5 Reasons Why 2-Way Live Streaming Yoga Is the Yoga of the Future


https://www.yogajournal.com/teach/5-reasons-why-2-way-live-streaming-yoga-is-the-yoga-of-the-future

5 Reasons Why 2-Way Live Streaming Yoga Is the Yoga of the Future

What if you could take a yoga class in the comfort of your home or office with a LIVE teacher, who sees you in real time the same way you see them? This is totally possible now with two-way live streaming yoga classes.
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Streaming online yoga sites featuring pre-recorded videos are popular, but what if you could take a yoga class in the comfort of your home or office with a LIVE teacher who sees you in real time the same way you see them? This is totally possible now, and it provides a real alternative to brick-and-mortar yoga studios.

“We’re not trying to get rid of yoga studios,” says Chris Lucas, yoga teacher and founder of two-way live interactive yoga website Ompractice. “We’re just trying to get additional yoga on the planet.”

Ompractice, which launched last summer, uses Zoom video conferencing technology that enables teachers to see students up close and personal via webcam, explains Lucas. There are a few other sites offering two-way interactive fitness and yoga classes, like Yogaia and Peloton, but Lucas says Ompractice’s technology and teaching method allow for an enhanced focus on the student.

“Our teachers are not practicing, and they can see and focus precisely on the student. The teacher is looking at you from their computer screen to yours. The teacher is paying attention to you and talking to you. You are seen," says Lucas.

See also YJ Tried It: Live Streaming Yoga Classes With a 2-Way Camera

How does Ompractice work? You look at the schedule online, pay for the class you want, and then you’re directed to join the video meeting. You see the teacher in his/her home or studio, and you can see the other students in the class. It’s a personal experience and can be even more intimate than a live class. From convenience to affordability, here are 5 ways Ompractice wants to change the yoga game with this obvious-but-wow concept.

See also 6 Mistakes Home Yoga Practitioners Make (and How to Fix Them)

5 Reasons Why 2-Way Live Streaming Yoga Is the Yoga of the Future

1. What you’ll love: Live teachers

With pre-recorded videos, you can’t interact with your teacher, ask questions, or get feedback and alignment suggestions from a trusted professional. You can get all of that with two-way live streaming. “We have a strong combination of convenience and quality,” Lucas explains. The teachers are screened, and only the best are allowed to teach. Also, during class, teachers can see every pose. They’ll cue you into the posture, and then they’ll address you directly to help you get into it and stay safe with good alignment. You’re always free to ask questions and get immediate answers and feedback from highly trained and experienced instructors.

2. What you’ll love: No commute

Whether you’re an Ompractice student or one of their teachers, you’ll have the best commute ever when you use this service. “You don’t have to take a half hour getting to the yoga studio and then another half hour getting home,” says Ompractice teacher Emily Wiadro, owner of healixyoga studio in Brattleboro, Vermont. “We allow you to have an experience in your home or office or on vacation. Wherever it’s convenient for you.” You can practice from anywhere in the world as long as you have an internet connection. Park right in front of your screen instead of in a parking lot!

3. What you’ll love: Convenient class times

While Ompractice doesn’t provide 24/7 access to pre-recorded video, classes are available seven days a week all through the day and even late at night. The company and the teachers keep adjusting the schedule to be available when students need them. Whether you’re on the East or West Coast or somewhere in between, you’ll find early morning, afternoon, evening, and late-night classes to fit your busy schedule.

4. What you’ll love: Best prices

Where can you take a live yoga class with one-on-one feedback for $5? With Ompractice, it’s possible. Teachers set their own prices for their classes, and they tend to range from $5 to $15, with many landing at $10. Students want to practice more. Many teachers want to be teaching more. “We want to give everyone those opportunities," Lucas says. “Wouldn’t it be great if you could practice three extra times a week?" Ompractice also offers an unlimited monthly membership for $65, which is considerably less expensive than most brick-and-mortar yoga studios. “We offer value, and quality for that value,” he adds.

5. What you’ll love: Well-treated teachers

As you may already know, it can be pretty difficult for yoga teachers to support themselves. Even teachers who lead 15 classes a week are often forced to take other jobs on the side to make ends meet.

See also Should All Yoga Teachers Be Employees? One Studio Sets a New Standard

At Ompractice, teachers set their own price per class, and they get a 75 percent cut while the company takes the other 25. Plus, teachers can do what they love from any quiet location where they can set up their computer, and they get to set their own schedule. “We’re not just talking about our commitment to teachers, we’re demonstrating it," says Lucas. “We don’t do well unless teachers do well."

Use code OMYJ to get one month free at Ompractice, exclusively for YJ readers.

 

Lighten Up! How to Cultivate Joy, Fearlessness, and Compassion in Your Life


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/lighten-up-how-to-cultivate-joy-fearlessness-and-compassion-in-your-life

Lighten Up! How to Cultivate Joy, Fearlessness, and Compassion in Your Life

Pema Chödrön explains how stepping out of your cocoon and extending compassion to others is the key to lasting joy and happiness.
child-smiling

Curtis Kim/Stocksy

Being able to lighten up is the key to feeling at home with your body, mind, and emotions, to feeling worthy to live on this planet. For example, you can hear the slogan, “Always maintain only a joyful mind,” and start beating yourself up for not being joyful. But that kind of witness is a bit heavy.

This earnestness, this seriousness about everything in our lives—including practice—this goal-oriented, we’re-going-to-do-it-or-else attitude, is the world’s greatest killjoy. When we take this all-or-nothing attitude, we lack a sense of appreciation because we’re so solemn. In contrast, a joyful mind is very ordinary and relaxed. So lighten up. Don’t make such a big deal.

When you aspire to lighten up, you begin to have a sense of humor. Your serious state of mind keeps getting popped. Another basic support for a joyful mind is curiosity: paying attention—taking an interest in the world around you. Happiness is not required, but being curious without a heavy, judgmental attitude helps. If you are judgmental, try being curious about that.

Curiosity encourages cheering up. So does simply remembering to do something different. We are so locked into this sense of burden—Big Deal Joy and Big Deal Unhappiness—that it’s sometimes helpful just to change the pattern. Anything out of the ordinary will help. You can go to the window and look at the sky, you can splash cold water on your face, you can sing in the shower, you can go jogging—anything that’s against your usual pattern.

That’s how things start to lighten up.

See also The Gift of “I Don’t Know": How Mary Beth LaRue Is Embracing Life’s Uncertainties

Practice: Four Limitless Qualities to Gain Happiness

A teacher once told me that if I wanted lasting happiness, the only way to get it was to step out of my cocoon. When I asked her how to bring happiness to others she said, “Same instruction.” This is the reason that I work with the aspiration practices of the four limitless qualities of loving-kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity: the best way to serve ourselves is to love and care for others. These are powerful tools for dissolving the barriers that perpetuate the suffering of all beings.

It is best to do sitting meditation before and after these practices. To begin, we start just where we are. We connect with the place where we currently feel loving-kindness, compassion, joy, or equanimity, however limited it may be. (You can even make a list of people or animals who inspire these feelings in you.) We aspire that ourselves and our loved ones could enjoy the quality we are practicing. Then we gradually extend that aspiration to a widening circle of relationships.

We can do these practices in three simple steps, using the words from the traditional Four Limitless Ones chant or whatever words make sense to us. First, we wish one of the four limitless qualities for ourselves: “May I enjoy loving-kindness.” Then we include a loved one in the aspiration. “May you enjoy loving-kindness.” We then extend our wish to all sentient beings: “May all beings enjoy loving-kindness.” Or for compassion: “May I be free from suffering and the root of suffering. May you be free of suffering and the root of suffering. May all beings be free of suffering and the root of suffering.”

The aspiration practices of the four limitless qualities train us in not holding back, in seeing our biases, and not feeding them. Gradually we will get the hang of going beyond our fear of feeling pain. This is what it takes to become involved with the sorrows of the world, to extend loving-kindness, compassion, joy, and equanimity to everyone—no exceptions.

See also Suffering Is Optional: Mindful Pain Management

Four Limitless Ones Chant

May all sentient beings
enjoy happiness and the
root of happiness.

May we be free from suffering
and the root of suffering.

May we not be separated
from the great happiness
devoid of suffering.

May we dwell in the great
equanimity free from passion,
aggression, and prejudice.

See also The Yoga of Receiving: Practice Opening Up to Life’s Gifts

From Comfortable with Uncertainty by Pema Chödrön. Translations of the lojongslogans are reprinted from The Root Text of the Seven Points of Training the Mind by Chögyam Trungpa; revised translation by Diana J. Mukpo and the Nālandā Translation Committee. Reprinted by arrangement with Shambhala Publications, Inc. Boulder, Colorado. To learn more, visit shambhala.com.

 

Anatomy 101: Can You Safely Jump Back to Plank?


https://www.yogajournal.com/teach/anatomy-101-can-you-safely-jump-back-to-plank

Anatomy 101: Can You Safely Jump Back to Plank?

Learn what muscles are activated when you jump back to Chaturanga or Plank Pose, and how to do it safely.
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Rick Cummings

At some point, most yogis will be cautioned during Sun Salutations or vinyasas to “never jump back to Plank Pose—only to Chaturanga Dandasana (Four-Limbed Staff Pose). But this warning doesn’t exist in the fitness world, where jumping back to Plank is part of one of the most popular bodyweight exercises: the burpee.

This basic exercise is simple— start standing; jump straight up; bend forward, and place your hands on the ground; jump back to Plank, then hop your feet to your hands, and repeat. Sound familiar? Eliminate the initial vertical jump, add a backbend (Cobra or Upward-Facing Dog) and Down Dog, and you have a classic Sun Salutation.

According to Mark Singleton’s book Yoga Body, it was Tirumalai Krishnamacharya—the grandfather of Western yoga—who borrowed the jumpback to Chaturanga from Western gymnastics in the 1930s while he was developing the system that became Ashtanga Yoga. With most modern forms of vinyasa and Power Yogaspringing from the Ashtanga lineage, jumping back to Chaturanga became widespread and is now included in most vigorous yoga classes in the West. But given the shoulder and wrist injuries that are emerging lately, it seems like a good idea to revisit a few commonly circulated misconceptions about the biomechanics of the transition.

See also Why You May Want to Start Cross-Training for Chaturanga

First, let’s look at one myth you’ve likely heard: Jumping to Plank is jarring on your joints, forcing your wrists, elbows, and shoulders to absorb shock that would otherwise be dispersed by bending the elbows into Chaturanga. This misconception seems to be based on the false premise that because Plank Pose is a bone-stacked position, the ligaments and tendons within your wrists, elbows, and shoulders must absorb more impact on the landing than they would in Chaturanga.

However, a 2011 study in the Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies showed that the muscles around your wrists, elbows, and shoulders have to produce more torque (a rotational force) in the Chaturanga position (with bent arms) than in Plank Pose (with straight arms). This finding also holds true for jumping back to these poses. Think about it: When you jump back to Plank, your shoulders stay stacked above your wrists, and your elbows stay relatively extended or straight, which means the muscles around your elbows don’t need to produce as much torque as they would for a Chaturanga landing. Instead, the larger (and in most bodies, stronger)muscles around your shoulders and back control the movement, which makes you less susceptible to injury in your shoulders, elbows, and wrists.

See also Building Strength for Chaturanga

Another misconception about landing in Plank Pose is that the bone-stacked position leads to ligament strain. Strain is simply a change in length from an original state—a.k.a. a stretch. So, when you stretch your body, you experience strain, which means strain itself is not synonymous with injury.

Injury occurs when you stretch your tissues beyond their capacity to bounce back. For example, when you bend your elbows into Chaturanga, the ligaments and tendons crossing the joint have to stretch. Ligaments and tendons only undergo strain when a joint is flexed or hyperextended—not when bones are stacked. In Plank Pose, the ligaments and tendons crossing the elbow joint don’t change lengths—which means they aren’t strained.

Finally, you’ve also likely heard the myth that jumping back to Plank Pose is harder on your lower back than landing in Chaturanga. It’s true that if your core isn’t engaged when jumping back to either Plank or Chaturanga, your lower back can sag. This, in turn, can compress the facet joints—the points of articulation between the vertebrae that allow your spine to flex and extend—and lead to bone degeneration if done repeatedly over time.

On the flip side, if your back is over-rounded on either landing, your abdominal muscles can create too much torque on your vertebrae, which can lead to compression in the discs, resulting in injury. Prevent either scenario by jumping back to either pose with an engaged core, which will keep your spine neutral.

See also Strengthen Your Shoulder Muscles + Improve Shoulderstand

Enter the Biomechanics Lab

When we weren’t able to find scientific research examining the biomechanical differences between both transitions, we headed to the Applied Biomechanics Lab at the University of Colorado, Boulder, to investigate. The lab has a 10-camera motion-capture system and special plates that record ground reaction force—the force the ground exerts onto the body in reaction to body weight exerting force onto the ground.

We placed sensors on a yogi’s hands and lower back as reference points to determine where the center of gravity moved during these two transitions. The verdict: Peak vertical ground reaction force—the highest ground reaction force in the vertical direction—was equal for both transitions (about 1.5 times body weight). That means neither landing can actually be classified as more jarring.

In fact, the peak vertical ground reaction force in both jumpbacks was closer to that of walking (1.3 times body weight) than running (2.5 times body weight). That means that with the required strength and proper form, jumping back to either Plank Pose or Chaturanga produces only a slightly higher impact on the body than walking.

See also Anatomy 101: Why Anatomy Training is Essential for Yoga Teachers

Next, we did some follow-up testing to measure the ground reaction forces on the subject’s hands and feet separately during both transitions. As it turns out, jumping back to Chaturanga resulted in a ground reaction force at the upper body that was 10 pounds more than jumping back to Plank (7 percent of the model’s body weight). Yet the reverse was true when jumping back to Plank: It was easier on the shoulders and wrists, but slightly harder on the feet—about additional eight pounds of ground reaction force (5 percent of the model’s body weight).

Perhaps our most important finding was that the center of gravity stayed closer to the hips in the jumpback to Plank and moved about four inches closer to the head in the jumpback to Chaturanga. That means, when combined with ground reaction force, more body weight has to be supported by the arms in the jumpback to Chaturanga, which increases the amount of torque your shoulders, elbows, and wrists must produce in order to land and maintain safe joint positioning in Chaturanga. The more muscular force required, the more opportunity for injury—particularly at the joints if the muscles around them can’t produce enough force to land or hold Chaturanga.

Anatomy of a Jumpback

Wondering what muscles are activated when you jump back to Chaturanga or Plank Pose? Here they are.

Anatomy_Biomechanics_301

See also A Yogi’s Guide to the Shoulder Girdle + Its Actions

The Jumpback to Chaturanga vs. Plank

We tested the ground force reaction—the force the ground exerts on a body in contact with it—of both jumping back to Plank Pose and Chaturanga. Our key findings below indicate that there is not much difference between jumping back to Plank Pose or Chaturanga when you look at the combination of ground reaction force and center of gravity.

Jumping back to Chaturanga resulted in a ground reaction force at the upper body that was 10 pounds more than that of jumping back to Plank (which amounts to 7 percent of the model’s body weight).

Though jumping back to Plank was easier on the shoulders and wrists, it was slightly harder on the feet by about 8 additional pounds of ground reaction force— 5 percent of the model’s body weight.

See also Dolphin Plank Pose

Jumpback_Biomechanics_302

So Which Jumpbacks Should You Practice?

Now that you understand the biomechanics of both jumpbacks, you can make informed choices about the best transition for addressing your needs and goals—and, if you’re a teacher, those of your students. Here are some recommended guidelines:

Step back to Plank and lower through Chaturanga to the ground if you’re looking for the option with the least potential for injury. It’s a great choice for beginners and yogis with sensitive wrists, elbows, shoulders, lower backs, or poor foot mobility.

Jump back to Plank if you can hold Plank Pose with good form (upper back muscles engaged and no sagging in your lower back) without pain and you want to introduce an additional challenge. Just be sure to keep this movement safe by jumping back to Plank Pose with your core, arms, and shoulders engaged and your arms relatively straight.

Jump back to Chaturanga if you can hold the pose with good form (with your upper back muscles engaged, no sagging in your low back or belly, and your shoulders in line with your elbows) and can also successfully jump back to Plank and lower from Plank to Chaturanga without pain. When you practice this, keep your core and shoulders engaged—and stop if you feel any pain or discomfort in your joints.

See also DIY Plank Challenge: How Long Can You Hold It?

About Our Pros
Author and model Robyn Capobianco, PhD, is a yogi whose curiosity about the science of yoga led her to a doctoral program in neurophysiology. She brings more than 20 years of yogic study, practice, and teaching to her scientific research on the neural control of movement. Her research aims to fundamentally alter the way yoga teachers teach—and provide the scientific foundation that she feels is missing from the yoga community. Learn more at drrobyncapo.com.

Jana Montgomery, PhD, is a lifelong learner and athlete. Her passion for science and sports led her to pursue her PhD in the biomechanics of human movement. Her research specializes in understanding how external forces or equipment affect the way people move­—specifically adaptive equipment and technology. Learn more at activeinnovationslab.com.

 

5 Strength-Building Yoga Poses for Beginners


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/5-strength-building-yoga-poses-beginners

5 Strength-Building Yoga Poses for Beginners

There’s no need to be intimidated advanced asanas and transitions. The key is being humble enough to dedicate yourself to mastering the basics.

Kino MacGregor says there’s no need for beginners to be intimidated by all of the advanced asanas and transitions they see. The key is being humble enough to dedicate yourself to mastering the basics. Start here.

Seeing all of the powerful yoga poses and transitions on Instagram and YouTube can be intimidating for new yoga students. When I first started practicing, it felt like people who were strong were just born that way and I didn’t have a chance. But if I can build physical strength so can you. Before yoga, I wasn’t a dancer or a gymnast or an athlete, but with consistent practice over many years I have more physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual strength than I ever thought possible.

The key is being humble enough to begin with the basics and put in the work every day.

Yoga is a process of inner discovery. Strong asanas are never ends in and of themselves. They are vehicles for a deep experience of the true Self within and can be the means to the real spiritual strength that comes from a calm and equanimous mind.

This sequence is designed for yoga students—especially beginners—who want to build strength. By focusing on the key elements of a strong stable shoulder girdle, a firm core, and a balanced mind you will feel the magical lift of strength starting to take shape.

5 Yoga Poses to Build Strength

 

The Future of Yoga: 3 Things Modern Postural Yoga Could Do Better


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/the-future-of-yoga-3-things-modern-yoga-could-do-better

The Future of Yoga: 3 Things Modern Postural Yoga Could Do Better

Yoga and Pilates teacher Trina Altman shares why she practices and teaches a lot more than basic asana. Here, three big ways she’d love to see asana practice advance in the near future.
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I took my first yoga class in college and became a teacher in my late 30s. I was drawn to it, because it reduced my stress, felt amazing, and allowed me to create novel shapes that were so similar to what I’d done in gymnastics as a kid with an added bonus of mindful awareness.

Then a year into teaching, I started having pain from my right ear, down my arm, all the way into my fingertips. I was informed by my physical therapist that I had multidirectional instability (aka “pitcher’s shoulder) in not one but both shoulders—and I’d never played baseball. The MRI revealed a frayed supraspinatus tendon in my right shoulder.

See also A Yogi’s Guide to the Shoulder Girdle + Its Actions

I discovered much of what I was doing in yoga was contributing to my injuries. It seemed that all of the Up DogDown DogChaturanga flows layered on top of years of tumbling, cheerleading, and gymnastics had finally caught up with me. This isn’t to say that yoga is bad. However, it made me realize that as a form of movement, it had some blind spots. Since then, I’ve learned to fill in some of these gaps by incorporating strength- and stability-based corrective exercises into my yoga practice and classes, as well as cross-training at the gym and Pilates studio.

As human movement research advances, I think it’s important that yoga applies this modern science to make the practice work for modern bodies and doesn’t get stuck in its “box-asana.”

Yoga is meant to be healing. Here are three ways that you can balance out your asana practice and make it more sustainable, so you aren’t sidelined by pain and injury like I was.

See also The Future of Yoga: Senior Teachers Weigh in on What’s Next

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Paul Miller

1. Yoga could start incorporating more upper body–pulling movements.

Nutrition 101 teaches you that if you only eat one kind of food, you’ll get sick. Kale is really good for you, but if you only eat kale, you’ll die. The same goes for movement.

As adults, most of our daily tasks involve pushing motions (think strollers, shopping carts, lawn mowers). The same is true in modern postural yoga asana. For example, you are often pushing the ground away in many poses like Plank, Downward-Facing Dog and Crow. However, there are few opportunities to pull against load or your own body weight, unless you’re pulling yourself deeper into a stretch, which feels nice, but won’t build functional strength.

When you only practice pushing movements with the upper body, then you end up strong in one direction and conversely weak in the other. As a result, this kind of overuse can lead to muscular imbalance, tension, and pain. It can also increase your risk of injury, since you’re most likely to get injured in the ranges of motions where you’re weakest.

You can add more pulling motions to your movement diet by cross-training with weights or equipment Pilates. Both modalities incorporate pulling exercises like rows using external resistance. If going to the gym isn’t your cup of tea or you don’t have access to Pilates equipment, you can still include dynamic pulling movements into your yoga practice or classes using a yoga blanket. There are several ways to do this, but Dandasana Slides are a great example.

Watch the video: Dandasana Slides

See also Why More Western Doctors Are Now Prescribing Yoga Therapy

Wide-Angle Seated Forward Bend

2. Yoga could start including more hip strength and stability work to balance out all the hip opening.

As Mark Singleton laid out in his book Yoga Body: The Origins of Modern Posture Practice, modern postural yoga was heavily influenced by gymnastics and wrestling and designed to be performed by young Indian boys to grab the attention of an audience that might not be interested in yoga. (It was essentially a marketing strategy.) As a result, most yoga poses emphasize hip opening, not strength or stability, to achieve the big, crowd-pleasing shapes.

Most of the people taking yoga classes today are stiff men who sit at desks all day and women who have a lot of natural flexibility. While it’s not bad to open your hips, these populations are not always best served by extensive hip opening, at least in the beginning. A wiser approach would be to build hip stability first for control of your range of motion as you increase mobility.

Passive range of motion is awesome if you want to be an Instagram star, but it’s not so helpful if you want to be able to do functional, daily tasks. When you have a lot of flexibility without the control to back it up, you’re more likely to get injured and experience pain, such as sacroiliac (SI) or pelvic floor dysfunction. Your muscles simply aren’t strong enough to maintain the integrity of your joints during movement.

Functional range of motion is important in hip adductors, flexors, extensors (hamstrings), abductors, and internal and external rotators. But the adductors, or inner thighs, are a particularly common weak link in the hip joint. In yoga, you often stretch the inner thighs in poses like Upavistha Konasana, Samakonasana, and Baddha Konasana, but have few opportunities to strengthen them.

Sliding Side Splits are a wonderful way to strengthen your inner thighs. You could do a version of this using the Pilates reformer or the adductor machine at the gym. At home or in a yoga studio, you can use a blanket.

Watch the video: Sliding Side Splits

Finally, it’s also worth noting that oftentimes when something feels tight or stiff, it’s actually weak. If you’ve been stretching your hips for the last decade and they still feel tight, that could be a sign that you could benefit from strengthening them. You might even find that the sensations of stiffness and tightness go away, when your muscles are strong enough to support your joints.

See also Build Supple Strength in the Pelvic Floor

Supta Padangusthasana Reclining Hand-to-Big-Toe Pose

3. Yoga could start focusing on strength at end range of motion to reduce the risk of injury from passive stretching.

It’s a little-known fact that injuries often occur at end range of motion. This is why you’ll hear horror stories about someone tearing their hamstring in a yoga class. It’s so common that it actually has a name—yoga butt.

In yoga, you repetitively move through end ranges of motion during vinyasas or seek it in static poses such as King Pigeon, Wheel, and Hanumanasana. As mentioned above, without the strength to control your ranges of motion, you compromise the structural integrity of your joints.

While it’s not bad to practice asana in end range of motion, if you intend to do it, it’s smart to be strong in those ranges. An example of this is Supta Padangusthasana B. When you practice this pose with a strap, you are exploring your passive end range of motion. When you remove the strap and perform the same action, you’ll discover your active range of motion.

The difference between your passive range of motion and your active range of motion can show you the importance of finding strength and control in ranges of motion that you can actually use. Those last couple inches, where you’re most passive, demonstrate the range where you have the least amount of muscular support or control and are most likely to get injured.

If yoga asana is your primary form of movement, this is another example of where it can be beneficial to add in some strength training like apparatus-based Pilates, weight lifting, or TRX. When you’re lifting a weight or using external resistance, you are limited by your strength capacity, because you can only go as far as you can move the weight. In yoga, it’s easier to go beyond a range of motion that you can control, because gravity is often helping you move into a deeper range.

I share all of this not to demonize yoga. I love yoga for staying centered and grounded. However, integrating some of the concepts from other forms of movement into yoga can help practitioners get all the benefits of asana in a more sustainable way.

See also Elemental Yoga: An Earthy Sequence to Ground Vata

About Our Expert
Trina Altman, B.S., E-RYT 500, YACEP, PMA®-CPT, STOTT PILATES® certified instructor, is the creator of Yoga Deconstructed® and Pilates Deconstructed®, which both take an interdisciplinary approach to foster an embodied understanding of yoga and Pilates and their relationship to modern movement science. She leads teacher trainings in Yoga Tune Up® and the Roll Model® Method locally and internationally. While at Brown University, Trina took a Kripalu yoga class which ignited her passion for the practice. Emphasizing the importance of inner focus, she teaches anatomy for yoga teacher trainings across the country. She has presented at Kripalu, PURE YOGA® NYC, Yogaworks, Cal-a-Vie Spa, SYTAR, the Yoga Alliance Leadership Conference, ECA, UCLA and multiple yoga conferences. Her teaching fosters body cognition and self-discovery, firmly grounded in anatomical awareness. Trina works out of Los Angeles at Equinox and The Moving Joint. You can find her online classes and courses at www.trinaaltman.com

 

How 30 Days of Barre Transformed My Yoga Practice (Plus, 5 Moves Every Yogi Should Try)


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/how-30-days-of-barre-transformed-my-yoga-practice

How 30 Days of Barre Transformed My Yoga Practice (Plus, 5 Moves Every Yogi Should Try)

Fueled by visions of a strong and sculpted ballerina body, our writer signed up for 30 days of barre classes at The Bar Method in NYC. Here’s what she learned about her yoga practice, plus 5 barre moves every yogi should try.
A model performs exercises at The Bar Method.

A model performs exercises at The Bar Method.

As a yoga teacher, I’m expected to be energetic and motivated—all of the time. However, even the most dedicated yogi’s routine can become, well, routine. With little time for my own practice outside of teaching, I was feeling stuck, drained, and yes, bored. Fueled by visions of a strong and sculpted ballerina body, I decided it was time to belly up the bar(re) for a different type of happy hour: 30 days of classes at The Bar Method in Soho, NYC.

See also 6 Yoga-Inspired Barre3 Poses to Try

How Bar Method Works

According to Amy Duffey, the Soho studio owner who has been with Bar Method since its California beginnings over 16 years ago, students notice significant changes in muscle tone in less than 10 classes, specifically in common trouble spots like arms and abs. To achieve these goals, classes are taught in intervals that target and isolate small muscle groups. Each sequence utilizes precise movements with a small range of motion in order to “turn on and fire up" muscles. Classes are formatted with a cardio warm-up, shoulder/arm work with 2-5 lb. weights, tricep dips, Planks, exercises to target thighs and and sculpt a “dancer’s dent" (the defined indentation where the thighs meet the backside), ab exercises done on mats, and finally, “back dancing" to define quads and glutes. Active, rather than passive, stretches are done in between sets, allowing you to safely remain working within small muscle groups, which shapes, tones, strengthens, and elongates the body, creating a long, lean, supple silhouette. Think: flat abs, sculpted arms, lifted seat, improved posture, more flexibility, and increased body awareness. “You feel better at the end of the class, rather than decimated such as [after] other workouts," Duffey says.

See also 4 Yoga Warm-Ups for Barre Class

According to Duffey, attending at least 3-5 Bar Method classes per week creates the most effective (and quickest) results. Ever the overachiever, I committed to taking an hour-long class daily, even though this often meant a packed schedule between teaching and taking my mentor’s yoga class three days per week. But all my hard work was more than worth it. Here are 5 ways my 30-day Bar Method experience changed and complemented my yoga practice, and how you can use barre to enhance your practice, too.

5 Ways The Bar Method Transformed My Yoga Practice

1. I learned to be more patient.

Patience is key when learning anything new, including workouts. During the first few classes, I found myself becoming frustrated as I watched other students go through the movements quickly and with ease, while I was struggling to keep up with the movements and pace. However, after about three classes, the format and moves became more familiar; as I grew more relaxed, comfortable, and patient, I was able to learn the details of the movements, and each workout became more effective.

The lesson: Learning to practice patience is helpful on (and off) the mat, especially when you find yourself challenged by a pose, situation, or circumstance.

2. I realized that less can be more.

In yoga, we are accustomed to creating and taking up as much openness and space as possible. Barre, however, is quite the opposite. In fact, the less space the better, especially when it comes to small, isolated actions. The smaller the movement, the harder the muscles have to work, to the point of fatigue.

The lesson: This idea lends itself to yoga practice: Often, the second we start to overthink or try to do more, we find ourselves falling out of an asana or losing our alignment.

3. I became more present.

After many years of yoga, muscle memory makes it easy to flow through certain poses on autopilot. Barre classes forced me to think about each action, its alignment, and the specific details of each movement in a different way than I was accustomed. Focusing on isolated muscles made me aware of one group I clearly hadn’t been paying enough attention to (hello, glutes!). For one full hour, I had to concentrate on on the movements of my own body and be present in what was happening in the now.

The lesson: While teaching, I am fully focused on each student and what they are experiencing in the moment. Barre classes helped me realize I need to incorporate this same concentrated pattern of presence in my own yoga practice, rather than automatically flowing through poses.

4. I appreciated the gift of change.

Humans are meant for new experiences. Even the smallest or most simple change can and typically does yield big results. By learning new movements and varying my workouts, I noticed a dramatic physical change—despite years of yoga—in my abs/core, glutes, and arms. Aside from the physical, the classes helped shift my thinking, boosted my creativity in sequencing, and reminded me of my interest in deepening my anatomy studies.

The lesson: Variety is the spice of life!

5. I listened to my body.

While I often tell my students to listen to their bodies, when it comes to myself, I tend to ignore my own advice. I power through advanced classes, all types of workouts, and, as an empath, take on the energy and emotions of others while not prioritizing my own self-care. Committing to a schedule that meant taking a daily barre class, in addition to teaching and taking advanced yoga classes, left me physically and emotionally exhausted. In the final week of my self-imposed challenge, I did something unheard of for my dedicated, perfectionist nature and cancelled a barre class. It was the day after Valentine’s Day and after a late night out with a new-ish flame, I actually listened to my body and its inability to attend class. Even now, it’s hard for me admit that I “failed" the challenge. Instead of 30 straight days, it ended up as only 29 days. However, learning to accept my own limitations and prioritize my wellness was an important lesson.

The lesson: The same applies to the yoga mat. Your body will tell you when a sensation is simply discomfort that you can push past, or an injurious pain or pose that is too much for your body at that time. It’s your job to listen to what your body is telling you and respect its wishes. Equally important, forgive yourself and reframe the negative as positive. For me, this was not beating myself up for the one missed class, but thanking my body for being healthy and strong enough to have accomplished 29 classes.

5 Barre Moves Every Yogi Should Try

About Our Writer

Crystal Fenton is a yoga teacher and freelance writer. She is passionate about yoga and sharing the practice with others, as well as a lover of the outdoors, ocean, coastal destinations, and dogs.

 

Live Be Yoga: 6 Ways That Yoga Creates Community (& Change) in Washington, D.C.


https://www.yogajournal.com/livebeyoga/live-be-yoga-6-ways-that-yoga-creating-community-in-washington-dc

Live Be Yoga: 6 Ways That Yoga Creates Community (& Change) in Washington, D.C.

The nation’s capital sets the bar high as an example of how individual yoga practices are ultimately impacting the the world.

Live Be Yoga ambassadors Jeremy Falk and Aris Seaberg are on a road trip across the country to share real talk with master teachers, explore innovative classes, and more—all to illuminate what’s in store for the future of yoga. Here, they reflect on their visit to Washington, D.C.

 

15 Beach Yoga Retreats in Paradise


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/15-beach-yoga-retreats-in-paradise

15 Beach Yoga Retreats in Paradise

Need a little change of scenery? These 15 beach yoga retreats offer sunrise vinyasas, wave-assisted meditation, and days spent hiking, swimming, and surfing (or simply lazing in the sun).
13.-Paradise-Immersion-in-Tanzania

From the lulling sound of the waves to the soothing blue of the ocean to healing salt, the beach does more than just provide a pretty backdrop; it also makes you feel better from the inside out. These 15 splurge-worthy coastal retreats offer sunrise vinyasas, wave-assisted meditation, and days spent hiking, swimming, and surfing (or simply lazing in the sun).

See also 13 Yoga Retreats You Can Actually Afford

 

Hide House Extension in Melbourne by Mani Architecture


https://www.caandesign.com/hide-house-extension-in-melbourne-by-mani-architecture/

Hide House Extension in Melbourne by Mani Architecture

Architects: Mani Architecture
Location: MelbourneAustralia
Year: 2016
Photo courtesy: Tatjana Plitt

Thank you for reading this article!

 

《 Bob James Trio – Tenderly (06:30) 》


《 Bob James Trio – Tenderly (06:30) 》

【聽那些女孩唱歌】幻化千百種姿態的流行搖滾女王──史蒂薇.妮克絲(Stevie Nicks)


當時的搖滾樂壇,依然是男性的天下,尤其在充滿陽剛氣息的樂團圈,願意起用女主唱創造出獨特風格、同時不避諱展現女性特質、引領男性團員的樂團、除了佛利伍麥克可說是無能人出其右⋯⋯
#Nicks #搖滾 #女主唱
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6986

【聽那些女孩唱歌】幻化千百種姿態的流行搖滾女王──史蒂薇.妮克絲(Stevie Nicks)

友善列印版本

20世紀後半至今,搖滾樂歷經超過一甲子的發展,演變出許多繁花齊放的風格、技巧與流派;有些樂團或藝人固守類似的樂風,有些則是在不斷求新求變的過程仍烙印著強大的個人風格;而佛利伍麥克(Fleetwood Mac)卻是一個極為獨特的樂團,自從 1967 年倫敦成軍至今,佛利伍麥克來來去去的團員共有近 20 名,包括多次更換主唱與吉他手,成員更跨越英籍和美籍,被喻為「史上最多變」的他們,不僅是在樂風上順應潮流的各種轉換挪移,包括成員也不斷更迭,因此使得他們創作的歌曲有著截然不同的面貌,不同階段的作品聽起來幾乎很難想像是同樣一個樂團之作,卻又都能保持相當高的水準並引領風潮,也因此擁有獨一無二的地位,在主流樂壇中始終佔有一席之地;追求商業化、希望受大眾歡迎的心理,並未腐蝕佛利伍麥克的創作熱忱與才華,眾多作品均叫好又叫座。

Fleetwood Mac — “Say You Love Me"

而在佛利伍麥克的千百種姿態中,史蒂薇.妮克絲(本名:Stephanie Lynn “Stevie" Nicks,生於1948年5月26日)的加入,或許是最光彩奪目、燦爛耀眼的一個環節。佛利伍麥克在1960年代末成立初期,由創團吉他手Peter Green引領的硬式藍調風格起家,Peter Green和Jeremy Spencer以充滿迷幻性的憂鬱樂音主導了整體樂風;但他們兩人後來因精神疾病離團,留下來的鼓手Mick Fleetwood和貝斯手John McVie(這也是始終未曾離團的兩人)在1970年代轉往加州發展,他們邀請來曾入選滾石雜誌史上百大吉他手的Lindsey Buckingham和女主唱Stevie Nicks,由Buckingham身兼創作歌曲重責大任,以結合軟搖滾的流行風格,為佛利伍麥克創造出一種成熟而富有感情的音樂,展現商業魅力的同時卻又不缺乏音樂上的創新與刺激。被譽為可能是有史以來最美麗的Nicks有著沙啞高亢卻又宛轉自如的嗓音、性感的嬉皮舞臺形象,為佛利伍麥克帶來了難以抵擋的魅力。1975年年底發行的同名專輯,在多首單曲〈Over My Head〉、〈Rhiannon〉和〈Say You Love Me〉推波助瀾下,在1976年攻上冠軍寶座,接下來1977年,John McVie和另一團員Christine Perfect(婚後改名Christine McVie)離婚、Buckingham和Nicks之間的戀情也出現裂痕,充滿緊張關係的樂團內部,將此化為創作動力,創造出佛利伍麥克最著名的《Rumours》專輯,描述著流言人心的複雜與弔詭,銷量至今仍極為傲人,其中單曲〈Go Your Own Way〉更成為滾石史上五百大單曲第120名。《Rumours》在美國至今銷售超過1700萬張,成為歷史上排名第二賣得最多的樂隊專輯,所有專輯全球累計銷售更是破億。

1977年的妮克絲(圖片來源:維基共享資源)

Fleetwood Mac – Rhiannon (1975)

進入音樂市場極度成熟、流行音樂高度商業化的1980年代後,佛利伍麥克依然是個炙手可熱的樂團,十分流行,但當時Buckingham、 Nicks和Christine McVie都開始思尋單飛; 1987年出版《Tango in the Night》後,在排行榜上雖然成績不惡,但樂團也終於面臨分裂;Nicks和McVie 1990年代初離開樂隊也發行了另一張專輯《Nicks and McVie》,卻已風光不再。

1980年的妮克絲(By Ueli Frey, CC BY-SA 4.0)

Fleetwood Mac – Gold Dust Woman

“Rumours" (1977).

佛利伍麥克一路走來,是一條充滿團員之間理念分歧、個人婚姻與情感糾葛、思路與對未來看法的種種不同,極其複雜的道路,幾乎沒有其他樂團堪可比擬;然而,佛利伍麥克有幾個成就,卻也是其他樂團難以取代的。首先,從John McVie、Peter Green和Mick Fleetwood三人的組合開始,這隻受到Cream、Yardbirds等藍調搖滾團體啟發的樂團,便奠定了以精湛吉他技巧作為基礎的樂風,這使得佛利伍麥克儘管後來在Stevie Nicks和Lindsey Buckingham的引領之下往流行風潮靠攏,卻依然維持著堅實的音樂基礎,不致流於淺薄輕浮,加上出色的鼓手Mick Fleetwood和貝斯手John McVie,走出了一條流行搖滾的康莊大道。

Fleetwood Mac – Little Lies 1987

當時的搖滾樂壇,依然是男性的天下,尤其在充滿陽剛氣息的樂團圈,願意起用女主唱創造出獨特風格、同時不避諱展現女性特質、引領男性團員的樂團、除了佛利伍麥克可說是無能人出其右;同時,Stevie Nicks除了擁有獨特的聲音,以及神秘的視覺風格,更展現了優異的詞曲創作才華,她創作的歌曲多達50首左右,銷量根據統計超過1.4億張。她那強而有力卻又多變的聲音,時而沙啞、時而溫暖,時而滑順如絲緞,又在孩子氣中散發著性感,也讓佛利伍麥克的眾多歌曲鍍上了流暢,神秘的色彩和質感。

這一切都使得Stevie Nicks在搖滾樂史上擁有相當獨特的地位,並影響無數後世女歌手。Sheryl Crow說Nicks的聲音是「一種純粹的脆弱性與力量的完美結合」,Blondie的Debbie Harry則讚嘆Stevie Nicks以嬌小的身軀卻可以發生極為宏大、低沉的歌聲,「非常性感」。Hole女主唱Courtney Love也說,「她的嗓音很荒謬卻又如此美麗」,「她的聲音總能安撫我,給我繼續走下去的力量,讓我勇敢。」

Fleetwood Mac / Stevie Nicks – Landslide (original 1975)

以一百多年前英國真人真事改編的電影《女權之聲:無懼年代》(Suffragette)以及卡通南方公園(South Park)第15季、以成長為主題的第7集,不約而同採用了1975年《Fleetwood Mac》同名專輯中的 “LandSlide”一曲作為主題曲,《女權之聲:無懼年代》採用的是Robyn Sherwell 翻唱的版本。據說Stevie Nicks 當時 Lindsey Buckingham 吵了一架,因此他名字諧音Landslide為歌名,以這首歌表達她對兩人關係巨大改變的省思;也因此,這首對覺醒、成長、都有著巨大意義的歌曲,也標示出1970年代女性開始在搖滾樂壇上發聲的里程碑,為女性搖滾之路開啟了一扇窗。

Stevie Nicks – Rock A Little (1985)

 

《 Bob James Trio – Quite Now (05:46) 》


《 Bob James Trio – Quite Now (05:46) 》

【愛知目標】印尼、巴西森林保育兩樣情 專責管理、土地權保障成關鍵


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211986?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=226117826b-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-226117826b-84956681

【愛知目標】印尼、巴西森林保育兩樣情 專責管理、土地權保障成關鍵

2018年06月05日
作者:邱俞寧

全球暖化的現象日益嚴重,而森林作為地球的肺,是緩和溫室氣體排放的重要功臣。根據政府間氣候變遷專門委員會(IPCC)2014年的評估報告,在1750到2011年間約有三分之一的人為二氧化碳排放來自林業以及相關土地利用。巴西和印尼都擁有大片熱帶雨林,為了經濟發展與建設,砍伐熱帶雨林成了種植農作物維持生計的手段。

為了減緩日益消失的森林面積與氣體排放,聯合國「減少毀林及森林退化造成的溫室氣體排放計畫」(REDD)在2007年締約方大會第13屆會議(COP13)上正式通過。而在2010年提出的REDD+,則新增了永續森林管理與相關利益者參與的條件。

減少毀林及森林退化造成的溫室氣體排放

REDD+是一項激勵措施,旨在透過永續森林管理,來增加發展中國家森林的保護和碳儲存,並降低森林砍伐率,目標在於鼓勵政府、農企業與社區居民維護森林覆蓋率,解決氣候變遷問題。

包括澳洲、法國、日本、挪威、英國和美國都同意出資作為初期公共基金,協助REDD+保育系統的推動。挪威政府便設立了16億美元的「國際氣候與森林倡議」(NICFI),來資助雨林國家的熱帶森林保護計畫,對象包括印度尼西亞、巴西、賴比瑞亞、坦尚尼亞、剛果民主共和國等。由於其資金迄今已佔REDD+資金總額一半以上,挪威在REDD+資金體系中扮演了了重要的角色。

印尼(左)與挪威代表2016年於雅加達簽署REDD+合作計畫。圖片來源:Indonesia and Norway Collaboration for Peatland Protection and Restoration, 2016

然而,同樣接受REDD+的資金來保護國內雨林,印尼和巴西兩國在執行成效上,卻呈現出極大的差異性。

印尼:森林管理權屬紊亂、經濟發展造成砍林

印尼自2011年與挪威簽訂協議之後,政府開始監測森林利用與管理,不過結果卻是失敗的,這可歸因於許多因素,其中關鍵之一是,自1999年印尼政府系統進行權力分化後,中央與各省政府間管轄區域的差異和重疊,導致混亂的跨部門責任歸屬。

舉例來說,在加里曼丹島馬瓦斯猩猩棲息地保護的案例中,環保機構建議將該地區從生產林重新分別歸類為保護區和保育林。但是,保護區和保育林的管轄權卻分別由省級政府和國家保護區管理機構來管理。這造成了誰才擁有權限規劃林地,該如何劃分林區邊界,下層單位又該遵從何者規範的問題。

保育團體野放被救援的紅毛猩猩。圖片來源:Mills, 2016

除了跨部門整合的問題,印尼政府對森林管理的政策也是阻礙REDD+的原因。根據調查,印尼有55%遭砍伐的森林是在許可地內,因此許多大規模的砍伐行為並未違法,這與印尼政府積極出口棕櫚油、布料,以及採礦與木材利用的政策有極大的關聯。這些砍伐許可地大部分位於印尼的加里曼丹和巴布亞省,若要有效執行REDD+計畫,印尼政府對經濟導向的政策必須做出改變。

此外,大面積的熱帶雨林與當地生活密不可分。若要解決環境問題,也必須同時考量到對當地居民的影響與利益關係。

由於混亂的土地所有權制度和殖民歷史,印尼複雜的土地所有權分配阻礙了REDD+計畫的執行。政府機構指定為森林保育的區域,很多實際上是百姓的家園、田、農場或牧場。禁止人民的土地使用權不但造成社會公平的爭議,當所有權劃分不明時,社區居民也容易被排除於REDD+所產生的附加價值之外,造成居民對政策的不配合,並使計畫初期的推展更加困難。

巴西:毀林城市列黑名單、保障土地所有權

相較於印尼的管理層級混亂,巴西的森林砍伐資訊自1989年便由同一個監測機構——巴西環境與可再生自然資源研究所(IBAMA)管理,IBAMA的監測系統持續提供土地利用變化的即時資訊。因為擁有自1980年代以來,完整的森林數據,一旦發生問題時,能夠據以及時應變。

此外,巴西政府的「亞馬遜流域防止和控制森林砍伐行動計畫」(PPCDAm)成為減緩雨林開發的重要政策。該計畫於2004年開始實施,期間制定並擴大許多保護區,並在2007和2008年制定新政策,將具有嚴重毀林率的城市列入「聯邦黑名單」。

此種使地方縣市因森林砍伐蒙羞的政策發揮了強大的效果。媒體和非政府組織會對地方官員施壓,迫使地方政府正視毀林問題。此外,企業為了維護名聲,也可能傾向選擇不在黑名單地區進行商業活動;地方政府擔心失去商業機會,非法森林砍伐因此大幅減少。據統計,2008年以來,巴西的森林砍伐面積已從原本的1萬2000平方公里減少到每年僅5000平方公里。

除了將非法森林砍伐城市列入黑名單,巴西在保障土地所有權方面的政策,也是REDD+能夠推行成功的主因之一。

巴西政府的「合法土地計畫」(Legal Land Program)是一項重大的土地正規化計畫,承諾向3000名小型土地所有人授予公共土地,條件是所有者必須維持其土地35%到80%的原生植被覆蓋率。

另一方面,巴西也承認原住民土地所有權。研究指出,巴西近一半的森林保護區是在原住民的合法管轄範圍。原住民自治對土地利用的重視和嚴格的社會規範,除了提高社區凝聚力,也使伐林率降低。另外,包括利益相關方圓桌會議、零毀林協議和貿易禁運等措施,也發揮減緩森林砍伐的作用。

雖然巴西政府在過去10年對減少毀林成效卓著,但最近四年的森林砍伐率卻逐漸增加。由歷年森林砍伐的統計數據可知,自2004年有效執行森林管理政策後,森林破壞面積由2.7萬平方公里,大幅度下降到2012年的4,571平方公里,減少了約80%。然而在2016年間,有7,989平方公里的森林面積遭到砍伐,比前一年增加了29%。

巴西亞馬遜熱帶雨林歷年森林砍伐面積。圖表來源:Lewis, 2016

會有如此的反彈,可歸因於巴西動盪的政治事件與經濟導向的國家政策。由於執法趨於寬大,森林法規改革和土地投機活動導致非法採伐事件上升。例如擬議中的憲法修正案要求國會批准利用已劃定的原住民土地,以及在沒有充分評估環境影響的情況下便發放基礎設施建設的許可證等。此外,採礦業的發展、保護區數量減少以及缺乏財政資源等,都對森林監測和管理造成威脅。

台灣政府組改 如何保育森林?

從巴西與印尼成功和失敗的案例中,台灣可以從中借鏡。政府間明確的責任歸屬和統一且強力的執法,使巴西得到了合法土地和森林改革的好名聲。今年(2018)台灣行政院組織架構將進行重大調整,森林保育工作將細分歸屬於環境資源部(原環保署)、農業部(原農委會)以及內政部,使林地的治理更加複雜困難。未來國土保育方仍在各方討論下溝通協調,期望能清楚劃分權責,如此才能善盡國家公園與珍貴林地的保育使命。

台灣當前並無大規模毀林的問題,尚無需執行REDD+計畫。但是REDD+強調森林復育及森林永續經營的核心理念,是我國需要聚焦的發展項目。如何保育現有的原生林,預防森林火災與盜伐,並復育受人為干擾的林地,都是森林永續發展的重要項目。其中巴西的城市「毀林黑名單」可作為台灣各縣市森林保育的評估方式,促進政府對森林保育的動機。

此外,台灣的木材多仰賴國外進口,因此市面上可能有非法木材製成的產品。而許多大型國際企業雖承諾不向摧毀森林的棕櫚油供應商購買產品,但不透明的供應鏈使得資訊無法對外公開,且無相關法規可以約束。身為一般消費者,可以透過拒絕購買沒有合法認證的木材或相關商品,並促使公司遵守木材法規。執法人員更必須增進識別木材物種的能力,加強森林產品來源的可追溯性,才能有效防止非法木材的交易,避免成為破壞雨林的幫兇。

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參考資料

  • Britaldo, S-F, Paulo, M, Daniel, N, Anthony, A, Hermann, R, Ricardo, G, Laura, D, Frank, M, Maria, B, Letícia, H, Rafaella, S & Cláudio, M 2010, ‘Role of Brazilian Amazon protected areas in climate change mitigation’, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(24), pp. 10821-10826.
  • Cisneros, E., Zhou, S.L. and Börner, J., 2015. ‘Naming and shaming for conservation: evidence from the Brazilian Amazon’, PloS one, 10(9).
  • Indonesia and Norway Collaboration for Peatland Protection and Restoration 2016,Government.no, press release, 3 February 2016, viewed 20 May 2018, https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/indonesia/id2473627/
  • Lewis, C., 2016, Amazon Rainforest Loss at Highest Level Since 2008, Says Brazil, 2016, Buddhistdoor Global, viewed 20 May 2018, https://www.buddhistdoor.net/news/amazon-rainforest-loss-at-highest-level-since-2008-says-brazil
  • Mills, K.A., 2016. ‘Three orangutans are released into wild in amazing footage as species declared ‘critically endangered’’, Mirror, 7 July, assessed from: https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/world-news/three-orangutans-released-wild-amazing-8370829
  • Myers R, Sanders AJP, Larson AM, Prasti H RD and Ravikumar A. 2016. Analyzing multilevel governance in Indonesia: Lessons for REDD+ from the study of land-use change in Central and West Kalimantan. Working Paper 202. Bogor, Indonesia: CIFOR.
  • Richards, P., Arima, E., VanWey, L., Cohn, A. and Bhattarai, N., 2017. Are Brazil’s deforesters avoiding detection?. Conservation letters, 10(4), pp.470-476.
  • Smith P., M. Bustamante, H. Ahammad, H. Clark, H. Dong, E.A. Elsiddig, H. Haberl, R. Harper, J. House, M. Jafari, O. Masera, C. Mbow, N.H. Ravindranath, C.W. Rice, C. Robledo Abad, A. Romanovskaya, F. Sperling, and F. Tubiello, 2014: Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Edenhofer, O., R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel and J.C. Minx (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  • Wijaya, A., Juliane, R., Firmansyah, R., Samadhi, T.N. and Hamzah, H., 2017, Drivers of Deforestation in Indonesia, Inside and Outside Concessions Areas, viewed 23 May 2018, https://blog.globalforestwatch.org/data/drivers-of-deforestation-in-indonesia-inside-and-outside-concessions-areas.html

※ 本文與 行政院農業委員會 林務局  合作刊登

 

《 Bob James Trio – Ambrosia (06:29) 》


《 Bob James Trio – Ambrosia (06:29) 》

新南向輸出空污治理經驗 台美合辦研討會 促東南亞區域交流


http://e-info.org.tw/node/212001?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=226117826b-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-226117826b-84956681

新南向輸出空污治理經驗 台美合辦研討會 促東南亞區域交流

2018年06月04日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導

新南向不要再輸出污染產業,而是輸出國內環保人才、綠色產業。台灣與美國環保署合辦「空氣品質管制策略交流研討會」,4日展開為期三天的交流,包括亞太地區日本、尼泊爾、印尼、印度、馬來西亞、泰國、越南、菲律賓、蒙古等政府官員及專家學者來台。

DSC04835
2018空氣品質管制策略交流研討會。賴品瑀攝。

會議主要聚焦在東南亞國家目前最有興趣的空污改善經費來源、露天燃燒、餐飲業油煙管制、國內工廠、機車定檢等,除了研討會,地主國台灣也將向友邦展示目前台灣有的電動機車、電動拖板車、空污防制等設備。

台美國際環境伙伴計畫(IEP)中,有空氣品質管理專案,環保署長李應元指出,在南亞與東南亞區域空氣改善計畫中,發現多數東南亞國家,尤其是處於經濟發展早中期階段的,在空污管制工作上,目前最需要的是,精進空品法規及標準、交通工具排放管制、與發展環境監測和數據管理三大主軸。

在4日下午的議程,安排了各國代表報告各自目前的空氣品質,與管制現況及面臨的挑戰。例如印尼便指出,目前都市仍在擴張,污染也隨都市化、經濟成長等比增加。印尼雅加達特別首都地域副省長 Oswar Muadzin Mungkasa指出,目前印尼有10個都會區,對他們而言,聽到台灣的環保署分享臺灣空污費如何徵收與運用,桃、高兩市環保局在地方如何運用空污費與空品改善成果,就感到很興奮,這就是他們正想要學習與達到的,對他們而言,台北目前的空氣比雅加達好得多。

馬來西亞則是空品一般屬於良好等級,但每年6月至9月乾熱的季節面臨來自印尼火耕造成跨國霾害;而自身產生的空污則有大量汽機車造成的排放,目前面臨了執法人手不足、法規落實問題,尤其沒有專門治理空污的經費。

不過,李應元表示,IEP主要是經驗分享、互相交流,但不強制區域內的國家參加,也不會簽訂任何協議。雖然是台灣空污的重大污染來源,但中國並沒有受邀參與IEP,所以也沒有參與此研討會,但李應元強調,兩岸目前是以學術交流的方式合作,例如共同採樣、監測,分析空污來源。

「他們有自己的辦法」李應元指出,中國狀況特殊,面對特別嚴重的空污問題,也已經採取如外科手術型的激烈手段,例如部分城市限制私家車單雙號限行、全面採用電動機車、特定會議期間全省工廠停工等,作法較為強制。

李應元表示,未來環保署打算進一步推動新南向空品管理合作平台,除了分享經驗,也輸出國內環保人才、綠色產業,創造區域之間的互利共贏。

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作者

賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 Bob James Trio – My Love (05:15) 》


《 Bob James Trio – My Love (05:15) 》

【你來報報】仿日「博物館明治村」 網友提案台灣歷史建物保留區


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211943?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=226117826b-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-226117826b-84956681

【你來報報】仿日「博物館明治村」 網友提案台灣歷史建物保留區

2018年06月05日

上稿編輯: 吳宗霈

文:凌宗魁(建築史與文化資產工作者)、吳宗霈

台北中山捷運站附近一棟昭和八年(1933年)落成的古宅「紅葉園」,保存之路頗為坎坷。

去年夏天,文資團體在紅葉園被都更前發現提報文化資產,文資審議會議遭否決。輿論持續支持保存,經台北市都發局從中協調,地主和開發商願出資千萬協助搬遷古宅至康樂公園保存。卻又遭當地里長反對,目前建築已拆解完畢,但最後落腳之處仍然不明。

文資團體擔心重演明治橋拆解16年後至今未重組憾事。更有感近年文資保存爭議屢戰屢敗,一棟棟珍貴文化資產接連消失,因此在「公共政策網路參與平台」發起提案「成立台灣歷史建物保留區,收容因故無法原地保存的歷史建物」,已完成附議階段,希望能打造類似日本「博物館明治村」的場所,保留台灣建築歷史。

名古屋市近郊的明治村收藏日本各地明治時代的老建築,現為名古屋熱門景點。圖片擷取自博物館明治村官網

建築史與文化資產工作者凌宗魁,是本次提案的倡議者之一。他在臉書社團「台灣日式宿舍群 近來可好」號召關心文化資產、愛物惜物的民眾附議此提案,以下為其倡議理念說明:

長久以來持續推廣場所位址也是建築類文化資產的價值內涵。建築立於大地,本質就應是不同於可任意攜帶搬遷的藝術品,從三井斷頭倉庫到新北投樣品車站都是因各種不周全的考量而不能留在原地,被迫移位帶有遺憾的「保存」。

然而這幾年來的文資爭議案例,也可以清楚看到無論公私有產權,土地所有權人與認同文化資產價值者因價值差異,形成衝突無處不在的緊張關係。台灣社會普遍慣於在面對文資議題時將私有產權無限上綱,屢屢搬出憲法保障與文資法抗衡,在社會觀念到達平衡狀態前,或許移置是避免實體快速消逝殆盡,不得不為的折衷辦法。

我完全能理解如果有朋友顧慮若訴求遷移,可能導致更多建築流離失所遠離家園,但畢竟如同在任期內搬遷最多文資的市長所言:「我們人活在世界上,每天都在做交換。什麼是你不願意拿出去做交換的?那個叫核心價值。」為了為未來保留更多乘載銘刻歷史的核心價值,在現況難以於短時間內逆轉的大環境下,這個提案是給這些明顯具有保存價值老房子多一個活下來的機會,拆除或者遷移,或許也可比擬為死刑與有期徒刑的差異。

當然移置還有高額的搬遷費用及用地取得等挑戰,但比起牴觸原本土地的開發利益已更具可行性,而台灣民俗村的經驗也讓我們看到若要長期經營只能仰賴公部門政策支持與經費挹注。另外一層積極的意義,則是在卸除重組工程中累積修復古建築的材料運用及工法經驗。

日本的博物館明治村除了建築硬體的觀光價值,近年甚至在裡面發展出越來越多文化活動充實軟體,我不知道台灣能做到什麼程度,但畢竟總是希望能建築實體空間能夠留存,發揮比起只是保存在紙上更為廣泛的文化影響力。若能理解煩請協助分享,為台灣留下更多反省的機會與憑藉。

下列皆為躲過二戰戰火,戰後才被改建的建築。點擊圖片來源的連結,可至凌宗魁先生的臉書看到每棟建築完整的故事。

上:國語學校附屬小學校,下:台北市立大學附設實驗國民小學。圖片來源:凌宗魁臉書

左:台北憲兵隊基隆分遣所,右:基隆憲兵隊。圖片來源:凌宗魁臉書

上:淡水郵便局,下:中華電信淡水服務中心。圖片來源:凌宗魁臉書

上:台南配電所,下:台電台南區營業處。圖片來源:凌宗魁臉書

上:台中教化會館,下:台中教化會館舊址現貌。圖片來源:凌宗魁臉書

上:彰化郵便局,下:中華電信彰化服務中心。圖片來源:凌宗魁臉書

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參考資料

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《 Bob James Trio – Explosions (34:44) 》


《 Bob James Trio – Explosions (34:44) 》

311後,日本人口減少速度增為2.5倍


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211999?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=226117826b-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-226117826b-84956681

311後,日本人口減少速度增為2.5倍

2018年06月05日
文:矢崎克馬;翻譯、整理:宋瑞文;翻譯、審稿:上前万由子
2011年5月20日,矢崎克馬於眾議院科學技術特別委員會。(出處12
前言:矢崎克馬為日本物理學者,曾任日本學術會議物理學研究委員、琉球大學理學部長等職位,現為琉球大學名譽教授;曾至國會擔任專家證人,解說游離輻射的健康影響。以下是他對福島核災、游離輻射危害,與政府責任等的看法。

讓我們試著察看總務省的人口動態調查。

image003
圖一:日本人口的增減數跟增減率的演變。

人口增減率,雖然變動有些散亂,但基本上是直線減少的,到2009年由正轉負。轉負之後拉出來的直線是我們假定的。大體來說,人口數,在2009年到達頂點,呈現出拋物線般的變化。而人口增減率的直線變化,則表示我們預期,因少子高齡化所帶來的人口減少。

圖二:是以月份表示的人口動態。

這張圖是前述拋物線頂點附近的細微變化,大局來看,雖然是拋物線,但細看的話是連續的直線變化。我們把2010年後的假定直線,用串聯點點的紅線來表示,它的斜率表示少子高齡化導致的人口減少(實際上到2011年12月都是直線)。照這條假定直線,人口一年會減少比10萬略低的數量。

實際的人口變化是,在311時,人口在大幅減少後又增加,然後,到2011年12月之前的假定直線(以串聯點點的紅色表示),到了2012年1月時,總人口數又突然減少,且減少的速度增加,變成高減少率(斜度變大)的直線,呈現出「遽減模式」。

圖七:高污染縣(茨城県、福島県、宮城県、岩手県)死產率經年變化。

「遽減模式」的斜率,比先前用紅色表示的假定直線,大上2.7倍,人口數在2012年後,一年減少25萬。我們推測,跟之前相比,落差的15萬人,是因為游離輻射而殞命的。這和自然死產在9個月後急增的狀況很像,我們用圖七來表示後者。

圖3同樣是出自厚生勞動省統計情報部的資料,死亡者、死亡率的年表。
圖三:同樣是出自厚生勞動省統計情報部的資料,死亡者、死亡率的年表。

再看圖三,64歲以下的死亡率有減少的傾向,在2010年附近減少率變高了。在65歲到74歲的死亡率則不增不減地幾乎沒什麼變化。然而75歲以上的老人,其死亡率一直在增加。

​把2009年之前的變化,用假定的(編按:比較細的)黑線來表示。2011年(平成23年)的死亡增加數橫跨所有年齡層,表示是來自海嘯等等的傷害。

像大家在圖二裡看到的那樣,2011年12月之前的演變,和假定曲線是一樣的;而在圖三裡,2011年度裡超過假定曲線的死亡數,幾乎都可以視為震災和海嘯的影響。

繼續看圖三,災後,2012年到2014年之間,超過預期的死亡數(以紅色表示),如同圖三遽減模式所示,這部分的死亡人數增加,可判斷為游離輻射所致。

圖二的遽減模式表示,一年少掉15萬左右的人口,而這15萬又分別代表,一年少出生1萬5000左右的人口,和一年多增加13萬多的死亡人數(約佔1/1000人口);對照圖二、圖三,兩圖在數值上是一致的,因此我們可以判斷(編按:看圖三的年齡層分佈),游離輻射主要是影響到75歲以上的老人,且人數達13萬多。

根據車諾比經驗,災後的五年後,癌症等疾病會開始增加。

日本社會應該好好地接受從人口與死亡統計裡顯示的事實,應該從預防醫學的角度保護居民。

像這樣發生在日本社會的大事與劇變,卻被行政系統和媒體徹底地忽略。

公家機關對此什麼也不考察的態度,我認為它象徵著,那個讓人感到「究竟日本發生了什麼事情呢?」的日本社會,之所以毛骨悚然的地方。

在政府「多死社會」的宣傳中,把人口減少的現狀,全部歸因於自然老化,無視游離輻射的影響。因為這樣虛偽的宣傳,整個日本社會都被愚弄。

這樣的現象,從守護居民性命的角度去看,和從捨棄生存權的角度去看,結論是對立的。

所謂立憲民主主義是指,政治與行政要以人民的需要為原則。我認為,日本政府應該馬上根據正確的事實,按照立憲主義的原則,採取相應的對策。

※ 本文為矢崎克馬文章〈在日本進行中的異常人口減少——許多老人因為游離輻射失去生命〉之第二章節。為方便讀者閱讀,將各章節獨立成篇,從文中摘句,另訂標題。

※ 本文轉載自媽媽監督核電廠聯盟

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作者

宋瑞文

專欄寫手/演講講師,範圍包括福島核災、同志、日本節能等題目。經營日本歌手中島美雪介紹會。男同性戀,小王。

 

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