What You Need to Know About Fascia


https://www.yogajournal.com/teach/what-you-need-to-know-about-fascia

What You Need to Know About Fascia

Deepening your anatomical perspective refines your kinesthetic sense by helping you feel into your entire body—which is greater than the sum of its anatomical parts. The connective-tissue net, known popularly as fascia, weaves those parts into one integrated whole.
anatomy-fascia

If I asked you what a heart is like, chances are you’d say it’s like a pump. The lungs are often described as “bellows,” the kidneys “a filter,” the brain “a computer.” We tend to view the body in mechanical terms because we live in an industrial age—and because the body has been described as a “soft machine” ever since the scientist René Descartes coined the term in the early 17th century.

So it comes as no surprise that most anatomy books show you body parts—this muscle, that ligament—as if we’re assembled part by part like a car or an iPhone. But instead of timing belts and motherboards, we have hamstrings and biceps. An anatomy atlas is a helpful tool for learning, but the error comes when we start thinking that humans are actually built that way. What is actually going on under your skin is so different from what’s in those pictures.

Your body is much more like a plant than a machine. We are grown from a tiny seed—a single cell, or fertilized ovum, about the size of a pin prick—not glued together in parts. This seed contains sufficient instructions (given the proper nourishment) to create a helpless, squalling baby, who turns into an energetic toddler, a feckless teenager, and then finally a mature adult.

By the time we’re adults, we consist of approximately 70 trillion cells, all surrounded by a fluid fascial network—a kind of sticky yet greasy fabric that both holds us firmly together, yet constantly and miraculously adjusts to accommodate our every movement.

The traditional biomechanical theory of the musculoskeletal system says that muscles attach to bones via tendons that cross the joints and pull bones toward each other, restricted by other “machine parts” called ligaments. But all these anatomical terms, and the separations they imply, are false. No ligaments exist on their own; instead they blend into the periosteum—vascular connective tissue that serves as cling-wrap around the bones—and the surrounding muscles and fascial sheets. What this means is that you weren’t assembled in different places and glued together—rather, all your parts grew up together within the glue.

For example, the triceps are wedded by fascial fabric to their neighboring muscles north, south, east, and west, as well as to the ligaments deep in both the shoulder and elbow. If you contract the triceps in Plank Pose, all these other structures will have an effect and be affected. Your whole body engages in the action—not just your triceps, pectoral, and abdominal muscles.

The takeaway for yoga? When you do poses, it is useful to put your attention anywhere and everywhere in your body—not just the obviously stretched and singing bits. A release in your foot can help your hip; a change of your hand position can ease your neck.

See also Fascia: The Flexibility Factor You’re Probably Missing on the Mat

Fascial Function

The fluid fascial network that lives between each cell in your body consists of bungee cord–like fibers made mostly from collagen, including reticulin, and elastin. These fibers run everywhere—denser in certain areas such as tendons and cartilage, and looser in others like breasts or the pancreas.

The other half of the fascial network is a gel-like web of variable mucopolysaccharides, or mucus. Basically, your cells are glued together with snot, which is everywhere, and is more or less watery (hydrated) depending on where it is in the body and what condition it’s in.

All the circulation in your body has to pass through these fibrous and mucousy webs. Generally speaking, the denser the fibers and the drier the mucous, the less the fascial web allows molecules to flow through it—nourishment in one direction and waste in the other. Yoga helps both stretch and ease the fiber webbing, as well as hydrate the gel, making it more permeable.

New research shows that this web of proteins runs down through the membranes of each cell and connects both aspects of the connective-tissue web through the cytoskeleton to the cell nucleus. This means that when you’re doing yoga stretches, you are actually pulling on your cells’ DNA and changing how it expresses itself. Thus, the mechanical environment around your cells can alter the way your genes function.

We’ve known for a while that the chemical environment (hormones, diet, stress catecholamines, and more) can do this, but these new connections explain some of the deeper changes we see when people start practicing regularly.

More on that mechanical environment: Cells are never more than four deep from your capillaries, which excrete food, oxygen, messenger molecules (neuropeptides like endorphins), and more. Tension in your body—slumping your shoulders forward, for example—prompts the fibroblasts (the most common cells found in connective tissue) to make more fibers that will arrange themselves along the line of stress. These bulked-up fascial fibers will form a barrier that will slow or stop capillary-sourced food from reaching your cells. You’ll get enough to survive, but function will slow down. In addition to a thicker barrier of fascial-tissue fibers, the mucus that completes your fluid fascial network will also become thicker and more turgid, which contributes to stopping the flow to your cells.

And because the exchange of goods from capillaries to cells is a two-way street, with cells delivering messenger molecules and CO2 and other waste products back into the bloodstream, a hardened fascial network can trap unprocessed cell products (toxins or metabolites) like a stream eddy traps leaves.

The fix: deep strengthening and stretching squeezes your fascial network the way you would squeeze a sponge. Those metabolites that were trapped in the mucousy bits rush in hoards to the capillaries and your bloodstream. Many of us may feel out of sorts after we release deeply held tension—that’s your liver dealing with the metabolites you squeezed from the tissues. Try an Epsom salts bath, or go back for more movement to keep the process going.

Over yoga time, fascial fibers will slowly thin out and unadhere over weeks, sometimes months, but the mucus can change to a more liquid state in as quickly as a minute, allowing more sliding, less pain, more feeling, and less resistance. Use your yoga—it’s a great tool to get fluids and information flowing to their maximum sensitivity and adaptability.

See also The Anatomy of Fascia—& What It Can Tell Us About How to Practice

anatomy-fascia-2

Body of Knowledge: Fascia 101

Fascia is the biological fabric that holds us together—the connective-tissue network. This collagenous network of gel and fiber is made up in part by an “extra-cellular matrix,” manufactured inside a connective-tissue cell and then extruded out into intercellular space. The fiber-gel matrix remains an immediate part of the environment of every cell, similar to how cellulose helps provide structure to plant cells. (Remember, we are more like a plant than a machine.)

The Anatomy Trains body map shows our myofascial, or muscle-fascia, anatomy. These 12 whole-body myofascial meridians are more evident in dissection. While most anatomy textbooks show the muscles with the filmy fascia removed, this map illustrates fascia’s deeper function—as global lines of tension, proprioception, and interoception that embed the body’s neuromuscular network, acting to keep your skeleton in shape, guide movement, and coordinate postural patterns. Understanding how these lines function can help unlock a deeper understanding of anatomy for your yoga practice. For example, in Urdhva Mukha Svanasana (Upward-Facing Dog Pose), you are stretching the entire superficial front lines of fascia—the green lines—from the tops of your feet all the way up to the sides of your neck to the back of your skull. You are also challenging all four arm lines. When you strike the right balance in this pose, you can feel your fascial web helping you realize tension and stability, effort and ease.

Feel Your Fascia

Anatomy_downdog

Rick Cummings

The benefits of thinking of the body as a whole organism, instead of in parts, are profound. When we truly comprehend and feel this in our own bodies and see it in our students, we can move and teach with more integrity. That said, as yoga becomes physiotherapized, or made into a practice resembling physical therapy that helps people restore movement and function (a necessary and positive process in general), asana are often reduced to which muscles are stretched—think “Downward Dog is good for your hamstrings.” In reality, while tight hamstrings may be a common experience, your edge in this pose may be deep in your calves or butt, or along the fronts of your shoulders. It depends on your patterns—the way you were grown and what you took on.

Try this exercise to help you feel that your anatomy is more like a plant than
a machine, and to help you move away from separating yourself into parts:

INSTRUCTION

Move into Down Dog. It is easy to feel your back body in this pose as you lift your hips, drop your heels from the middle of your legs, and lengthen your spine. But take time to spread your awareness and attention throughout your entire body in order to find points that lack awareness and are unique to your experience of this pose. Here are some points to ponder:

  1. Track the front of your spine in this pose, as if you were rolling a warm red ball up the front of your spine from your tailbone, up the front of your sacrum and the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae, then behind your guts and heart.
  2. Relax your voice box, then your tongue, then your jaw. Let your head dangle. Let yourself be stupid for a moment, then re-establish the length in your cervical spine without the tension.
  3. Move your breath into the back of your ribs, which can be frozen in your early work in this pose. Can you feel the ribs moving under your shoulder blades? Are you moving your lower ribs behind your kidneys?
  4. Move your weight around your feet while in the pose. This can be subtle but powerful. If your heels are off the ground, move slowly, medially then laterally, on the balls of your feet. Feel how that changes the way you feel the rest of your body. If your heels are down, move slowly all around your feet like a clock: At what position do you lock up? Work there.
  5. Because the deep lateral rotators are often limiting in this pose, can you let the area between your sits bones bloom? Try rotating your knees inward in the pose to help find your limitation, and keep working your hips upward. Remember, you are whole. Someone may describe you as a machine, but that is not the scientific truth­—wholeness is.

Join Tom Myers for a seven-week online introduction to anatomy for yoga students and teachers. You’ll learn how to think of movement in holistic, relational, and practical ways, and how to identify common postural patterns, as well as strategies for cueing to awaken parts of the body that may need work. Sign up now.

About Our Pro
Writer Tom Myers is the author of Anatomy Trains and the co-author of
Fascial Release for Structural Balance. He has also produced more than 35 DVDs and numerous webinars on visual assessment, Fascial Release Technique, and the applications of fascial research. Myers, an integrative manual therapist with 40 years of experience, is a member of the International Association of Structural Integrators and the Health Advisory Board for Equinox. Learn more at anatomytrains.com.

 

《 Kaz Hawkins – One More Night With You (04:13) 》


《 Kaz Hawkins – One More Night With You (04:13) 》

5 Steps to Recover from an Injury, On and Off the Mat


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/5-steps-to-recover-from-an-injury-on-and-off-the-mat

5 Steps to Recover from an Injury, On and Off the Mat

You may be experiencing an injury and all that comes with it, but you are not your injury. Here are 5 ways to recover mentally, physically, and emotionally.
lauraburkhart

Over the past two years, while dealing with a slow-healing hip injury, I’ve learned that injuries not only affect your physical life—which can have a major impact if you’re an active person or use your body for your profession, like I do—they can also take a toll on your mind, emotions, and finances. In this Yogaland Podcast, hosted by Andrea Ferretti, I go into full detail about my mental, physical, emotional, and financial experiences during my injury journey, plus challenges I’ve faced as a yoga teacher, what gave me hope, and what made my experience more manageable. Though the first six months post-injury were especially difficult, once I started to implement the following life-changing steps, my journey became a lot easier.

See also 4 Ways to Build Hip Stability + Prevent Injury

5 Steps to Recover from an Injury, On and Off the Mat

1. Take Care of Your Injury, but Don’t Let Your Injury Take Over Your Life.

When dealing with an injury, obviously take good care of your body, avoid activities that make the injury worse, and be sure to get all the medical attention you need. If you know the healing process is going to take a long time, it’s important not to get your identity wrapped up with your injury. You are experiencing an injury, and all that comes with it, but you are not your injury. There is more to you and your life than this particular experience.

I learned this lesson a long time ago when dealing with a health issue that influenced my entire digestive track, and got worse after I picked up a parasite in India. For the next couple of years, my entire world revolved around my stomach and colon—that was all I thought about, talked about, read about, etc. My health issue, and trying to fix it, became such a part of my life that it wasn’t healthy for me, or my relationships.

This time around, even though for the first six months I was in non-stop pain that affected my daily activities (I couldn’t even put shoes on unless they were flip-flops), my teaching, and my sleep, I refused to let this experience take over my life. I continue to meet with medical care professionals and do activities to support the healing process, but I don’t give this experience all of my attention. There is a big world out there and more to life than focusing on my hip.

The takeaway: Constantly talking and thinking about your injury, or any negative situation or setback, gives it more power. Focus on the positive aspects of your life while taking steps to get well.

2. Prioritize Self-Care. Feel the Feels, but Don’t Get Stuck There.

Injuries not only take a toll on your body, they also do a number on you mental and emotional state, leaving you in a vulnerable place. The first few months post-injury, I experienced a lot of internal turmoil, anxiety, and depression. I questioned how I would be able to stand on my own two feet, literally and figuratively. I wondered how long would I be in this limited state, how would it affect my teaching and teaching career, what else could I do for work since I’d worked solely in the yoga world for well over a decade, and where would I live if I had to give up everything? The way I normally processed this type of anxiety would be by going for a walk or moving through an asana practice, but that wasn’t an option.

I discovered the best way to handle this period of instability was coming up with routines that helped me feel supported and whole. To de-stress, I found that I could swim with a buoy between my legs, which felt like a meditative practice in and of itself. I got a waterproof iPod and turned it into an underwater party. To brighten my mood, I reintroduced my body to the sun. I spent more time with friends, and discovered how much I love Jacuzzis, hot springs, bathhouses, listening to the ocean, and getting chair massages.

The takeaway: Figure out what makes you feel at ease and supported, and do it!

3. Rewire Your Thinking. Focus on What You Can Do Now.

Post-injury, it’s easy to dwell on not having the same range of motion you once had or not having the capability to safely get into your favorite yoga postures. These limitations may last weeks, years, or even a lifetime. It’s normal to experience frustration and grieve your new limitations. That being said, continuing to focus on what “used to be” is not going to serve you or anyone else. It’s important not to get your identity, or value, wrapped up with your physical range of motion or capability. Your “do” is not your “who." You are not your yoga practice. The asana practice is only a tool to help connect you to something deeper than the physical body. Also, let go of the misconception that being able to do complex asanas equates to being an advanced yoga practitioner.

In the same way holding onto your past doesn’t serve you, putting unrealistic expectations on what your practice “should” look like by an arbitrary date isn’t healthy. Our timeline and Mother Nature’s timelines don’t always line up. It’s important to respect your body instead of pushing yourself too hard, which can lead to further setbacks. I learned this all too well in the first couple of weeks after my injury by pushing myself too hard, making my injury 100 times worse. Even after making my injury worse, I planned to be back to my normal practice in four to six months, while no doctor, both then and now, has been able to give me a timeline as to when I’ll be back to “normal."  Currently, I would be in a much better place and had an easier time healing had I backed off rather than pushed.

Two months into my injury, after experiencing a lot of depression and anxiety, I decided to rewire my mind. I sat down with a pen and paper and made an exhaustive list of everything I could do NOW, both on and off the mat. This was by far a turning point for me that gave me a much more positive outlook. I was so shocked and excited about all the things I could do, even while being in a limited state. For example, in addition to my new self-care activities, I realized how much I loved writing blogs and articles. I honed my verbal cues and realized I could still teach complex asanas in classes, workshops, and online by using students to demonstrate poses rather than my own body. I found out how much I enjoyed helping other teachers with their career path, and began developing a co-led 200-hour teacher training. I also went through a couple more teacher trainings, deepened my knowledge in anatomy, learned more about yoga injury prevention, and have become interested in yoga balls and therapeutic classes.

The takeaway: Focus on what you CAN do, not what you can’t do.

4. Don’t Let Go Of Your Practice—Work With What You’ve Got.

It can be easy to dwell on what your practice used to look and feel like pre-injury. Though your practice may temporarily or permanently altered, instead of focusing on what you can’t do, figure out what you can safely do now, even if it’s one pose, such as Legs-Up-the-Wall Pose (Viparita Karani) or a meditation practice.

Talk to your doctor or physical therapist and find out if there are any poses that may may reduce your pain or help heal your injury. For example, throughout my entire healing process, Viparita Karani has helped me reduce inflammation in my legs and hips and relax my pelvic floor muscles. Months after the initial injury, to help reduce pain, I added Downward-Facing Dog in wall ropes; a Reclining Hand-to-Big-Toe Pose (Supta Padangusthasana) variation in order to create space between the head of my femur bone and hip socket; and eventually Bridge Pose and one-legged Bridge Pose, to strengthen my gluteus and hamstring muscles, which tend to weaken when you have a hip injury.

Before doing any asana, ask yourself, “Is this pose going to help my injury, make it worse, or neither?" Don’t feel pressure to do any poses that aren’t going to support you getting better. Let your body be your guide. For poses that seem OK for you to do, be hypersensitive, take things slow, and be cautious when coming into a posture. Start with the most conservative variation of a pose and see how it feels before gradually going deeper. You might find the most conservative variation is the best variation for your body now and maybe even 10 years from now, and that’s OK. Its better to be safe than cause further harm to your body.

Let your yoga teacher know you are injured. If you have a minor injury, it might be OK for your teacher to adjust you during class. As for me, I don’t want anyone touching my body unless they are a medical professional. If there are poses offered in class that don’t seem best for you, find a couple of default poses that work for you. You can also ask your teacher for recommendations.

See also The 10 Rules of Hands-On Adjustments for Yoga Teachers

The takeaway: Let go of your ego. It’s important for you to let go of what you think a pose “should” look like. Don’t compare what your current practice looks like with what it used to look like, and don’t ever compare your practice with others.

5. Stay Positive About Your Future. Continue to Dream Big.

In addition to focusing on what you can do now, keep your eyes on what you want to see manifest! One of the positive things my injury did was force me to slow down my hamster wheel and allow me to see that my wheel wasn’t rolling down the best, most sustainable path. It gave me a chance to rethink what I really wanted in life, both big and small. I asked myself, “What do I want? How do I want to feel?" I discovered that the majority of the things that I wanted either didn’t require having a fully mobile body, or by the time some of my wants manifested, I would have a more mobile body. For example, I wanted feelings of peace, abundance, and stability. I wanted more quiet time, and more time to see my family my friends. I wanted to help animals and build water wells. I wanted to spend more time in nature, go clothes shopping (it’s been years), get a Vitamix (I finally got one!), take a vacation at least once a year (it had been years!), and have my own house. I wanted to use my gifts and talents, both known and unknown, in the best ways. Teaching-wise, I decided I wanted to take a slightly different direction, but I listed many of the same desires I had pre-injury. I wanted to work more with Yoga Journal (which I’m doing!), teach more online classes, learn more about yoga injury prevention, teach at more national and international workshops and festivals, and lead teacher trainings.

The takeaway: Don’t waste any time on being bitter. Don’t let your injury limit you now or your future. Where the mind goes, the man (or woman) follows! You may find the same dreams you had pre-injury can still happen post-injury. Let your setbacks become your divine set-ups. Dream big.

Hear Laura’s story come to life and learn how she turned the fear and difficulty of injury into a catalyst for positive change on Yogaland Podcast.

 

《 Kaz Hawkins – Surviving (04:21) 》


《 Kaz Hawkins – Surviving (04:21) 》

搶救流行音樂,需要的是什麼?


台北市需要的不是更多硬體,更多的展演空間最後變成蚊子館,也不是拿政府的錢去酬庸辦更多賺不到錢的活動: 需要的是上位的視野要打開,腦袋才能轉變。
#流行音樂 #唱片
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6982

搶救流行音樂,需要的是什麼?

友善列印版本

台灣流行音樂的沒落不是這近幾年的事情了,滾石唱片在2004年的財務危機就已顯曝困境的開端。自MP3格式普及以來,大量的數位音樂散播成了很多人聽音樂的主要選擇;音樂市場已經轉變,賣唱片不是唯一主要的收益來源。Youtube、Facebook與My Space等社群影音平台如春筍湧出,整個音樂行銷有效的方式也完全顛覆。

這麼多的改變,當時在台灣,我卻只看到了很多人的不變。聽到關於唱片沒落的主因,就是怪夜市盜版、燒錄機普及、MP3與p2p分享軟體氾濫⋯⋯難以阻擋這樣的洪流,就只能成天鼓吹去實體唱片行買CD才是有格調的消費方式。

最後的結果怎樣大家應該都很清楚:現在在台北,要找到唱片行恐怕比找刻印章的小店還難;一個人一年如果買個三四張CD已經是很了不起的音樂消費,除非有在追某團,不然很多人根本趨近於0;台灣歌手或是樂團能在本島賣破萬張可要痛哭流涕,很多人不買榜連千張都成問題。

當年很多掌握資源的人,並沒有看見整個音樂市場早就已經有了不可逆轉、天翻地覆的改變。爾後南韓音樂在金融海嘯後隨著影視的根基突飛猛進,早把台灣拋到九霄雲後。中國市場的崛起更是市場主義下的最後一擊:很多歌手在中國一個月能賺的錢比在台灣一年還多很多,一個省的單位能提供的曝光機會與資源就遠遠超過整個台灣,在這樣的誘因下,人才不斷左遷也是不可避免的趨勢。

在當今的環境狀況下,政府應該扮演一個什麼樣的角色?一個類首都的地方首長,又能做些什麼?「把當初競選的承諾做到20%就已屬萬幸!」

可惜總是說的比唱得好聽,當初競選的網路廣告(link is external)言猶在耳,實在諷刺。如今LIVE House 台北市的問題根本沒有得到解決或是紓緩,除了競選承諾根本沒有用心落實(可參考另一篇之前的投稿) ,音樂文化的問題本來不是一朝一夕可以改變。

台北市需要的不是更多硬體,更多的展演空間最後變成蚊子館,也不是拿政府的錢去酬庸辦更多賺不到錢的活動: 需要的是上位的視野要打開,腦袋才能轉變。就像當年應該就要看到音樂市場的問題,不是在於唱片賣多賣少,而是整個型態早就不一樣了!

前幾日一個標題聳動的新聞,更是再次觸動了這個問題的核心。聯合報的新聞標題是這樣下的:「柯文哲:韓流壓台流周杰倫後台灣沒再產生巨星(link is external)

很多人可以辯解說這是標題殺人,但是仔細看看內文,我們的台北市市長竟然認為台灣是欠缺有系統的培養導致沒落⋯⋯並且還舉出了周杰倫與鳳飛飛等人當例子。但這些人都不是靠政府的系統培養與資源才能成就的,而是市場!

(圖片來源:maxpixel,CC0 Public Domain )

當今韓流音樂的確是把音樂當成是工業化產品一樣,有系統的栽培與推廣出去。南韓音樂製作的規模,經費還有經驗,早就不是台灣現今可以比擬的。但要能做到這樣的程度除了銀彈,重點還是要有政府一定程度、有效率地撐腰,還有音樂文化的支持。

台灣,現在有著怎樣的音樂文化?

曾幾何時,當年還是學生的我們會為了買一張唱片存好幾個月的零用錢,又或者以加入熱音社彈彈吉他打個鼓覺得自豪與滿足;如今這個世代手遊選擇更多更容易得到滿足,充值動輒上千甚至上萬,但願意投入在音樂產業消費的金額恐怕少之又少。年輕世代消費型態與能支配的比例早就不同;同樣地,流行音樂的消費文化也不太一樣了。

從政治面來看最可怕的兩點,就是主政者不知道問題在哪,又或根本不覺得問題是問題。

例如歐洲早就行之有年的樂團補助,台灣也有而且行之有年,當初立意良善的補助有市場潛力樂團的美意,早就淪為政治角力中黨同伐異的小金庫。多少獲得補助的樂團拿著政府的錢,去買冷氣,買酒,甚至買大麻這些根本不相關的項目,再想辦法去找發票來核銷?拿發票來換錢,變成好像另一種統一發票中獎的制度,而不是真正能扶植音樂產業。而且說穿了這些錢也不太夠,五十萬要用來製作一張像樣的唱片不是不行,但是更欠缺資源的部分應該是市場行銷與媒體包裝,而這些項目也包含下去恐怕自己掏腰包還不夠,而這些才是真正需要政府提供資源與介入的地方。

又或者,可能是更難堪的事實:台灣當今可能根本沒幾個有競爭力的樂團可以推出去?說來說去,似乎都是文化造就了這現今的一切,而這樣的困境,到底要怎麼突破?真的是所有人都應該好好想想的問題。

 

《 Kaz Hawkins – Lipstick & Cocaine (05:12) 》


《 Kaz Hawkins – Lipstick & Cocaine (05:12) 》

5 Yoga Moves to Practice Daily for Everyday Core Strength


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/5-yoga-moves-to-practice-daily-for-everyday-core-strength

5 Yoga Moves to Practice Daily for Everyday Core Strength

Incorporate these poses from Nicole Sciacca, Chief Yoga Officer at LA’s Playlist Yoga, into your daily routine to strengthen your core muscles and help you maintain a strong and flexible spine.

While you may think about your core on the mat, how often do you consider the work of the core in everyday life? As a mother of a 70-pound four-year-old (he has a very tall father!), I can attest to the importance of full-body strength and mobility. You use your rotational core every single day for basic movement. Those muscles that make up the front, side, and back of your core allow you to flex, extend, and twist. They play a role in everything from carrying groceries home from the farmer’s market to picking up dog poop. The great news is that incorporating the following five moves into your daily yoga practice will strengthen them to help you maintain a strong and flexible spine.

5 Everyday Strong-Core Yoga Moves

About Our Expert

 

《 Kaz Hawkins – Sleep In Peace (05:33) 》


《 Kaz Hawkins – Sleep In Peace (05:33) 》

【書摘】《同行致遠》:給學生自由去發掘熱情


有一門課程叫做「數值系統設計」,課程長度是十週,從第一堂課開始,教授就指定學生要執行哪些作業或專案,隔週就要交報告,接下來週週如此。Jenny說:「回台灣後,同樣的課程內容,我得開兩個學期,一共三十八週!花了快四倍的時間才教得完。」

美國的大學生習慣高密集的課程,為什麼台灣的大學無法以相同的強度開課?我想,這無關聰明才智,而是台灣教育結構性問題。

#自主學習 #高等教育 
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6981

【書摘】《同行致遠》:給學生自由去發掘熱情

友善列印版本

書名:《同行致遠》
作者:張懋中
出版社:商周出版
出版日期:2018年4月24日

《同行致遠》書封


有一天,我遇到在UCLA指導的博士生Jenny,她剛回台灣的某大學任教,我問她教學狀況如何,Jenny嘆了口氣:「台灣學生的步調好慢、學習意願好弱啊⋯⋯」

怎麼會這樣說呢?我們聊起UCLA電機系的作風和台灣的差異,有一門課程叫做「數值系統設計」,課程長度是十週,從第一堂課開始,教授就指定學生要執行哪些作業或專案,隔週就要交報告,接下來週週如此。Jenny說:「回台灣後,同樣的課程內容,我得開兩個學期,一共三十八週!花了快四倍的時間才教得完。」

美國的大學生習慣高密集的課程,為什麼台灣的大學無法以相同的強度開課?我想,這無關聰明才智,而是台灣教育結構性問題。

問題一:從來沒給學生自由

我到交大擔任校長後,對台灣的大學生有一些觀察,首先是大家普遍溫和乖巧,可是比起歐美的學生,較缺乏探究真理的熱情。由於缺乏熱情,生活就沒有方向,眼前遇到什麼問題便應付或拖延過去,因此常對未來感到茫然。

在中學時代,美國的學生「很會自我發展」,自由探索自己的興趣、發掘熱情所在,台灣的學生卻過得非常壓抑,除了「念對考試升學有幫助的書」,許多興趣與活動都被犧牲了。

在完成義務教育之後,美國學生念大學多是出於自己的選擇,自我驅動力很強,加上學費昂貴,所以更是卯起來認真讀書。今天,台灣的大學升學率幾乎是百分之百,台灣的大學生往往不是出於自身意願,而是「似乎非如此不可」的社會氛圍,沒有思考清楚就來接受高等教育。

這樣的學生帶著「多年媳婦熬成婆」的心情上大學,不知道能在大學中得到什麼,於是像要討回幼時積欠的童年複利般,做一些單純殺時間的玩樂,學分挑營養的修,考試前K一下「學霸」同學的筆記,只求考試能過關,對報告也只是交差了事。這樣截然不同的訓練態度,在持續累積四年後,美國大學生的競爭力自然就遠遠超前了。

問題二:過分講求速效

電腦讓資訊取得容易,現在的學生可以做到以前學生做不到的廣博程度。如果學生有批判性思考的能力,接收大量資訊是很有幫助的,但在沒有建構有體系的思考能力下,讓資訊垃圾進垃圾出(garbage in and garbage out),反而令人擔憂。

學生習慣與電腦互動,輸入一個指令,就會得到程式語言的回應。我是學工程的人,也在交通大學推行「全校寫程式」的通識課程,但程式語言的邏輯是固定的,自然世界與人際關係卻是更複雜深奧的,更需要時間去理解。

現在許多大學生不讀有完整體系的教科書,要教授提供整理好的講義,只讀消化好的內容,但這和人工再製的速食一樣,吃了之後迅速得到熱量,可是你不知道食品的原貌、製作的過程、烹調的順序,然而這在知識的追求上是有問題的。

我有幸擁有一個「很閒」的童年,順利地發掘自己的興趣,依循熱情學習,大學時代也剛好沒有這麼多必修課程,有許多優秀的同學與我一起進步,所以每一堂課都修得很深入。我認為要盡量給年輕人一些空間去思考與交朋友,即使學生看似坐在那邊胡思亂想,也不要急著去批評他們。

問題三:不敢主動領導

台灣許多年輕人不清楚自己的方向,經常也欠缺勇氣與自信去領導別人。美國高等教育講究「主動與負責」和「判斷與領導力」的特質,這也是台灣學生普遍比較缺乏的,需要有意識地去培養,回想年輕時期的我也曾經是這樣。

這個故事要追溯到我在M/A-Com實驗室的第二年底,因為不想繼續研究已經十分成熟的矽微波電晶體,我便向實驗室主管辭行,「Frank,你想要股票還是加薪,我們通通答應,千萬不要離開!」主管全力慰留我,得知我想離職的主因後,他有一個提議:「我們在美國東岸成立新的實驗室,你可以到那邊看看!」

我從美國西岸洛杉磯搭飛機到東岸,再開車前往實驗室。時值隆冬,車窗外的氣溫是零下四十度,對物理學家而言,零下四十度就不用提是攝氏還是華氏了,因為換算的結果都一樣。台灣超級馬拉松選手陳彥博的自傳《零下四十度的勇氣》,描寫他如何在天寒地凍的北極活下來並超越極限,大家可以想像零下四十度的風雪,是如何讓來自亞熱帶國家的我「膽寒」。

新實驗室在一座山丘的森林裡,停好車子後我要穿過小徑去面試時,發現車子竟然開始往山下滑!洛杉磯不下雪,停車自然不用拿出三角形的墊片放在後車輪下,但在這冰封般的山丘上,忘記這道手續可麻煩大了。當時我年輕氣盛,心想不能讓車子就這樣掉到山坡下,連忙轉身去追,幸好是讓我追到了。

狼狽不堪地再次停好車子,來到實驗室,首先面試我的一位資深研究員拿著一個印著「NO」的馬克杯,與我在會議室面對面坐下來。這名面試官的形象,完全就是電影《○○七》中的頭號反派諾博士(Dr. No),諾博士的最大特色,就是總是說「NO」。

當天談完所有的人,晚上和接待我的印度裔副總(VP)去吃晚餐,對方告訴我:「諾博士滿喜歡你的,我們都很希望你能來這邊當實驗室的經理。」

聞言我大吃一驚,除了撲克臉的諾博士居然這麼肯定我,還有我是來應徵研究員,並不是來應徵當實驗室經理,對方怎麼把我自動升官了?或許是華人教育中溫良恭儉讓的「遺毒」太深,我直覺自己擔當不起,而我面前印度裔副總的反應卻是大惑不解,這樣千載難逢的機會,應該要立刻說Yes才對啊!

我後來到洛克威爾科學中心當研究員,十五年來從研究員晉升管理職,然後當上高階主管。回想當年,或許我可以更早開始學習如何當一名領導者。

領導者的修練

領導者要能在其他人還沒發現問題之前,先主動提出來,並指出方向帶領眾人,同時也要挑起完全的責任,賦予權力讓團隊去執行,所有人一起跟上來,整個群體才會進步。

要讓人跟隨,比起高壓地揮鞭子催促,更重要的是激起對方探索知識的熱情。猶記我在UCLA任教後,一位博士生的研究一直原地打轉,他資質聰穎且桀驁不馴,我知道若把他逼到牆腳多半會招來反效果,寧可多給他一些反思的空間,於是在一次原本是尖銳對抗的會談中,我語重心長地對他說:「這樣下去,我很憂心你的未來。」這位博士生聽懂了,痛哭失聲地向我道歉:「謝謝教授這麼關心我。」他的課業與研究也出現了突破。

台灣教育有許多問題,追根究柢是「只學答,不學問」,讓學生根本沒有機會認識自己。環環相扣的問題必須從源頭解決,我除了鼓勵大學生跳脫框架去思考,也期待家長、學校與社會,把自由還給學生,讓年輕人有更多空間與時間,去探索自身的熱情。

 

《 Kaz Hawkins – I Just Wanna Make Love To You (06:56) 》


《 Kaz Hawkins – I Just Wanna Make Love To You (06:56) 》

許一個無塑海洋 國中小生畫出心中的美麗海灣


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211953?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=f9c3481eef-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-f9c3481eef-84956681

許一個無塑海洋 國中小生畫出心中的美麗海灣

2018年06月02日
整理:環境資訊中心編輯室

今年度的環保署「無塑海洋‧美麗海灣」全國繪圖比賽得獎名單公布了!總計3020件作品,相當踴躍,國中小學生心目中「美麗海灣」,是怎樣的一個光景,一同來瞧瞧吧。

繪圖:許芙瑋;圖片來源:環保署提供。

▲國中組金獎:
以海洋意象之藍和綠色為主調,撈網的紅色突顯危機之存在;潛水者的髮絲與水流形成一氣,氣泡的點綴為畫面增添不少動態的趣味,圖像的描繪技巧相當到位!

得獎者:新北市大觀國中 許芙瑋
作品名稱:守護環境愛護海洋

美麗海灣。 海龜的主體意象鮮明,背上乘載著廢棄塑料物,隱喻人類在海洋生態問題上,無法推諉且必須承擔責任的角色。繪圖:林欣蓉;圖片來源:環保署提供。

▲國中組:銀獎
海龜的主體意象鮮明,背上乘載著廢棄塑料物,隱喻人類在海洋生態問題上,無法推諉且必須承擔責任的角色。單一巨大的圖像,是從眾多作品脫穎而出的原因之一!

得獎者:台北市五常國中 林欣蓉
作品名稱:美麗海灣

繪圖:吳芳儀;圖片來源:環保署提供。

▲高年級組:金獎
有別於其他色慘繽紛的作品,作者以沉悶的色彩訴說著海洋污染的暗黑時代來臨。大膽地以紅與藍兩色調,分離出海洋的沉靜,以及充斥塑膠污染的生態。紅白相間塑膠袋圖像滿版於畫面,彰顯在台灣過度使用的情形;將陷入塑膠袋的被污染生態世界意象表露無遺。

得獎者:南投縣延平國小 吳芳儀
作品名稱:還我無塑海洋

繪圖:吳芳儀;圖片來源:環保署提供。

▲高年級組:銀獎
水彩渲染技法巧妙運用於整體空間的鋪陳,插畫方式的風格讓作品多了些許詩意,留白的鯨魚魚腹與堆積塑膠垃圾的胃,用黑色線條描繪,讓畫面的主題性強烈且鮮明。

得獎者:台北市光仁小學 賴品彤
作品名稱:「塑」誰害了鯨魚?

美麗海灘。以淨灘、海洋及遠方的彩紅勾勒出心目中的美麗海灣。繪圖:邱語婕;圖片來源:環保署提供。

▲中年級組:金獎
顏色強烈呼應主題呈現且描寫能力佳。構圖豐富,裝飾性強,線條色彩具特色。

得獎者:彰化縣中山國小 邱語婕
作品名稱:美麗海灘

繪圖:邱駿越;圖片來源:環保署提供。

▲低年級組:金獎
人們潛水撿拾塑化垃圾的肢體動作與表情豐富,令觀者心情隨之愉悅。進而引發觀眾對海洋生態的關注與無塑環境之省思。

得獎者:彰化縣中山國小 邱駿越
作品名稱:海底-乾淨的家

※ 更多作品及得獎名單請至臉書專頁「無塑海洋Plastic Free Ocean」查看

喜歡這篇文章嗎?
快來媒體小農灌溉環境資訊中心吧!

 

 

《 Kaz Hawkins – Feelin’ Good (07:14) 》


《 Kaz Hawkins – Feelin’ Good (07:14) 》

【自然谷之星】剎車般尖銳的叫聲——台灣紫嘯鶇


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211944?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=f9c3481eef-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-f9c3481eef-84956681

【自然谷之星】剎車般尖銳的叫聲——台灣紫嘯鶇

2018年06月02日
文:周昭蕊(自然谷環境信託基地專案經理)

嗯?誰家車子的煞車皮壞掉了,尖銳又有點刺耳的聲音,但這步道上哪來的車子啊!有時會在山中聽到有點像煞車皮磨損的老車,又像是車輛緊急煞車而產生的尖銳聲音,接著若幸運的話,有可能還會看到一個黑影閃過。第一次聽到這個聲音時,還在猜想是松鼠受到迫害因緊張發出尖叫聲音(曾經聽過兔子因為被狗追而發出類似的尖叫聲),但後來詢問後才知道,原來是一種鳥類的叫聲,牠就是台灣紫嘯鶇

帶著藍或紫色的光澤讓紫嘯鶇另外有琉璃鳥之稱。圖片來源:Robert tdc。(CC BY-SA 2.0)

台灣紫嘯鶇體型全長約30公分,是台灣鶇科成員中體型最大者。最特別的是那對好像前一晚熬夜沒睡好而充滿血色的雙眼,以及全身看似烏鴉般黑色的羽毛卻帶有藍色或紫色的亮麗光澤,在不同角度觀看下真是會讓人感到驚奇,也難怪另外會有琉璃鳥的稱號。台灣紫嘯鶇喜歡在溪流水域活動,穿梭在溪流間捕食水邊或水中昆蟲以及小魚小蝦,並不時地穿梭在森林邊緣中。

捕食到青蛙的台灣紫嘯鶇。圖片來源:Daoan。(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

位於鹿寮坑內的自然谷,周邊有許多溪流水域,因此也常有機會聽、看到牠們在鹿寮坑溪的石頭間跳躍尋找食物,不時上下擺動尾巴跳舞,或是在房子屋頂機警地觀察你的一舉一動,隨時準備快速飛離。坐在新竹工作站辦公,時常可以聽到牠們的聲音,更有一兩隻紫嘯鶇常在傍晚的時候,經過新竹工作站進到樹林中,每次經過時都會發出尖銳的鳴叫聲,好像傍晚下班打卡告訴我們牠要回家似的。雖然這樣講起來好像平常很容易看到紫嘯鶇,但牠們其實是很容易受到驚擾,大多數的時間其實也是只聞其聲不見其鳥,就算有幸看到牠們時,多半也是一晃眼就飛走了。

說到聲音,一種鳥時常會有多種不同的鳴唱方式,以台灣紫嘯鶇為例,認識這種鳥後,聽到類似像煞車般尖銳的叫聲就可以判定是牠們。但除了這種尖銳的鳴唱聲外,牠們也會高歌唱出美妙的旋律。曾經住在新竹工作站時,凌晨天未亮許多鳥開始鳴唱,但有一個聲音非常特別,極為響亮又高亢的鳴唱讓我印象非常深刻與好奇。時常被這個鳴唱聲叫起床,後來才知道,原來是台灣紫嘯鶇繁殖期間的鳴唱,之後在傍晚下班前也常聽到。

在山林工作的好處就是不時可以進行自然觀察,騎機車經過溪邊還可以停下來偷偷觀察來訪小溪的生物們。溪流就像微血管一樣,帶動土地的生命,隨著雨水的沖刷,溪流兩旁的岩石土堆所產生的空隙,使溪流可以呼吸。除了提供生物們躲藏的空間外,有些水生昆蟲會爬進土堆中化蛹,更提供一些鳥類築巢的環境。美麗的溪流卻因長年來的溪流整治,不但改變了溪流原有的面貌,水泥攔砂構造及邊坡也讓許多溪流生物失去棲息空間,往往整治完後溪流生態不復存在,只剩人們眼中看似「美觀」的樣貌。

原始的溪流環境,是許多生物們賴以維生的家。圖片來源:Daoan(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

這樣的情況也不是無法改變,目前因為公部門的工程單位中,未必有具生態保育背景的成員,因此往往是以「工程施工」角度進行而忽略生態面。參考美國在做公共建設時,部門中就有相關領域的專家可以直接參與計畫的方式,說不定也是接下來可推動的方案。

小動作避免鳥類誤撞玻璃
偶爾會聽到有小鳥誤撞玻璃而喪命的訊息,之前就有同事發現台灣紫嘯鶇誤撞社區居民家的窗戶而喪命。鳥兒並不是笨,而是因為玻璃會映出樹的倒影,不仔細看的話還真覺得玻璃後還有另一片樹林,或者是看到自己的倒影,領域性讓牠們衝去驅趕對方,飛得太快因此反應不及,而迎頭撞上玻璃。若撞擊力道小受傷不嚴重,稍微休息後便會離開。但若是強大的撞擊力道,多會造成內出血,以及脖子骨頭受損而傷亡。若發現住家常有鳥類撞擊玻璃的情況,可以在玻璃貼上猛禽圖案的防撞貼紙,或是張貼海報、照片、掛上窗簾,以減少憾事發生。

台灣紫嘯鶇

中文名:台灣紫嘯鶇(台灣特有種)
別名:紫嘯鶇、琉璃鳥
科名:嘯鶇科
學名:Myophonus insularis
分佈:分布於低至中海拔山澗、溪流附近或森林邊緣陰濕環境。
特徵:

  1. 全長約30公分,為台灣鶇科成員中體型最大者。
  2. 嘴喙與腳為黑色,眼睛為紅色。
  3. 額部、雙翼以及胸部羽緣具有藍紫色的色澤。
  4. 羽色為黑色,且帶有藍色或紫色的亮麗光澤。

生態:通常單獨出現在溪澗、水邊或林緣地帶,地域性相當明顯,生性機警且容易受到驚擾。主要以蚯蚓、魚蝦、兩棲爬蟲或小型昆蟲為食。

※本文由自然谷團隊提供,原刊載於台灣環境資訊協會官網
※感謝CHOICE喬義司  與行政院環境保護署支持自然谷之星專頁

 

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參考資料

作者

自然谷

自然谷環境信託基地,是台灣環境信託的首例。
我們相信,這不會成為唯一的案例,而是一把開啟更多可能的鑰匙。
還不認識自然谷嗎?
快來瞧瞧台灣第一個環境信託是什麼模樣吧!
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《 Kaz Hawkins – Because You Love Me (06:06) 》


《 Kaz Hawkins – Because You Love Me (06:06) 》

【不一樣的募款箱】彈珠台結合紙雕 讓一枚硬幣看見社會運轉


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211951?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=f9c3481eef-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_06_01_09_54&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-f9c3481eef-84956681

【不一樣的募款箱】彈珠台結合紙雕 讓一枚硬幣看見社會運轉

2018年06月02日
整理:環境資訊中心編輯室
成立18年來,促成澎湖南方四島國家公園成立、與其他環團一起阻止國光石化開發案、台東美麗灣開發案、使政府提出2030禁塑期程等。

炎歸於好

以浴火的女性和身軀的傷口表現燒燙傷,營造出與火共舞、擁抱傷痕的意象。希望喚起社會大眾對燒燙傷復原與臉部平權的重視。

合作單位:陽光基金會
成立超過30年,給予燒燙傷朋友關懷與救助,以全方位服務為顏損及燒傷者重建環境、身體心理與社會功能,維護其尊嚴與人權。

街貓回家

將錢幣比喻為流浪貓 , 做出流浪貓穿梭城市街頭的效果。街景以台灣人熟悉的迪化街為參考 , 以提昇人們對身邊街貓的重視

合作單位:流浪動物花園協會
幫助許多流浪動物找到家,希望讓流浪動物不只活下來,還能找到幸福的家。

以愛克暴

由上到下為家庭暴力事件的轉變,講述從家暴發生到悔改自新的過程。傢俱擺設也從歪斜散落回復成整齊自然的狀態。

合作單位:勵馨基金會
創立30年間,以追求公義與愛的決心和勇氣,致力於創造對婦女及兒少的友善環境。

病不孤單

以人體內病毒侵襲和細胞病變的畫面構圖,並使用灰黑色調表現疾病造成的壓迫感,以及癌症對病患的生理影響。

合作單位:台灣癌症基金會
以「熱愛生命、攜手抗癌」之理念,期待社會各界群起響應,一起加入防癌、抗癌及關懷癌友的行列!

https://www.facebook.com/plugins/video.php?href=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.facebook.com%2FRPNTUA2018%2Fvideos%2F1716385398449091%2F&width=600&show_text=true&height=800&appId

※「募善」團隊將募得的錢全數捐給各個合作單位
※ 本文轉載自台藝大視傳系107級畢製展新鮮直送──募善臉書專頁

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【妖言惑眾】證明自己


【妖言惑眾】

今日的父母,

因為生育的不多,

他們是想要擁有一個令人稱羨的孩子的機會。

相對地減少撫養孩子的代價也急遽地增加。

如果,

子女有出息地出人頭地,

父母的投資便有了保障。

(極度諷刺的投資)

今日的父母太多是屬於白手起家的,

他們也是以一樣的方式來教養孩子的,

要求他們也有相同的成就,

或是能夠超越他們。

成功的子女是他們自己成功最好的證明。

【◎心靈研磨坊 - 曼陀羅藏◎】

《心靈研磨坊 ─ 身心體能極限的突破,放慢步調,邁開腳步,輕鬆地悠遊著....》

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