因為它只運轉十幾個小時。

「這是指一年十幾個小時?還是一個月?」記者追問。「是五年,從建築啟用的那天到現在,只轉過12至16小時。所以說,開冷氣完全沒有問題,問題是如何把建築的節能效果提高。」弗萊答。

這棟警察局也是弗萊作品,部分外牆採傳統垂直木條。弗萊堡的冬天可以降至零下20幾度,為了確保冬天有足夠的陽光,夏天又能遮蔭,屋簷的寬度必須配合太陽高度計算。不足時則由窗簾扮演輔助的角色。三層的玻璃外牆能有效減少熱能傳導,加上氣密窗戶,冬天可阻擋室內暖氣流失,夏天也有減少過多熱能進到室內的效果,這在德國非常普遍,效果與價錢跟水泥外牆相差不多。

施工跟材料價格取決於當地市場。在德國,因為建築節能標準額外墊高的成本,約需八到十年才能回本,隨設計與電價而異。以智能綠塔為例,預估回本要等15年。「在電價便宜的地區,推動節能建築是不是更難? 」這對弗萊而言,又是一個怪問題。

他答,一棟建築可是要用上五、六十年,甚至更久。就算要花上二十年才能回本又如何?想像一下,二十年過後,省下的電費都是賺的,四十年後也繼續在賺,這可是一筆龐大的利益啊!

弗萊堡郊區小鎮,左邊是傳統建築,太陽能板屋頂非常普遍
弗萊堡郊區小鎮,左邊是傳統建築,太陽能板屋頂非常普遍。攝影:陳文姿

永續的解答──傳統永續

對弗萊而言,節能只是被動減少能耗,要再進一步增加再生能源,才能達到零碳建築。節能是基本功卻很重要,當一棟建築每年每平方公尺的能耗已經降到7.5度時,零碳目標就不遠了。

弗萊近年在中國有不少作品,做為一位德國建築師,他如何挑戰不同氣候帶的建築節能?他說,很多人想買德國車、德國冰箱,但說到德國房子,卻是行不通的。房子無法世界通行,這項「產品」不能直接放到國外,但「理念」卻可以。首先要從當地的氣候、資源以及人們的習慣開始,一樣要去看傳統建築是怎麼設計的、為什麼這樣設計。

再次回到原點。弗萊說,我們都要向我們的曾祖父、曾曾祖父學習。過去的年代人們因為貧窮,想要省錢、想要節約,這就是節能。對每一分資源都很珍惜,這就是永續。(系列報導,未完待續)

智能綠塔(Smart Green Tower)完成後示意圖
智能綠塔(Smart Green Tower)完成後示意圖。圖片提供:Frey Group 

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※ 本文與「低碳生活部落格」共同刊登

 

《 Najee – Embrace (04:44) 》


《 Najee – Embrace (04:44) 》

承諾枯水期不調播農業用水 中科三期環評劃下句點


http://e-info.org.tw/node/212196?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=03eaa39508-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-03eaa39508-84956681

承諾枯水期不調播農業用水 中科三期環評劃下句點

2018年06月13日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導

環保署13日舉行第332次環評大會,中科三期二階環評獲得通過,終結了十多年的纏鬥。調播農業用水的部分,仍是此案最大爭論所在,老農出示近日因為天氣燥熱缺水而乾枯傾倒的水田照片,憂中科三期排擠農業用水。

中科管理局則承諾,未來2.5萬CMD(立方公尺/每日)以下用水不調撥農業用水,若超過2.5萬,原則上應使用節餘農業用水;最後以此條件獲得通過。

老農出示近日因為天氣燥熱缺水而乾枯傾倒的水稻田照片,憂中科三期排擠農業用水。賴品瑀攝。
老農出示近日因為天氣燥熱缺水而乾枯傾倒的水稻田照片,憂中科三期排擠農業用水。賴品瑀攝。

諾枯水期不調播農業用水 原則使用節餘水

為了讓老農放心,大會在結論中強調,當用水量超過2.5萬CMD,需要調度農業用水前,必須向農田水利會申請。除了已獲自來水公司同意供應的2.5萬CMD不得調撥農業用水,超出2.5萬CMD的部分,枯水期不調播農業用水,控管機制需納入台中農田水利會的「在不影響農業生產及農民既有灌溉需求情況下為前提,原則以加強灌溉管理所結餘農業用水調用該園區使用。」至於因為天候異常造成的乾旱,則回歸經濟部的緊急應變機制。

會議結論強調枯水期不調播農業用水,原則使用節餘水
會議結論強調枯水期不調播農業用水,原則使用節餘水。賴品瑀攝。

中科三期七星園區位於台中市后里區,面積112公頃。引進產業包括光電、精密機械、生物科技、綠能等工業,屬於綜合型科學園區。由於搶用農水、污染排放的疑慮,本案12年來歷經通過環評、動工、訴訟、再環評、訴訟、和解的漫長抗爭,最後進入二階環評。

在今年3月的環評大會時,由於在調撥農業用水、廢棄物處理、空污排放還有爭議,大會決定讓此案補正再審。其中枯水期不調撥農業用水的控管機制更是這次重審的討論重點。

在初審小組送大會的結論中,要求中科三期內的高科技產業需達到製程用水回收85%、全區用水回收達75%。用水量依經濟部水利署意見核減為4.3萬CMD,但在用水量超過自來水能提供的2.5CMD後、必須調動農業用水前,必須提出環境影響調查報告送審。不過環團與當地農民「台中后里農業與環境保護協會」對於調動農業用水的機制仍有疑慮,因此遭大會要求中科再補充。

中科局指出,確定核定用水量從原訂的6.3萬CMD下修為初審結論的4.3萬CMD,初期的2.5萬CMD則從由自來水供應。雖然民間團體再度要求核定用水量再下修到2.5萬CMD。但中科局局長陳明煌並沒有鬆口,指出目前仍有部分廠區還沒完全設廠,加上已進駐的友達努力節水,所以目前用水量只有1萬多CMD,雖然中科未來會尋求不耗水的產業進駐,但仍擔心砍了用水量後,園區或是友達以後發展將受限制。

此外,中科承諾園區用水內控機制將包括源頭控管及入園審查、廠商用水查證與節水輔導設置、鼓勵使用再生水,與設置5日用水量的蓄水設施。

農民控中科三期進駐後 豐水期也受到影響

后里農民不滿,中科三期進駐后里之後,就開始出現農業用水被嚴重排擠的問題。台中市后里區農業與環境保護協會創會會長廖明田指出,不只枯水期缺水,連豐水期灌溉都受到影響。雖然中科說自來水的2.5萬CMD不會調撥農業用水,但自來水的來源就是排擠農業用水。

農民許金水表示指出,近日后里因為用水不足,天氣炎熱乾燥,缺水灌溉的稻田竟然出現整排枯乾傾倒的異常景象,讓辛苦耕作的農民非常痛心。協會理事長陳欽全更表示,目前后里地區農民必須間隔五天半,才能獲得一次十小時的供水灌溉,這種缺水的窘境已經逼近許多農作物生長的極限。

后里公館里里長馮詠淮強調,當地除了水稻,更有花卉、馬鈴薯等高經濟作物。每年投資就是上千萬,這些回鄉青農大多每人都背債四五千萬,若因缺水造成虧損,目前卻不見賠償機制,更不該只比照水稻的價錢來賠償。雖然會議代理主席馬小康提醒賠償機制不是在環評會議中討論,但馮詠淮批,政府怎能一手鼓勵回鄉又一手打壓青農?

面對此案最後還是通過了,馮詠淮提醒,後續還有農損補償機制要談,政府應該跨部會的合作提出方案,並且找農民談,不能互踢皮球。另外,部分承租高灘地的農民,並非位在水利會供水的灌區,他們的權益可能成為三不管的空窗,政府也應該進早因應。

調撥農業用水先溝通 增聘農民、環團入監督小組

在環團建議下,用水管控一項將納入中科三期的「環境保護監督小組」任務之一,大會並要求必須增聘當地農民、公民團體代表加入參與。

環境權保障基金會律師郭鴻儀指出,若真有調撥農業用水需求,除相關主管機關外,應建立與當地農民及公民團體達成共識的溝通協商平台,以落實在地民眾的知情同意及參與權,建立有效的溝通對話機制。

蠻野心足生態協會律師蔡雅瀅更要求調撥農業用水前應辦理環評變更,並在申請前,保障當地農民對水資源調度的知情參與權,包括應先提供包含用水需求、替代方案等必要資訊,並諮詢環境保護監督小組之意見等。對於潛在受影響灌區鄉鎮村里辦公室,應召開公聽會,邀請潛在受影響之農民及當地公民團體共同研商水資源調度之必要性及因應對策。

中科則表示,目前中科三期其實尚未調用過農業用水,未來真要調動,也會提早與農民溝通,未來將會出資協助水利會提高灌溉用水的效率。

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作者

賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 Najee – It Is The Way Back (05:37) 》


《 Najee – It Is The Way Back (05:37) 》

澎湖東嶼坪珊瑚覆蓋優 志工驚呼生態豐富


http://e-info.org.tw/node/212194?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=03eaa39508-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-03eaa39508-84956681

澎湖東嶼坪珊瑚覆蓋優 志工驚呼生態豐富

2018年06月14日
環境資訊中心記者 林育朱報導

澎湖東嶼坪一年一度的珊瑚礁體檢11日順利結束。台灣環境資訊協會今年已經是第十年帶領志工到澎湖東嶼坪進行生態調查,儘管仍發現零星魚線、漁網,但整體珊瑚覆蓋率相當良好,指標性生物數量和種類也多,讓志工驚呼連連,深刻感受到落實海洋保育的成果。

東嶼坪西側的珊瑚(林育朱攝)
東嶼坪西側珊瑚。林育朱攝。

8日在11位志工協助之下,順利完成「2018澎湖珊瑚礁體檢」。此次的調查地點分別位於東嶼坪西側、南側與東側。雖然台灣周邊海域低氣壓環繞,澎湖海域卻是風平浪靜,讓志工得以順利完成調查。

三個地點的調查結果顯示,各地的活珊瑚覆蓋率都高於50%,屬於國際標準「優良」等級。

志工合照
志工合照。

調查結果顯示,活珊瑚(硬珊瑚與軟珊瑚)覆蓋率介於63.1-78.8%,最低為東側,最高為南側。根據國際標準,東側和西側都已達「優良」等級,而南側甚至為「極優」(>75%)。南側的珊瑚組成主要以軟珊瑚為主,西側和東側則是以硬珊瑚為主。值得注意的是南側有些軟珊瑚的表面被疑似藍綠藻附著,有可能是因為水體中的營養鹽較高,若是時間一久,極有可能導致軟珊瑚死亡,值得持續關注。

指標性魚類部分,觀察到最多以蝶魚為主,三個地點的族群密度介於4.5-15隻/每100平方公尺,最低是東側,最高是西側。有可能是西側硬珊瑚組成以桌型軸孔珊瑚或枝狀珊瑚為主,較多蝶魚可以棲息的空間。其他魚類則還有觀察到石鱸、笛鯛、鸚哥魚和裸胸鯙等,以南側觀察到的魚種最多;東側最少,只有蝶魚和裸胸鯙,雖調查過程觀察到至少三隻大於30公分的石斑,因為在樣區外故不列入紀錄。

梭魚群(蔣咏霖攝)
梭魚群。蔣咏霖攝。
東嶼坪魚類
2018東嶼坪魚類調查。資料來源:台灣環境資訊協會。

指標性無脊椎動物部分,西側完全沒有記錄到,南側和東側則都記錄到魔鬼海膽和硨磲貝,魔鬼海膽族群密度分別為每100平方公尺3.25隻和1.5隻;硨磲貝則都是每100平方公尺0.5隻。此外最令人驚艷的,便是在南側記錄到大法螺,族群密度是每100平方公尺0.5隻,幾乎是全台之冠。

東嶼坪無脊椎動物
2018東嶼坪無脊椎動物調查。資料來源:台灣環境資訊協會。

此次東嶼坪珊瑚礁體檢結果,不僅珊瑚覆蓋率極佳,其他指標性生物的數量和種類也較其他調查地點來得高,或許是南方四島海洋國家公園保育有成,然而在三個地點還是觀察到零星魚線、漁網和一般垃圾,顯見多少還是受到人為捕撈壓力,只是因為交通不便,因此較鮮有人跡。

志工前往極富盛名的東吉薰衣草森林、廊區、東吉港外和西吉斷層潛水,因有國家公園警察隊常駐在此,執法較為確實,不僅有茂密的珊瑚,甚至還看到在台灣本島幾已絕跡的鉛筆海膽,其他的諸如大石斑、梭魚群、浪人鰺(俗稱jack fish)、大龍蝦等,甚至還有鯊魚出沒,都讓志工驚呼連連,深刻感受到落實海洋保育的成果。

薰衣草森林(蔣咏霖攝)
薰衣草森林。蔣咏霖攝。
鉛筆海膽(蕭伊真攝)
鉛筆海膽。蕭伊真攝。
2018年澎湖珊瑚礁體檢為台灣環境資訊協會主辦,滙豐(台灣)商業銀行贊助,社團法人台北市野鳥學會關渡自然公園共同主辦,並由澎湖島澳七七協助。

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《 Najee – Day By Day (05:16) 》


《 Najee – Day By Day (05:16) 》

光電溫室生產蔬菜眉角多 設施、生產、銷售需面面俱到


http://e-info.org.tw/node/212193?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=03eaa39508-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-03eaa39508-84956681

光電溫室生產蔬菜眉角多 設施、生產、銷售需面面俱到

2018年06月14日
轉載自農傳媒;文、攝影:郭琇真

國內近年發展營農型光電設施,為避免業者鑽漏洞「假種菜、真種電」,行政院農業委員會要求光電板下的作物產量,須達近三年平均值7成,農業試驗所今公佈8種適合在光電溫室栽培的葉菜類,例如小白菜在0.2公頃的光電溫室實驗中,每公頃產量可達21萬公斤,達到農委會要求目標,其他如茼蒿莧菜等在適度的溫室高度、光照條件下也可達到產量標準。

評估適種蔬菜品項,實驗超過100種葉菜類品種

政府大力推動太陽光電,2013年開放農業設施可附屬綠能設施,亦即可在農地蓋太陽光電板,底下需種植作物,但許多農民、光電業者不了解何種作物適合栽種在太陽能板下、如何栽種,農試所從2016年起,與向陽優能電力(股)公司合作,在該公司屏東縣枋寮鄉的光電溫室內,評估適合栽培的蔬菜品項、建立栽培模式,提供光電業者與農民農業生產的參考。

為評估適合栽種的蔬菜,農試所鳳山分所蔬菜系研究員王三太指出,研究團隊先篩選出約19種葉菜類作物,並從中每種葉菜類作物中,選擇近10種常吃品種,共計總實驗葉菜類品種超過100種。

農委會曾函示,營農型光電設施合理農業經營事實的判定依據為「設施下作物最低生產量必須要達該作物近三年產量平均值的七成」,農試所實驗的葉菜類共八種可符合規範,分別為小白菜、茼蒿、莧菜、菠菜青梗白菜、青花菜、花椰菜、芥藍。

圖片提供/ 農業試驗所

以小白菜為例,實驗場合的光電溫室挑高6公尺,側面4.5公尺,占地0.2公頃,採用H型鋼架,太陽能板遮蔽率為40%,使用有機小白菜穴盤苗種植,約兩周後收成,考量進栽培過程中氣溫變化可能影響生長速度,或人為疏失造成收成不順利,農試所評估,1年保守估計可收成14次,每公頃收成21萬公斤有機小白菜,達到農委會要求目標。

以拍賣市場有機小白菜平均價格每公斤20元計算,每公頃收益為420萬元,生產費用為238萬元,建設溫室及太陽能發電系統成本約2,023萬元,售電收益以每度4.3元計算,年度收益可達162.8萬元左右,若設備費用分10年攤提,每年可獲利142.5萬元。

圖片提供/ 農業試驗所

溫室高度、肥培管理皆影響作物生產量

農試所鳳山分所分所長陳甘澍表示,光電溫室上方具有遮蔽,會影響葉菜類生長,因此選擇光需求相對較低的蔬菜種類及品種相當重要。

陳駿季強調,雖然農試所推薦適種蔬菜,但光電溫室微氣候有別於一般溫網室,作物栽種流程有所差異,例如光電溫室受光線影響,不太適合使用過多氮肥,容易有徒長現象,農民若使用傳統方式種植將無法達到預期產量。

高度也是必須考量的重點,農試所合作的光電溫室高度達6公尺,原先實驗前的構想及模擬認為太陽能板遮蔽有可能影響作物生長,但由於實驗的光電溫室高度足夠,光線進入後沒有明顯的陰影處,因此對作物影響不大,太陽能板遮蔽率40%及30%也無太大差異。

其他高度的溫室能否有同樣效果,農試所還無法肯定,王三太指出,農試所尚未進行溫室高度影響實驗,目前只能確定挑高型溫室對作物影響較小。

陳甘澍表示,比起傳統網室,挑高型溫室配合遮蔽率40%的光電板,能降溫3到5度,作物會更適合生長,但相對建設成本比簡易溫室高,而且越高的溫室,受風面積越大,須考量颱風影響。

此外,進入溫室的光線僅能提供葉菜類生長需求,但是無法讓葉菜類長得更好,例如小白菜的葉子就會比較薄,但口感優於傳統耕種方式,較為鮮嫩,總產量比一般網室栽培模式低,陳甘澍建議可透過提高栽培密度、收穫次數提升產量,用有機耕種較能獲取收益。

圖片提供/ 農業試驗所

王三太補充,搭設太陽能板還必須考量方位、對植物的影響等,以發電效率來說,會比較推薦東西向,但仍需考量季節變動後太陽方位的改變。

選擇具有商品價值的葉菜類生產

種出來了還要會銷,陳甘澍指出,像青花菜受颱風等氣候影響,就算耐熱品種也難以在5月到10月間生產,這段期間國內青花菜幾乎仰賴進口,目前國內市場青花菜每斤價格為120元,農試所與亞蔬—世界蔬菜中心合作青花菜新品種「台農亞蔬3號」耐熱早生、品質甜嫩細緻,優於進口青花菜的硬實口感,就很適合有機或設施栽培業者,可填補4、5月及9、10月國內青花菜生鮮市場空窗期。

圖片提供/ 農業試驗所
耐熟早生的台農亞蔬3號適合在光電溫室種植。

此外,農試所也開發夏季能在光電溫室裡穩定生產耐熱蔬菜品種,如鳳山分所選育的花椰菜「16-1104」具有耐熱、早生特性,在高溫環境不會產生劣質花球,可在夏季網室內栽培,具有替代國外進口花椰菜的潛力;而芥藍「16-1232」則具有耐熱、耐濕、汁多味甜特性,已無芥藍略帶苦味的問題。

陳甘澍表示,以季節區分光電溫室適種蔬菜,小白菜與青梗白菜適合全年度生長,夏天適合種植青花菜、花椰菜、芥藍,秋天適合種植莧菜,而冬天則能種植菠菜、茼蒿、青花菜,光電溫室作物必須找出特殊性與優勢,才能與市場區別。

※ 本文經授權轉載自《農傳媒》,不適用CC共創授權條款。

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作者

農傳媒

農傳媒是由財團法人豐年社所成立,以「與農共聲、與食俱進、與環境共享」為宗旨,關注農業各個面向的專業網路資訊平台。

 

 

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