Decoding Sutra 1.15: Dispassion is the ‘Conscious Mastery of Desire’

Decoding Sutra 1.15: Dispassion is the ‘Conscious Mastery of Desire’

Learn how to master your desires and tap into creative forces through Tantric philosophy.

As interpreted by Ty Landrum

In the Yoga Sutra, Patanjali names abhyasa (practice) and vairagya (dispassion) as the two essential elements of yoga. And in Sutra 1.15, he dives more specifically into what “dispassion” actually means. Dispassion, he says, is “conscious mastery of desire.”

In traditional yogic asceticism, “conscious mastery of desire” is the ability to withstand urges and impulses, no matter how strong they might be. For ascetics, the purpose of vairagya is to realize a kind of autonomy by severing all attachments to the body—not exactly a compelling goal for a modern yoga practitioner.

The Purpose of Vairagya (Dispassion)

When this sutra is viewed through the lens of later Tantric philosophy, “conscious mastery of desire” is no longer the ability to withstand desire, but instead to release the animating force of desire from its object so we can experience that force as pure creativity. In this view, the purpose of vairagya is not to separate ourselves from our bodies, but instead to cultivate a deeper intimacy with them by tapping into innate creative forces.

See also How to Access Prana and Let Your Light Shine

Asana practice is an excellent opportunity to practice this more-engaging, less-repressive Tantric form of vairagya. As we move and breathe through the postures, we arouse primitive impulses of all kinds. But if we remain focused on the steady flow of our breath, we can remain grounded in our bodies. Instead of allowing impulses to disturb us or distract us into fantasy, we can hold them in perspective and see them for what they are: ephemeral formations of prana, the underlying energetic force that sustains us.

When desires arise during our asana practice, we can opt to breathe into them and to watch in wonder as the solvent of the breath dissolves desires into the open space of consciousness. When desire dissolves, it releases its creative and motivating force, and we experience that release as a cathartic wave, usually accompanied by feelings of exultation. For the force behind our desires—the force that draws us toward particular objects and people and places—is love. And when love is released from desire, we experience it as something selfless and blissful. Revel in that experience and continuously cultivate it through the abhyasa (practice) of vairagya.

See also Balancing Effort and Surrender


Plug Into the Wall + Recharge: 4 Soothing Restorative Poses

Plug Into the Wall + Recharge: 4 Soothing Restorative Poses

No energy to set up for restorative yoga? Plug yourself into a wall and reboot with Kathryn Budig’s simple poses.


Kino MacGregor’s 7-Pose Yoga Break for Stress Relief

Kino MacGregor’s 7-Pose Yoga Break for Stress Relief

Next time you find yourself bogged down with emails and to-dos, take 10 minutes to disconnect from the computer screen and practice this short yoga sequence.

After three days of vacation I sat down and opened my computer to meet nearly 300 emails. As I sent replies to a few, more came in. I felt buried under a mountain of e-stress. While I don’t work a typical 9-to-5 desk job, I am never not working. If I’m not on the mat, then I’m in front of my computer writing blogs like this one, answering emails, and generally planning how to take over the world. Just kidding—sort of.

Staring at a computer screen for what feels like endless hours is daunting and emotionally draining. It also makes your hips really tight and puts stress on the back. We all know that hunched over, rounded back position that somehow takes over any good intentions to sit up straight. And we all feel it the next day on our mats. It’s as though the more difficult the assignment, the more you have to concentrate and the worse your posture becomes. My secret tip for keeping my hips relatively open and the back supported during long hours of work or travel is to sit cross-legged as often as possible. Switch up the dominant or top leg repeatedly to distribute the weight. Keep the belly drawn in and the chest expanded. From a physiological point of view strengthening your posture helps you breathe deeply and keep an emotionally resilient spirit. If your desk chair is too small to cross your legs in, then get a bigger chair. Or exchange your chair for an exercise ball to build balance and core strength while working.

Posture by itself is no magic solution. Even if you sit in Padmasana with perfect posture all day, there are always distractions. My biggest temptation while working on the computer is to drift away from the task at hand into the infinite world of online shopping. But there is a difference between distracting yourself and truly relieving stress. Next time you find yourself bogged down with emails and to-dos with no motivation to dive in and get the job done, take 10 minutes to disconnect from the computer screen and practice this short yoga sequence to clear your mind, release tension in the hips, and strengthen the back. Return to work refreshed, recharged, and inspired.

See alsoElena Brower’s Office Yoga Sequence to Restore and Rejuvenate

7-Pose Midday Yoga Break


4 Ways to Satisfy Your Urge to Side Bend

4 Ways to Satisfy Your Urge to Side Bend

Try these four poses to lengthen and stretch your side when the urge hits you.

In a yoga popularity contest, side bends may not get a lot of votes. But I will wildly raise my hand in support of these amazing postures. First off, side bending is not a common action in our daily lives, which means we are majorly lacking in—and longing for—the release and space a side bend offers. They improve breathing capacity by stretching your intercostal muscles, relieve lower back pain by releasing your QL, and serve as a fantastic prep for backbends. Here, choose from four side bends to suit your current mood.

See also The Anatomy of a Satisfying Side Stretch

About Kathryn Budig
Kathryn Budig is the yoga teacher behind AIM TRUE, a regular writer for Yoga Journal, and a presenter at Yoga Journal LIVE!

Catch up with her on:
Twitter: @kathrynbudig
Instagram: @kathrynbudig
Facebook: @kathrynbudig


3 Ways To Modify Dolphin Pose With Props

3 Ways To Modify Dolphin Pose With Props

Modify Dolphin if needed to find safe alignment for your body.

Modify Dolphin Pose if needed to find safe alignment for your body.

PREVIOUS STEP IN YOGAPEDIA 4 Steps To Master Dolphin Pose
NEXT STEP IN YOGAPEDIA 3 Prep Poses for Forearm Balance


3 Hip-Openers to Prep for Lotus Pose

3 Hip-Openers to Prep for Lotus Pose

Increase hip flexibility and learn how to keep your knees safe with these prep poses for Padmasana.

Increase hip flexibility and learn how to keep your knees safe with these prep poses for Padmasana.

Next in YOGAPEDIALotus Pose Step-By-Step Instructions to Release Tension >


Live Be Yoga: Charlotte’s ‘Fractured’ Yoga Community Declares Call to Action Through Uplifting Summits

Live Be Yoga: Charlotte’s ‘Fractured’ Yoga Community Declares Call to Action Through Uplifting Summits

When yoga teachers and practitioners come together to confront difficult conversations, the Live Be Yoga team joins and looks beyond its own lenses to understand how to foster inclusivity in classes and studios.

Live Be Yoga ambassadors Jeremy Falk and Aris Seaberg are on a road trip across the country to share real talk with master teachers, explore innovative classes, and so much more—all to illuminate what’s in store for the future of yoga. Follow the tour and get the latest stories @livebeyoga on Instagram and Facebook.

While in Charlotte, we attended an eye-opening event that for the first time in the area brought together local studios, teachers, students, and community activists to discuss ethics in yoga. Activist and local teacher Jasmine Hines created Amplify and Activatea series of summits to “uplift the voices that aren’t normally heard” in the yoga community. What began as a conversation around #metoo ultimately addressed a lack of inclusivity in mainstream yoga studios that has led many community members to practice in other spaces. Panel members and participants shared their pain, vulnerability, and courage, while powerfully demonstrating how to truly live and be yoga by applying the principles of the practice to address these challenging issues.

Before the discussion began, co-organizer of the summit Grace Millsap and activist Kelley Carboni-Woods (both local teachers) led a slow, sweet, and accessible class that utilized asana and partnered eye-gazing to transition into a more receptive place of listening and understanding. They mitigated expectations of the evening by clarifying that the intention was less about solving problems and more about opening the doors to change. “The teachings of yoga help facilitate difficult conversations, because they invite us to go into the space that’s not comfortable," said Millsap, “and what blossoms out of that is understanding, truth, acceptance, and all-around unity—the true meaning of yoga."

Yogis practice partnered eye-gazing to facilitate openness at Amplify and Activate.

After the practice, the panelists began discussing abuse in the yoga community, and eventually the topic shifted as Carboni-Woods spoke up about the fractured yoga community in Charlotte. It forced us to open our eyes and see beyond our own white and able-bodied lenses of privilege when we discovered that there were a significant number of students with larger bodies, people of color, yogis with disabilities, and seniors who were practicing outside yoga studios because they didn’t feel supported or empowered in many mainstream yoga classes.

Carboni-Woods, who teaches packed classes in alternative spaces, feels that these groups have been marginalized by underrepresentation in both yoga media and yoga studios, whose advertising doesn’t reflect that diverse populations are welcome and perpetuates the idea that yoga is only for thin white women with disposable income. Also, studios offer “all levels" classes that are more concerned with “selling asana and getting bodies in the door” but aren’t always appropriate for all bodies, Carboni-Woods said. Studios can only benefit from having “more tools around helping bigger bodies into the poses as well as some investigation into who [their offering] is really for.”

We reflected deeply on this and committed ourselves finding ways to diversify our offerings and create more inclusivity. I know I’ve contributed to this problem by teaching classes labeled as “all levels” that were too athletic in nature to be suitable for every level of practitioner. I’ve always felt conflicted with the accuracy of such a description, and I can’t think of any subject matter in academia that is taught this way. I imagine a 60-minute “all levels” math class claiming to be suitable for students learning addition and subtraction as well as those working through advanced trigonometry. Eventually one of the groups won’t feel addressed, and this contributes to the lack of inclusivity. According to Millsap, one of the ways studios can amend this issue is to diversify the types of classes offered. “Be clear on what level of practitioner the class is appropriate for. It will send a message that all people can come into the space,” she said.

Yogis practice at Amplify and Activate, a series of su

At the end of the summit, though the problems weren’t solved, a sense of relief came from voicing the issues and beginning to ask the right questions. How can we further increase the inclusiveness of yoga? Aris and I wish to use the platform we have with Live Be Yoga to highlight the stories and voices of those that are underrepresented in mainstream yoga. Aris is also inspired to study trauma-informed teachings and support healing for all while I am eager to support more men stepping onto the mat to grow a mindful masculine presence on the planet. As Millsap said, “It definitely starts with the teachers and how they’re trained.” From there, we can start to address the entire scope of human shapes, sizes, and colors often unacknowledged in the yoga community. “It’s like it doesn’t exist,” said Hines, “so we’re here to make you know it exists.”

Charlotte has made it clear that the future of yoga is inclusive. Get information on the local panels on the Amplify and Activate Facebook page here. If you’re ready to initiate these conversations in your community, Hines and Millsap are more than willing to come to your city and help organize a summit. Find them at


Yin Yoga 101: Does Alignment Matter in Yin Poses?

Yin Yoga 101: Does Alignment Matter in Yin Poses?

Every yogi in a Yin class looks different in the postures, so it’s a good question. Josh Summers explains the difference between aesthetic vs. functional alignment.
Yin Meditation with Josh Summers

Want to learn a style of yoga that’s focused on bringing balance—physically, energetically, and mentally? Join Josh Summers, founder of the Summers School of Yin Yoga, for our new online course Yin Yoga 101—a six-week journey through the foundations and principles of Yin Yoga, along with asana practice and meditation. Click here to sign up!

“In Yin Yoga, alignment doesn’t matter.” That’s one of the most common myths about Yin Yoga. It’s also easy to dispel. Often, people unfamiliar with the practice notice everyone in a Yin class doing the same pose with slightly different alignment and then conclude that anything goes. Or they take a Yin class and don’t hear the teacher give exact instructions on how to place the body and then conclude that the teacher doesn’t understand or care about alignment. Neither is true.

In Yin Yoga, as in all intelligent forms of physical yoga, alignment matters. But alignment in Yin Yoga has little to do with whether your foot is pointed in the “right” direction, or whether your knee is at a precise 90-degree angle. Focusing on how a pose looks is an approach referred to as aesthetic alignment. However, what is aesthetically pretty may not be functionally beneficial.

Yin Yoga instead looks for functional alignment. Thanks largely to Yin Yoga pioneer Paul Grilley, the practice recognizes that our anatomy varies, especially at the skeletal level. The angles and curves of your bones differ from those of the person on the mat next to you. So in a Yin class—and increasingly, in other styles of yoga, too—the same pose looks different on everyone. That means each person can align his or her body to serve the pose’s functional intention, which is the specific way the pose is meant to stress, stimulate, or stretch the body.

In Yin Yoga, the functional intention is the only reason to do the pose. It is tied to a pose’s target areas, the main areas of the body that the pose is intended to gently stress and the places you want to feel mild-to-moderate sensation. Sometimes you will stress all the target areas, sometimes a few, or sometimes just one.

Exploring Functional Alignment in Dragon Pose

If you pursue aesthetic alignment in Dragon, also known as Anjaneyasana (Low Lunge)the intention is to align the body to “look” correct. Your front knee is directly ahead of its corresponding hip and directly over your front heel. Your front thigh is parallel to the long edges of the mat. Your hips are squared to the front of the mat. Your torso and arms stack over your hips.

Now, shifting to functional alignment, the intention is to align the body in a way that is functionally beneficial. Before you even get into the pose, ask yourself, “Why am I doing this pose?” Your alignment will be based on your intention, your target areas. Dragon has two target areas: the back leg’s hip flexors and the front leg’s outer hip, adductors, and inner hamstrings. Your alignment will also depend on the variation because Yin poses, such as Dragon, sometimes have many. Here, you’ll explore two different target areas. (Keep in mind that your alignment may not look like mine because our bodies have unique shapes.)


Target Area: Hip flexors of the back leg
I align my body in a way that increases hip extension of my back leg. To do that, I place one hand on my front thigh and the other hand on a block, raising my torso. That way both my hips and spine extend more, which will likely increase the tensional stress on my back leg’s hip flexors. Once in position, I try to relax my hips down to the floor, softening the hip flexors to bring a gentle Yin stress to the dense connective tissue in that area. This works for me. It may not work for you; it may generate excessive stress on your hip flexors. Instead, placing your hands on the floor may be a better way to successfully target your hip flexors. Another alternative is to rest both hands on the front knee or simply to cross your forearms on your forward thigh. Remember your intention, and adjust accordingly.


Target Area: Adductors and outer hip of the front leg
I align my body in a way that gently stresses the tissues of my front leg’s inner groin. To do that, I move my front foot farther out from my midline and lower my torso. Taking my front foot to the side increases the abduction of the front femur, and bringing my torso down increases the flexion of the front hip and spine; both actions tend to increase tensile stress on the adductors and possibly the hamstrings of the front leg. Once in position, I try to relax my front leg out to the side. Again, this works for me. It may not for you; it may create intense stress on your adductors. If that’s the case, bringing your forearms or your hands to blocks may create the mild-to-moderate sensation the pose intends to generate.

Target Area Takeaway
Yin Yoga is an ideal practice for focusing on functional alignment because you hold the poses for several minutes, giving you time to feel and observe the results of the alignment choices you make.

Want to learn more about the fundamentals of Yin Yoga with Josh? Click here to sign up for his six-week online course!




#靈魂 #存在與否





目前大多數哲學家(心靈哲學家、科學哲學家、形上學家等等)通常採用「最佳說明推論」(inference to the best explanation, IBE)的論證形式,亦即提出一個哲學理論(假說)來說明已知的現象,然後比較誰的理論是「最好(佳)的說明」,如果一個理論可以針對一群現象提供最好的說明,那麼就推論該理論最有可能為真,因此也是「最可信的」或「最可靠的」(the most reliable)。這背後預設一個「從最好推到真」的假設──但,最好一定是真或逼近真嗎?「最好的傾向是真的或逼近真」這個「假設」本身是否能成立恐怕是個問題。








科學除了提供理論說明力好的論證之外,科學也有能力提供「實作的證明」(practical demonstration),這種「證明」是可以解決爭議。而且,我們今天認為「最好的科學理論」,通常都有大量實作證明來支持,而不只是「能對現象提供很好的說明」。什麼是「實作的證明」?








  • 被創造出自我意識(心靈)的機器人的心靈,也是一個靈魂,它是來自靈魂世界。它以人類靈魂進入人體的方式而進入機器人的身體。對於一些靈魂論的信仰者來說,靈魂當然可以依附在物質體上。機器人的創造者啟動了正確的物質結構,使其提供靈魂附身的結構。


這兩個假設當然都是特置的,但特置性不過是降低一個假設的合理性,並不代表該假設就被否證,雖然 Popper 認為使用特置假設就意味「被否證」,問題是 Popper自己又提出「嚴格存在命題」無法被否證(其實,Popper自己是心物二元論者)。可以說,實體二元論就是不可檢驗的形上學假設,再增加什麼假設都是假設而已。當然,這裡複雜糾結的地方在於:科學家有可能「實驗創造」出一個心靈!




當代哲學家和科學家都在努力提供更具說服力的論證,告訴我們唯物論是真的。確實不管從理論的說明力或者科學實作的證明力來看,唯物論為真的可能性相當大。可是,即使唯物論為真,大自然仍然為我們保留一個希望,它產生這樣的一個心智認知的結構,讓我們無法證明「超越自然的靈魂並不存在」,而且使人類的心靈保有一個希望:靈魂仍然有可能證明自己的存在。但,這的確只是一個希望。而希望最大的「希望」就是:它有可能成真(come into true)。

本文原載於「陳瑞麟的科哲絮語(link is external)」,經作者授權轉載。



How to Use Mula Bandha in Yoga Poses

How to Use Mula Bandha in Yoga Poses

Begin experimenting with how to integrate Mula Bandha into your asana practice.
grace flowers, downward facing dog pose, adho mukha svasana

Mula Bandha may be the most befuddling, underinstructed technique in the world of yoga. Here, begin experimenting with how to integrate Mula Bandha into your asana practice.

The bandhas are mechanisms by which a yogi can direct the flow of prana, the universal life-force energy that animates and unites us all. With a few simple adjustments, you can learn to integrate Mula Bandha, one of four bandhas mentioned in the Hatha Yoga Pradipika and the Gheranda Samhita, into your daily asana practice.


Mula Bandha in Tadasana (Mountain Pose)

In Latin, “pelvis" means basin. In Tadasana, you want this basin to be in a neutral position so that if the basin were filled with a precious liquid, it wouldn’t spill out the front or the back. To find this neutral position, explore the potential placement of the pelvis. Stand upright with your feet together and your arms by your sides. As you inhale, draw the hips and buttocks slightly backward and increase the curvature in the lumbar spine. This is an anterior tilt. Then, exhale and bring the hips and buttocks forward, flattening the lumbar spine and pulling the pelvis into a posterior tilt.

Do this several times, and begin to notice that when the pelvis is in the anterior position, the muscles in the lower back tighten and the inner groins shorten. When it is in the posterior tilt, the buttocks clench and, again, the groins shorten.

To find neutral, stand with your pelvis anteriorly tilted, then lightly lift first the pubic bone and then the pelvic floor as you lengthen the groins—this is Mula Bandha. To find it from the posterior position, draw your hips slightly back until the buttocks relax and the lumbar spine regains its natural curve. As you do this, lift the pelvic floor and lengthen the waist and groins—again, this is Mula Bandha.

When your pelvis is neutral and you find Mula Bandha in Tadasana, you’ll feel a sense of stability without gripping.

See alsoA Woman’s Guide to Mula Bandha

Rina Jakubowicz downward facing dog

Mula Bandha in Adho Mukha Svanasana variations (Prana Dog and Apana Dog)

Downward-Facing Dog is an excellent pose in which to practice Mula Bandha, especially if you explore two different expressions of the pose: Prana Dog, which is linked to the inhalation, and Apana Dog, which is linked to the exhalation.

From Downward Dog, inhale and extend your spine by taking your head and shoulders toward the floor, drawing your hips away from your hands, and lifting and spreading your sitting bones. This is the Prana Dog.

Then exhale and flex your spine by tucking your pelvis, slightly rounding your shoulders, drawing your ribs up, and looking toward your navel. Now you’re in Apana Dog. Notice that at the end of the exhalation, the pelvic floor naturally draws upward—this is Mula Bandha.

With the next inhalation, create Prana Dog by extending your spine from your tailbone, but don’t allow your ribs to sink too far toward your thighs. Keep lengthening and lightly lifting the area between the coccyx and the pubic bone, between the pubic bone and the navel, and between the navel and the lower ribs. As you exhale, return to the Apana Dog flexion position of the spine, and again focus on how the pelvic floor lifts.

Here’s why: In Prana Dog it is more difficult to access the lift of the pelvic floor, whereas that lift happens naturally at the end of the exhalation in Apana Dog. With the subsequent inhalation, there is a natural tendency to release the pelvic floor and allow the rib cage to drop toward the thighs.

However, it is possible to retain the lift of the pelvic floor with the inhalation if it is accompanied by a light lift of the pubic bone, navel, and lower ribs. This action brings length and leanness to the waist so that the ribs and thighs are drawn slightly away from each other. This leads you into a hybrid pose, which contains both extension and flexion and creates a neutral pelvis, making it possible to engage Mula Bandha during both the inhalation and the exhalation.

grace flowers, warrior 2 pose, virahabdrasana 2

Mula Bandha in Virabhadrasana II (Warrior Pose II)

Virabhadrasana II, when done well, is a classic illustration of Mula Bandha in action. But all too often the pelvis listlessly drops into an anterior tilt, the front thigh turns in, and the belly becomes slack. From here, the buttocks go back and the lower ribs jut forward. The knees buckle inward, bringing too much weight to the inner edges of the feet.

To help remedy this, find Mula Bandha in Virabhadrasana II by lifting the pelvic floor, the pubic bone, and the sternum. Bring your pelvis into a more neutral alignment by moving your buttocks forward, so that they’re underneath your shoulders as you draw the lower ribs back. Next, move the sitting bones toward each other. This facilitates the widening of the front of the pelvis and helps draw the thighs and knees away from each other. Bring weight onto the outer edges of the feet and lift the arches.

Rina Jakubowicz Sirsasana

Mula Bandha in Sirsasana (Headstand)

In Headstand, just as in Virabhadrasana II, you’ll often see the pelvis dropped into an anterior position with the ribs jutting forward and the buttocks sticking out. This causes the lower back to compress, and it creates a sense of disconnection between the torso and legs. Applying Mula Bandha can realign the pelvis and provide a link that integrates it with the torso.

When you’re in an inverted position, Mula Bandha is often more natural and easier to find because gravity is already drawing the pelvic floor in the right direction. So, as the pelvic floor lifts, extend the front of the body by reaching strongly upward through the legs and feet and lengthening the groins and waist. To bring the bottom over the shoulders, lengthen the hip flexors, draw the sitting bones together, and draw the tailbone toward the pubic bone—this is Mula Bandha.

With Mula Bandha engaged, draw your inhalation up to the navel, sternum, throat, eyebrow center, and finally to the crown of the head, all the while lengthening the central axis of the body toward the ground. Follow the exhalation through the central axis and all the way back to the mula, or root of the spine.

See alsoMula Bandha: Your Ticket To Infinity and Beyond!

Two Fit Moms perform Seated Forward Bend.

Mula Bandha Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Fold)

Begin in Dandasana (Staff Pose), an excellent pose to feel the diamond shape of the pelvic floor, which is bordered by the pubic bone in the front, the coccyx in the back, and the sitting bones on the sides. Bring your weight forward on your sitting bones so that they get heavy and the lumbar spine comes into its natural curvature. As you press down into your sitting bones, lift your pelvic floor and draw your pubic bone up. Then lengthen your waist, lift your sternum, draw your shoulders back and down, and drop your chin toward your chest. Let the legs roll inward until the inner ankles touch.

Reach forward and grab your toes. Straighten your arms and extend your spine as you inhale; bend forward on an exhalation. Focus on drawing the sitting bones toward each other while pressing them down, and then lift the pelvic floor. This approach to Paschimottanasana naturally engages Mula Bandha. The effect will be less strain around the sitting bones where the hamstrings originate and less sensation of overstretching in the lower back.

claire missingham yogapedia december triangle bind

Mula Bandha In a Bind

Some teachers feel that Mula Bandha is overused in American yoga. “In our overdrive culture, there’s already too much tension on the pelvic floor due to overwork, sexual frustration, feelings of failure, disappointment, and the onslaught of images across the media," says Tias Little. “We overemphasize Mula Bandha, in part because it’s familiar to us." Ana Forrest purposely downplays Mula Bandha for similar reasons. “When I was in India, I had a realization about Mula Bandha," she says. “I got sick from the food there, and I began to understand its purpose in a country plagued with dysentery. In America, where we’re plagued with constipation, I don’t think going around contracting the anus is a wise thing."

For the already tense, stressed, and depressed, the unskillful use of Mula Bandha can have a negative impact. So how do you know if it’s working against—rather than for—you? “The first instruction is always to trust your inner knowing," says Joan Harrigan, a brahmacharini (monastic) in the Shankaracharya tradition of Advaita Vedanta who’s also a practicing psychotherapist. “With proper engagement of the bandha, there should be a sense of intensified vitality and greater awareness. If it doesn’t feel right, don’t do it!"

See alsoWork Your Core in Any Pose


《 Najee – The Love Of You (04:56) 》

《 Najee – The Love Of You (04:56) 》


#靈魂 #存在與否



我曾在〈庶民存有觀與死刑存廢〉(link is external)一文中談到台灣民間普遍相信靈魂存在,而且會不斷地投胎、轉世、輪迴──這是一種「庶民存有觀」,它構成在台灣推動廢除死刑的障礙。不過,我也談到現在的年輕人似乎越來越多人接受唯物論,亦即這世界只有物質存在。若如此,蘊涵了「非物質的靈魂不存在」。然而,不管是「相信非物質的靈魂存在」或「相信非物質的靈魂不存在」都只是信念,頂多再加上各種支持或反對的論證(或理由),它們不是決定性的證明(demonstration)。這篇文章想問:靈魂可以被證明為存在或不存在嗎?



第二、我們有較大的可能性可以證明靈魂不存在、唯物論為真。但是,這不是決定性的證明,靈魂實在論者可以提出保護理論的新假設──雖然這假設可能是特置性的(ad hoc hypothesis)。




這裡討論的「靈魂」是指「能脫離人類肉體而獨立存在的心靈」或者「能獨立於物質存在的心靈」。根據定義,靈魂是非物質的實體。如果靈魂存在,那麼人活著時意識到的心靈是靈魂在身體內的展現。主張靈魂存在的人可以稱作「靈魂實在論者」(realist about soul 或 soul realist)。一個靈魂實在論者也主張物質世界是存在的,那就是心物的「實體二元論」(substance dualism)。如果主張這世界只有物質存在,沒有非物質的心靈實體,就是「唯物論」(materialism)。

一旦談到「心靈」或「心智」(mind),就免不了涉及「心靈哲學」(philosophy of mind)。當代有很多專業的「心靈哲學家」,提出很多細膩的分析、討論和論證(arguments),這些論證傾向指出「實體二元論」是一個較不易被支持的立場。因此,當代具宗教信仰和立場的哲學家則仍主張實體二元論;反之,不具宗教立場的哲學家可能多數都接受唯物論。可是,唯物論無法完全說明心靈現象,特别是像主體性、意識、知覺內容等等──這「無法說明」被稱作「心之不可化約性」(irreducibility of mind)問題。有哲學家就提議其它二元論,例如心和物是物質世界的兩個不同的性質,稱「性質二元論」(property dualism);或者人類的認知能力使我們無法克服「心之不可化約性」這說明的鴻溝,心和物勢必要用兩套截然不同的概念系統來說明,因此有人又稱這是「概念二元論」(conceptual dualism)。但不管是「性質二元論」或「概念二元論」,在存有論上都是「唯物論」,並不承認心靈實體(即靈魂)的存在。



涉及某物存在的假設是不折不扣的形上學(存有學)問題,但也是不折不扣的科學問題。很多科學理論許諾(commit to)不可觀察的特别種類的東西或物項(entities)存在,然後科學家努力作實驗去證明他們許諾的物項是存在的。也有很多科學研究以尋找(證明)某東西存在為目標──例如搜尋外星人(證明外星人存在)的科學計畫。也就是說,科學研究總是蘊涵了形上學(存有學)的議題!而且科學研究是有可能解決存有學爭議的!問題是科學研究要如何解決存有學的爭議?(待續)




《 Najee – Broken Promises (05:11) 》

《 Najee – Broken Promises (05:11) 》

建築節能先做好 開冷氣不是問題──智能綠塔建築師專訪

建築節能先做好 開冷氣不是問題──智能綠塔建築師專訪

環境資訊中心特約記者 陳文姿報導


跟建築師弗萊(Wolfgang Frey)的對話很有意思,這位正在德國綠色城市弗萊堡(Freiburg)打造新一代建築,配備百萬瓦儲能技術的智能綠塔(smart green tower)建築師,一開場談的不是智慧電網、不是儲能技術,而是「我的曾曾祖父」。

智能綠塔建築師建築師弗萊(Wolfgang Frey)
智能綠塔建築師建築師弗萊(Wolfgang Frey)。後方警察局為他的作品,照片為垂直的木頭外牆及空調設備。攝影:陳文姿

不忘傳統建築智慧  高科技更升級







保溫隔熱確保省電  節能就是賺錢





施工跟材料價格取決於當地市場。在德國,因為建築節能標準額外墊高的成本,約需八到十年才能回本,隨設計與電價而異。以智能綠塔為例,預估回本要等15年。「在電價便宜的地區,推動節能建築是不是更難? 」這對弗萊而言,又是一個怪問題。







智能綠塔(Smart Green Tower)完成後示意圖
智能綠塔(Smart Green Tower)完成後示意圖。圖片提供:Frey Group 


※ 本文與「低碳生活部落格」共同刊登


《 Najee – Embrace (04:44) 》

《 Najee – Embrace (04:44) 》

承諾枯水期不調播農業用水 中科三期環評劃下句點

承諾枯水期不調播農業用水 中科三期環評劃下句點

環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導




諾枯水期不調播農業用水 原則使用節餘水








農民控中科三期進駐後 豐水期也受到影響





調撥農業用水先溝通 增聘農民、環團入監督小組










《 Najee – It Is The Way Back (05:37) 》

《 Najee – It Is The Way Back (05:37) 》

澎湖東嶼坪珊瑚覆蓋優 志工驚呼生態豐富

澎湖東嶼坪珊瑚覆蓋優 志工驚呼生態豐富

環境資訊中心記者 林育朱報導












志工前往極富盛名的東吉薰衣草森林、廊區、東吉港外和西吉斷層潛水,因有國家公園警察隊常駐在此,執法較為確實,不僅有茂密的珊瑚,甚至還看到在台灣本島幾已絕跡的鉛筆海膽,其他的諸如大石斑、梭魚群、浪人鰺(俗稱jack fish)、大龍蝦等,甚至還有鯊魚出沒,都讓志工驚呼連連,深刻感受到落實海洋保育的成果。




《 Najee – Day By Day (05:16) 》

《 Najee – Day By Day (05:16) 》

光電溫室生產蔬菜眉角多 設施、生產、銷售需面面俱到

光電溫室生產蔬菜眉角多 設施、生產、銷售需面面俱到







圖片提供/ 農業試驗所



圖片提供/ 農業試驗所








圖片提供/ 農業試驗所




圖片提供/ 農業試驗所



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