Find Your Willpower with This Samskara-Busting Sequence


https://www.yogajournal.com/practice/practice-a-sequence-to-find-your-willpower

Find Your Willpower with This Samskara-Busting Sequence

Stay on course with this sequence to help you break habitual patterns and develop the strength and courage to face life’s challenges.
Chrissy-Carter-split

Chris Fanning

As yogis, most of us continually strive to move through life more mindfully. Yet sometimes, despite our best efforts, we run into obstacles and react in ways that don’t serve us. We vow to cut back on sugar, then cave at the sight of cookies; we get down on ourselves for playing the comparison game when looking at social media feeds; we feel frustrated if we can’t balance in Bakasana (Crane Pose) during yoga class. Often, these roadblocks are tied to our samskaras, the Sanskrit term for the mental and emotional grooves, or habits, that we find ourselves falling back into time and time again.

What Are Samskaras?

Whether conscious or unconscious, positive or negative, samskaras make up our conditioning and influence how we respond in certain situations. Changing these deeply ingrained patterns can be difficult—even if those patterns cause us pain. The good news is that we can use our yoga practice to examine our samskaras, identify what may be getting in the way of realizing our best intentions, and work with what we uncover.

By observing our reactive patterns on the yoga mat and meditation cushion, we’re better able to recognize when we react mindlessly in real life—and in turn, consciously shift our feelings, thoughts, emotions, moods, and behaviors. For example, if you lose your balance in Vrksasana (Tree Pose), look at how you talk to yourself. Are you kind? Or do you beat yourself up? Can you dust yourself off and try again, even when you feel like giving up?

The most common roadblocks I see students struggle with on a regular basis are self-criticism, frustration, and lack of willpower. The following sequences will help you cultivate the tools you need to work through your roadblocks, so you can break the patterns that no longer serve you and call in new ones that will help you live more mindfully.

See also 8 Poses to Cultivate Courage and Reduce Self-Conciousness

You can fold this mini-sequence into a longer home practice or simply do these five poses followed by a restorative supported Setu Bandha Sarvangasana (Bridge Pose) and a supine hip opener, such as Sucirandhrasana (Eye-of-the-Needle Pose). Finish in Savasana (Corpse Pose).

See also 17 Poses to Work with Your Body’s Limitations

 

New Study Finds Yoga Significantly Reduces Depression in Male Veterans


https://www.yogajournal.com/poses/new-study-finds-yoga-significantly-reduces-depression-in-male-veterans

New Study Finds Yoga Significantly Reduces Depression in Male Veterans

healing power of yoga for veterans give back yoga

A new study presented at the 125th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association found that male veterans who had elevated depression scores before a twice weekly hatha yoga program had a significant reduction in depression symptoms after the eight-week program.

How Yoga Benefits Veterans with Depression

“Yoga is unique in that it combines several things that empirical research has shown to be very helpful for improving depression and other mental health concerns: exercise, mindfulness, and breathing practices, to name a few," says study information co-investigator Lindsey B. Hopkins, Ph.D., a research fellow at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Health Care Center. “All of these things likely played a role in the benefits that these veterans experienced."

The study, which featured 21 male veterans, also found that improvements in depression were significantly correlated with increases in mindfulness and decreases in experiential avoidance—defined as engaging in a particular behavior in order to change or avoid unwanted negative thoughts, emotions, or sensations, even when doing so produces harm. This is consistent with other research, Hopkins says. The social aspect of yoga may also play a role: in interviews, many of the veterans said they derived a great deal of benefit (in terms of mental health and well-being) from having the opportunity to connect with other veterans, she adds.

See also How Yoga Changed One War Vet’s Life

The Most Significant Study Finding

Not only did the veterans see a reduction in their depression symptoms after participating in the hatha yoga program, they also simply enjoyed it. On a 1–10 scale, the veterans gave the yoga classes an average enjoyment rating of 9.4, and all participants said they would recommend the program to other veterans.

“The most unique aspect of our study is that it focused on male veterans with an average age of 61, whereas most other research has focused on younger and predominantly female populations," Hopkins says. “From my view, our most meaningful finding was how much these men—almost all of whom were practicing yoga for the first time—enjoyed the practice, believed it had improved their physical and/or mental health, and viewed it as a promising treatment option, suggesting that yoga could be a highly acceptable complementary approach for male veterans. I think this is important given that people in the U.S. often think of yoga as a woman’s activity … and, more specifically, a privileged young white woman’s activity. This study lends support that this isn’t the case, given the diversity of these male veterans in terms age, race, and economic status."

See also 5 Ways Yoga Helps Veterans With PTSD

More Evidence That Yoga May Help Reduce Symptoms of Depression

While this was a small study, others presented at the APA convention also highlighted the role that yoga may play in reducing symptoms of depression.

  • In one study, co-authored by Hopkins, eight weeks of hot yoga significantly reduced symptoms of depression compared with the control group for 52 women, ages 25–45.
  • Another pilot study of 29 adults showed that eight weeks of at least twice weekly hot yoga significantly reduced symptoms of depression.
  • In another study, 12 patients who had experienced depression for an average of 11 years participated in nine weekly yoga sessions. Scores for depression, anxiety, and stress decreased.
  • And in another study, 74 mildly depressed university students were asked to perform a yoga or relaxation exercise at home for eight days. Two months later, participants in the yoga group had significantly lower scores for depression, anxiety, and stress than the relaxation group.

See also Yoga Practices for Veterans: Healing “I AM" Mantra

 

18 Inspiring Poses: How Yoga Helps Treat Veterans and PTSD


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/war-veterans-in-yoga-poses

18 Inspiring Poses: How Yoga Helps Treat Veterans and PTSD

Photographer Robert Sturman honors and celebrates American veterans of war by featuring several active duty and retired service members practicing yoga.

To prep for our upcoming Yoga for Stress and Anxiety online course, we’re giving you weekly doses of tranquil asana, pranayama, meditation, and yoga nidra. Don’t miss our six-week course that’ll make a lasting change in the way you work, love, and live. Enroll now and be the first to know when it launches.

In the United States, up to eight percent of the total population will experience Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in their lifetime. PTSD can occur after a traumatic event like the loss of a loved one, combat, a terrorist attack, or natural disaster. Someone who has experienced trauma may feel stressed or frightened even when danger is not imminent. For veterans of war, the percentage is greater. About 11 to 20 percent of those who served in Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan suffer from PTSD, according to the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA).

The VA also reports that 27 percent of veterans diagnosed with PTSD under Veterans Affairs hospital care will experience some form of substance abuse. But that is changing. More veterans are opting out of opioids to self-manage their chronic pain, stress, and depression, according to a recent study at the Washington, D.C. Veterans Affairs Medical Center. In the study, Integrative Restoration Yoga Nidra, or “iRest,” a yoga practice that utilizes relaxation techniques and meditative inquiry, was used among a small group of participants to help them manage their musculoskeletal pain levels. Meditation and mindfulness practices will evidently allow a person to respond to their pain with less reactive stress, because the parasympathetic nervous system—the body’s relaxation response— becomes activated. The same mechanisms could be employed to calm symptoms of PTSD.

And the trend is catching on nationally. A Veterans of Foreign Wars post in Denver replaced their bar with free yoga classes for instance, and groups like the Light it Up Foundation and the Give Back Yoga Foundation use the transformational power of yoga to help treat veterans with PTSD.

Here, photographer Robert Sturman honors and celebrates American veterans of war by featuring several active duty and retired service members practicing yoga. “It is my moral obligation to pay attention to those who are crying out for healing,” he said.

 

The Must List to Recharge Your Mind and Body


https://www.yogajournal.com/lifestyle/the-must-list-to-recharge-your-mind-and-body

The Must List to Recharge Your Mind and Body

Invigorate yourself with these must-haves, from a heart-healthy herbal tea to the latest app that will jump-start your day.

See also The Must List: What to Pack for Your Next Yoga Retreat

 

Yin Yoga 101: The Functional Alignment Principle That Helps Prevent Injury


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/yin-yoga-101-functional-alignment-principle-that-prevents-injury

Yin Yoga 101: The Functional Alignment Principle That Helps Prevent Injury

Understanding where movement should originate is key to keeping the body safe in Yin Yoga and beyond. Here, Josh Summers workshops Swan Pose to help you explore.

Want to learn a style of yoga that’s focused on bringing balance—physically, energetically, and mentally? Join Josh Summers, founder of the Summers School of Yin Yoga, for our new online course Yin Yoga 101—a six-week journey through the foundations and principles of Yin Yoga, along with asana practice and meditation. Click here to sign up!

In an earlier post, we looked at aesthetic alignment vs. functional alignment. In short, aesthetic alignment tries to establish whether a pose is correct and safe by the way it looks: Are the thighs parallel? Are the hands shoulder-width apart? In contrast, functional alignment considers where and how a practitioner intends to stress (exercise) the target areas in the body, and then evaluates whether that intention is served when entering and while in the pose. (You can explore that with Dragon Pose here.) And practitioners are encouraged to test modifications to see which best achieves their intention, keeping in mind that modifications are different for all based on their unique anatomy.

Now, the second important facet of functional alignment is not stressing an area of the body you don’t intend to stress. Whenever you do a pose, you want movement to originate from the joints that are proximal to the axial skeleton—in other words, closest to the body’s core. So when you move your legs, you initiate from the hip socket, not the knee. Or when you move your arms, you initiate from the shoulder girdle, not the elbow. When movement is restricted at proximal joints, distal joints (joints further from the the core), like the knee, try to compensate. As Yin Yoga pioneer Paul Grilley says, you don’t want to punish the distal joints for what the proximal joints can’t do. A good way to understand this is through Swan, the Yin version of Eka Pada Rajakapotasana (Pigeon Pose).

Preventing Injury in Swan Pose

Potential Target Areas: External rotators of front leg’s outer hip; front leg’s adductors and inner hamstrings; back leg’s hip flexors

Not Targeting (Don’t Intend to Stress): Front knee

The Anatomy of Swan Pose
In Swan, the front thigh and femur are moving with a combination of flexion, abduction, and external rotation. When this happens and the knee is flexed, the collateral ligaments of the knee loosen, allowing for more movement at the knee joint. But if the hip is restricted, the knee will try to compensate for what the hip can’t do—potentially leading to injury. The increased mobility can send signals of distress (i.e. pain) to your knee’s medial meniscus if the stress is too significant.

When the knee is flexed and the thigh externally rotates, many factors will contribute to when and where the knee experiences stress, including:

  • Soft-tissue tension in any of the hip’s muscle groups can restrict the thigh’s degree of external rotation, shifting movement downstream to the knee.
  • Skeletal variations influence the hip’s range of motion; the hip socket (acetabulum) plays a major role, and the hip socket’s orientation, angle, and depth will determine when and where the knee comes to a point of stress.
  • The length and size of the femur’s neck, the angle of the femoral neck shaft, and the amount of twist in the femur (femoral torsion) determine the range of femoral external rotation that can be achieved before deleterious stress is placed on the knee.

Let’s now dive into how different styles of alignment can help you eliminate stress on the knee.

Yin-Yoga-Swan-Aesthetic-Alignment

Aesthetic Alignment in Swan
My right knee is lined up behind my right wrist, my right heel is just forward of my left hip, my hips are level. By many standards, I’m in the “correct” alignment. But functionally, I’m courting disaster. My right knee hurts. That’s because in this particular alignment, I can’t generate enough external rotation of my thigh, and my knee is trying to compensate, painfully squeezing my medial meniscus. What may look “correct” and safe is functionally bad and unhealthy. To remedy my knee pain, a well-intentioned teacher my prop my right hip. And it’s true that, by supporting my hip, this may allow the thigh to externally rotate less (relieving my knee), but this may not work. It also may remove all advantageous stress that I was seeking for my hip.

Yin-Yoga-Swan-Functional-Alignment

Functional Alignment in Swan
Now look at my collapsed Swan: I let my right hip come all the way to the ground, tilting both my hips. In this position, my right thigh and femur aren’t being asked to externally rotate as much as in the aesthetic version. My knee is no longer stressed, but I’m still experiencing the desired stress in my outer right hip. Ugly as collapsed Swan may be, it is functionally best for my body.

Remember, what’s functionally optimal for my body might not be for yours. This is why in Yin Yoga we give students so much freedom to explore variations. And in learning how and why your body experiences limitation in Yin Yoga, you’ll be able to apply that firsthand knowledge to your other yoga practices. After all, your skeleton doesn’t change when you walk through the doors to a vinyasa class.

Want to learn more about the fundamentals of Yin Yoga with Josh? Click here to sign up for his six-week online course!

 

Feel-Good Flow: 11 Songs to Brighten Up Your Practice


https://www.yogajournal.com/yoga-101/feel-good-flow-11-songs-to-brighten-up-your-practice

Feel-Good Flow: 11 Songs to Brighten Up Your Practice

This 50-minute playlist is full of smooth, uplifting, and fun tracks perfect for your next yoga flow.
caucasian-fitness-woman-practicing-yoga-picture-id825005442

Whether you’re setting up for morning practice or just need a little boost, this mix of fluid melodies will inspire you to feel relaxed, present, and enlightened.

See also Hey World: A Yoga Playlist to Inspire Action

Feel Good Flow

1. “Om Zone 2.0 – I," Steven Halpern
2. “A Gentle Dissolve," Thievery Corporation
3. “Sun Moon," DJ Drez, Nikko
4. “Holographic Universe," Thievery Corporation
5. “Jahta Dance," DJ Drez
6. “For What It’s Worth (India Dub)," DJ Drez, Joey Lugassy
7. “Paradise Circus," Massive Attack
8 . “Reaction II," Blue Hawaii
9. “Krishna’s Dub," DJ Drez, Marti Nikko
10. “Phase," Beck
11. “Shanti (Peace Out)," MC YOGI

See also Spring Clean Your Soul: A 45-Minute Playlist to Enliven Your Spirit

 

Meet the Inspiring Woman Teaching Yoga to Caregivers of U.S. Military Service Members & Veterans


https://www.yogajournal.com/poses/meet-pamela-stokes-eggleston-teaching-yoga-caregivers-veterans

Meet the Inspiring Woman Teaching Yoga to Caregivers of U.S. Military Service Members & Veterans

Pamela Stokes Eggleston lost herself when caring for her husband, a U.S Army veteran and Purple Heart and Bronze Star recipient. Now, she’s on a mission to teach other caregivers the yogic practices that helped her find her soul again.
pamela-teaching-yoga

Wounded warriors have their own heroes at home. There are 5.5 million caregivers looking after a former or current U.S. military member, according to a 2014 RAND study, which also found that 17% of them reported spending more than 40 hours per week providing care. In honor of Memorial Day and Mental Health Awareness month, Yoga Journal is kicking off this series, which features the unique experiences of caregivers finding—and sharing—well-being through yoga.

Pamela Stokes Eggleston hadn’t heard from her then fiancé in three days, and had a terrible feeling in the pit of her stomach. Charles Eggleston, a computer engineer and a U.S. Army reservist, was summoned to Iraq a year earlier. And sure enough, Pamela’s intuition that Charles’ radio silence was a sign that something was wrong proved to be true: An improvised explosive device (IED) had struck his vehicle. The accident was so serious, Charles was initially pronounced dead. Thankfully, he survived. Though today—15 years and 60 surgeries later—his wounds are still debilitating.

Pamela, now executive director at Yoga Service Council, recalls the three-and-a-half years her husband spent at Walter Reed Army Medical Center in D.C. as a difficult eternity. “I had to navigate a system I wasn’t used to navigating,” she said. “If you were engaged to a service member, you were treated differently because you weren’t a wife. I didn’t like it, and I wasn’t conditioned to fall in line.”

Pamela Stokes Eggleston and Charles Eggleston

Pamela Stokes Eggleston and Charles Eggleston

Greg Blakey

They eventually married, and Pamela, along with fellow military spouses, cofounded Blue Star Families (BSF), an organization providing resources for families and partners facing the unique challenges of military life. (Charles, a Purple Heart and Bronze Star recipient, still sits on the board.)

Acronyms like TBI (Traumatic Brain Injury) and PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder) became part of her vernacular. “But we weren’t saying that Charles had PTSD, because the military would have snatched up the security clearance he needed to continue working. We had a good psychologist who said he had ‘anxiety.’” It wasn’t until he was transferred to Washington D.C. VA Medical Center that Charles was formally diagnosed with PTSD, which manifested as extreme insomnia.

From Secondary PTSD to Self-Care

Taking care of Charles took a toll on Pamela, who says she didn’t reach out for the help she needed.

“I didn’t want to burden people, so I took it all on,” she says. “When things happen, we’re supposed to get on our yoga mats. And I didn’t do that; I didn’t do anything. I was fostering illness instead of wellness.” As the daughter of an Air Force veteran and granddaughter of an Army veteran who served in WWII, Pamela also had transgenerational trauma that was triggered by Charles’s PTSD, and she began to mirror his symptoms. What Pamela was dealing with is called secondary PTSD, and it’s common among caregivers. Plagued with sleepless nights, Pamela took low-dose, snapped-in-half Ambien pills—and still felt exhausted.

That’s when she picked up yoga again. “Asana helped me process and move energy through my body,” she says, “and pranayama helped as well. I started doing a lot of yoga nidra. But meditation was the answer. I was like, ‘If this works for me, it has to work for other people.” Over time, Pamela completed her 200-hour, 500-hour, and yoga therapy certifications. In 2012, she incorporated 5-minute movement and breath sessions into the caregiver program she co-created for BSF.

Pamela Stokes Eggleston and Michelle Obama at the White House.

Pamela Stokes Eggleston and Michelle Obama at the White House.

That same year, Pamela launched Yoga2Sleep, a program offering yoga sessions to help veterans, caregivers, and families overcome sleep deprivation. In 2014, she partnered with Hope for the Warriors—a national community-based organization supporting post-9/11 military service and family members through transition services, art therapy, and more—which started using Pamela’s therapeutic yoga protocol in its curriculum.

The Evolving Roles of Caregivers—and Why They Need Self-Care

Caregivers face a variety of challenges. At first, they navigate an unfamiliar bureaucratic system to find the right medical care for their wounded warriors. They may have to physically look after partners. Even after a decade, they may have to cope with invisible wounds, turbulent emotional states, and “soul” injuries that surface in veterans as their TBIs worsen or as they process what happened in combat and what it means for the future.

As a result, it’s even more important for caregivers to take care of themselves with nourishing foods, movement, and breathwork, says Pamela. “It’s selfish not to take care of yourself and run ragged, because if something happens to you, then everybody else has to deal with that,” she says. What you don’t want to do is give so much energy that it becomes a badge. “When you get too enmeshed with another person, even if it’s your spouse or son, you stop having your own life. I don’t believe the universe wants you to live that way.”

Urging caregivers to hold space for themselves is at the heart of Pamela’s teaching. Most caregivers are sleep-deprived, so she teaches a lot of yoga nidra. “I also teach Yin Yoga because it’s good for sleep. I’ll pick one or two postures, like Child’s Pose to help caregivers drop into themselves, and Mountain Pose with arms extended overhead for strength. And I focus on teaching breathwork.”

Many caregivers in her classes love her practices but say they don’t have time to do them at home. Pamela insists they can fit it in—even if it’s taking two minutes in the shower to do a standing meditation.

charles-pamela

Reclaiming the Soul in Order to Heal

Doctors used to say that PTSD couldn’t be cured. Yet these days, there’s a lot of talk about post-traumatic growth, which excites Pamela.

“I believe in the power of mindfulness and meditation to get back into your body, breath, and soul,” she says. “Resiliency is an overused word in the military, but it means having agency in your life. The only way to do this is to practice radical self-care every day. It’s critical.”

Watch Healing Meditation for Caregivers of Wounded Warriors (It Only Takes 5 Minutes!)

 

【日晷之南】誰的「戰爭肯定論」?


以強烈政治意識形態壓倒歷史研究的威力有多大?這本書被左統主義者打成了日本右翼史觀,此書訊預告階段,旋即遭到了反對派的冷嘲熱諷。其思想到底有何危險?
#林房雄 #大東亞戰爭肯定論 #白井明 #三島由紀夫 #作家論
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6977

【日晷之南】誰的「戰爭肯定論」?

友善列印版本

在臺灣,廢除出版法後,出版書籍變得自由寬廣,思想言論不再受到壓制和審查。就此意義而言,著書立說這種抽象思想行為,終於變成實質的力量,掙脫了極權之手的控制,朝自由的方向發展,的確是令人可喜的事情。然而,檢閱言論的幽靈雖然已退出歷史舞台,現今以反日為基調的讀書評論,仍然存在晦澀的氛圍,也就是將日本右翼思想家的著作譯本,視為洪水野獸和極度危險。而林房雄《大東亞戰爭肯定論》這本奇書,意外掀起了反日詰問的波瀾。

首先,我們要問:林房雄是誰?

日前,我的文友傳來一則訊息說,林房雄《大東亞戰爭肯定論》中譯本已出版上市,他表示,出於好奇他很想閱讀其書,了解這個被貼上日本右翼人士的標籤,其思想到底有何危險,否則此書訊預告階段,旋即遭到了反對派的冷嘲熱諷。奇詭的是,這種微妙的逆反心理,反而促成讀者更想一窺全貌的動力。或者說,他不希望戴上預設立場的眼鏡,相信自己的讀後感。

林房雄著作《大東亞戰爭肯定論》。(攝影:邱振瑞)

果不其然,我連結到其書訊瀏覽,這本書被左統主義者打成了日本右翼史觀,它就是極度美化「日本軍國主義」思想。這再次讓我見識到,以強烈政治意識形態壓倒歷史研究的威力。有論者甚至援引某政治學教授的見解——《日本政治史》一書,以此加深和批判林房雄的軍國主義思想,可謂用心良苦。就民族主義和認同的立場而言,我可以理解這種心情,過度依賴外來政權的思想,等同自失立場,放棄歷史的主體性,自願成為政治思想的順民。不過,我不得不質疑,讀者沒有通讀此書之前,即義憤填膺追隨這一駁反論點,豈不是另類的危險:不通過嚴謹的辯證,即宣告判刑定讞嗎?在我看來,反對者對於林房雄思想及其書籍的批判,似乎過度簡化了。殊不知,他們眼中的右派思想家,曾經是日本共產主義的信奉者,為日本的普羅大眾慷慨發聲,嚴厲批判過那個壓迫他們的政權,在精神思想上,應該與他們同個陣營。

在此,也許我們有必要回顧一下林房雄的背景,以便做出較於正確的判斷。

林房雄,本名後藤壽夫,父親開設雜貨店,卻因酗酒成癮,導致家道中落,母親為了維持生計,在紡織工廠當女工。1916年,他入舊制大分中學,到銀行家小野家裡當家教,住宿三餐都在那裡,體現出勤工儉學的精神。1919年,他獲得小野家的經濟援助,進入第五高等學校就讀。

1923年,林房雄入東京帝國大學法科,但之後中途退學了。在校時期,他加入新人會,與中野重治、鹿地亘、江馬修、等成立社會主義研究所,並任《馬克思主義》雜誌編輯。後來,日本無產階級藝術聯盟鬧分裂,他與青野季吉、藏惟原人等,成立勞農藝術家聯盟。1926年,他因捲入「京都學連事件」(京都帝國大學和同志社大學研究馬克思的社團),違反了治安維持法,遭到檢舉起訴,拘禁十個月。同年,他在《文藝戰線》上,發表短篇小說〈蘋果〉和評論〈散兵線〉等。1929年被選為日本無產階級作家同盟中央委員。翌年,他再次遭到了逮捕。理由是,有人檢舉他向日本共產黨提供活動資金,而被起訴判刑,關押豐多摩監獄。到了1932年,林房雄聲明「轉向」出獄之後,在《中央公論》連載表現民族主義傾向的歷史小說《青年》,還發表了〈為了文學〉、〈身為作家〉等評論,強調文學和作家的自主性,反映出轉向的決心。

也許可以說,林房雄對於文學有著堅定的信念,他於1933年與小林秀雄、武田麟太郎、川端康成、深田久彌、廣津和郎、宇野浩二等作家,創辦了《文學界》雜誌,積極投入文學創作,這份刊物一直持續到1944年。接著,他於1935年發表長篇小說《壯年》,並出版《浪漫主義者雜記》,正式表明脫離馬克思主義。其後,搬往神奈川縣鎌倉町淨明寺,他邀請川端康成比鄰而居,同年12月,川端康成一家搬遷至此。1936年,他發表文章,宣稱不再做為無產階級作家。1937年,他與山本學、中河與一、佐藤春夫等作家,成立「新日本文化會」。這年,爆發了日中戰爭(九一八事變),他亦是隨軍作家之一,其他作家包括:吉川英治、尾崎士郎、岸田國士、石川達三等。1940年,他成為以影山正治為首的傳統右翼團體「大東塾」成員。

進入1941年,他發表了〈關於轉向〉等文章,擁護天皇制度,明確表示自己的政治立場。1947年,他在「小說時評」上,將坂口安吾、太宰治等思想虛無頹廢的作家,取名為「新戲作派=無賴派」,這個名詞因此固定下來。只是,到了1948年,以美國佔領軍為首的日本政府,追究其戰爭責任,禁止他不得寫作。確切地說,林房雄和思想評論家吉本隆明一樣,同屬於改變思想立場的「轉向者」,時至今日,許多活躍於日本思想界和文壇作家,都經歷過艱難「轉向」的抉擇。不過,1952年,他遭逢了重大變故,其妻子於家中自殺身亡。他表示,撰寫《兒子的青春》、《妻子的青春》的動機,在於描寫渴望獲得圓滿的家庭關係,祈願罹患精神疾病的妻子得以恢復正常。

二戰後某個時期,林房雄以白井明的筆名,寫了不少中間小說(介於純文學與大眾文學之間的小說),被搬上舞台獲致成功,成為當時走紅的流行作家。1953年,他發表〈文學的回想〉一文,藉此勾勒他的文學歷程。然而,要說林房雄的右翼思想達到頂峰,就屬其代表作《大東亞戰爭肯定論》了。成書之前,他於1963年9月號《中央公論》上,開始連載《大東亞戰爭肯定論》文章,卻引來了與批評者之間的筆戰風波。同年,在其爭議性強烈的文章刊出後,三島由紀夫出版《作家論》一書,書中有專文〈林房雄論〉,批評林房雄的文藝史觀。當然,在行文敘述中,仍然感受得到三島善意多於負評的理解。

三島由紀夫在《作家論》一書中,以專文批評林房雄的文藝史觀,但在行文敘述中,感受得到三島善意多於負評的理解。(攝影:邱振瑞)

例如,三島由紀夫於文中第四節說:「或許林房雄被『政治』矇騙了。但是,我向來不相信,身為一名作家,無論幸運與否降臨其身,遇到任何危險事態,遭受什麼折難,都不可能遮蔽他清醒的心智。進一步說,對於日本歷史中的知識人而言,思想「轉向」不啻於重大事件。只是,林氏發表的『獄中記』,其文筆之美,卻與知識人的精神歷程似乎毫無關聯。從這意義來說,他於高舉普羅文學的初期作品,就有如此筆觸和美學意識。接著,三島於文末又提及:「……1929年,紐約華爾街股價暴跌,造成了世界金融大恐慌,那個時代恰巧證明蘇維埃共黨政權的輝煌的正當性,同時也是宣告革命的浪漫主義終結的時代。而林氏的初期作品,即與這精神氣質相近,政治思想浸透到藝術的深層裡。我興趣盎然的是,當時林氏的自覺到何種程度,也就是在其自身的思想中,他是否仔細辨識出本質性的和非政治性的因素了。只不過,他甚至隻句不提,遠大夢想的幻滅,對於左翼運動家來說,到底是喜劇,抑或文學家的悲劇?也許,他將詩歌般的革命和虛無主義,當成漂浮的夢想,視為這與『民族的理想』相通,但我看來,他已經喪失與現實的機會了。可是,他卻藉由歷史小說《青年》維繫住態度鮮明的非歷史性的現代性。」

上述文章是林房雄的文友三島由紀夫寫就,可以視同對於林房雄這個爭議性作家的概括評析。至於,林房雄本人如何定位《大東亞戰爭肯定論》一書呢?他於該書前言提及寫作此書的動機,「現在,我不是左派也不是右派。這本書並非意識型態的宣揚,而是我個人的思想歷程。我的目的很簡單,我只是想把被遮蔽的日本歷史的原貌呈現出來。」話說回來,這似乎可以解讀為林房雄的歷史觀,無論我們堅然拒絕或者接受,不同意把「大東亞戰爭」的說法,必須以「太平洋戰爭」的名稱以正視聽,用「否定」推翻他的「肯定論」,在閱畢全譯本後,做出評價來得妥當。

順便一提,1970年11月25日,三島由紀夫《天人五衰》小說終章完稿,交由新潮社。下午,率領數名追隨者至東京市谷自衛隊總部,在司令台上發表演說,佔據總監室切腹自殺。翌日,在自宅舉行密葬儀式,享年45歲。1975年10月9日,林房雄死於胃癌,享年72歲,葬於鎌倉報國寺。

 

《 Aretha Franklin – Baby I Love You (02:42) 》


《 Aretha Franklin – Baby I Love You (02:42) 》

梅雨不來卻「放水流」 建案、河川工程虛耗水資源


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211948?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=d7980d3024-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-d7980d3024-84956681

梅雨不來卻「放水流」 建案、河川工程虛耗水資源

2018年06月01日
文:Penlock

週末由於學長的邀約,帶了家中三隻迅猛龍去溪邊摸蜆,他們一向愛吃雙枚貝類,也曾經去海邊耙過文蛤,我想該是時候讓他們認識一下,其實這些小貝殼不只有在海邊而已。

憂梅雨不來,卻浪費大量地下水

記得小時候,外婆會在溪裡摸蜆,那是多數河川還很清澈的年代,小朋友會到岸邊跳水、游泳。可惜因為污染速度太快,現在的孩子們很難體驗這種「野放」的戲水樂趣。當天學長也帶了小女兒一起來,我們來到一處農地旁的溝渠,附近也有湧泉的泉眼,位置距離台中市交通要道的附近。

農田旁湧泉引水的渠道。圖片來源:gava.gava (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

其實這個都市有很好的條件塑造成「生態城市」,只是很多作為明顯不往這方向走。以這處蜆仔的生長地為例,良好水質與穩定水量是必要條件,豐沛且穩定的湧泉也提供這個機會,只是附近建案一直沒斷過,興建時都會往下挖掘地下室與地基空間。因地下水層很淺,建商乾脆把地下水抽乾,以獲得更穩固、更大的可用空間與地基,畢竟對他們而言,空間就是金錢;「寸土」難比「寸金」啊!

台中市建案常見的「地下水資源利用」方式,多半只是給個取水口而已。圖片來源:Penlock

光是台中市市區,因為建案興建時排掉的地下水估計每年起碼排掉9000萬公噸,幾乎是半座德基水庫(約1.7億公噸)的蓄水量。大量抽出的地下水平白流掉,在全台枯等梅雨的這個時刻,如此浪費水資源的行為格外諷刺。

更麻煩的是,地下水層的補注很不容易,政府單位與建商除了在建案旁設立免費取水口,並無太多積極作為。事實上,在2013年4月13日的新聞中,都發局自已也坦承「在進行都市設計審議時,都發局會對建商道德勸說,不要挖這麼深,並希望地下水能二度利用,建議建商開挖時把地下水接管引到附近的滯洪公園或儲存在其他地方,或者開放民眾去工地載水,但目前沒有成功案例。」

缺水台灣,亟需「節流」和「保水」

說到底,這樣一個寶貴的生物棲地具有多少價值呢?不管用農地、工地、還是建地評估,算出來的價值差異甚大。然而,對一個面臨極端氣候和自然災變威脅的島嶼來說,我們或許都低估了土地的生態價值和環境調適效益。

就以我們當天看到的自然湧泉,其實正是一種最天然的保水方式,它是地下水層因地形變化關係,裸露出地表而湧出的水泉,除了供應人們取水,也是許多生物的庇護所(Refuge),台灣很多地名都有「泉」或「水」字,如:玉泉、清泉、龍井、龍水、烏龍、龍頭,都與當地湧泉和水源地有關。

當野溪、溝壑被水泥包圍,暴雨後的逕流無法入滲地下,大量雨水只好往外發展。圖片來源:Penlock

可是,當愈來愈多透水層被柏油、水泥、建築物掩蓋,由雨水滲入而補注的水量變少,加上地下水被不當抽取,都一再削減台灣的可用水量。更麻煩的是,當原本該進入地下水層的降雨變成逕流,一旦超出都市的排水負量,就很容易變成淹水,到時候到底算是天災、還是人禍?耐人尋味。

看到孩子們開心地戲水與摸蜆,我不禁懷疑,在水資源短缺的台灣,能取得多少水源已經得看老天爺臉色了,假使我們再不重視「節流」和「保水」,將來受害的會是誰呢?別跟我說你不知道答案。

※本文轉載自低碳部落格,原文梅雨不來!水去那裡了?

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《 Aretha Franklin – I Knew You Were Waiting For Me (03:59) 》


《 Aretha Franklin – I Knew You Were Waiting For Me (03:59) 》

找到了! 威脅全球兩棲類動物的蛙壺菌「系」出東亞


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211912?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=d7980d3024-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-d7980d3024-84956681

找到了! 威脅全球兩棲類動物的蛙壺菌「系」出東亞

特生中心參與跨國研究 確認台灣蛙類未感染蛙壺菌症
2018年05月31日
環境資訊中心特約記者 廖靜蕙報導

環境出現蛙類,總讓人感到放心,由於牠們只能棲息在潔淨棲地,向來是環境中的重要指標物種。全球兩棲類約有7800種,近年來卻因感染蛙壺菌而拉警報.超過200種兩棲動物瀕臨滅絕邊緣,嚴重地威脅兩棲類生物多樣性。

發表於5月份《科學》期刊、一項跨國大規模研究報告,揭示蛙壺菌最早發生於20世紀亞洲地區,其擴散與兩棲類的全球交易(寵物、醫用和食用等目的)拓展有關,這項研究報告也成為該期封面故事,台灣研究團隊也參與其中。

蛙壺菌最新研究登上5月份Science期刊封面。圖片來源:特生中心

蛙類神秘消失  蛙壺菌是禍首 至今束手無策

蛙壺菌(Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis)簡稱為Bd,是一種透過蛙類皮膚感染,進而導致蛙類心臟衰竭的真菌,至今已引發上百個兩棲類物種死亡,且束手無策,而被國際自然保育聯盟(IUCN)列為世界百大外來入侵種。

1970年代,中美洲的森林裡,發生了許多兩棲類動物突然大量死亡案例,隨後,世界各地也陸續傳出多起類似案例。1990年代,研究人員才意識到這些神秘消失的兩棲物種,是全球性現象,直到1998年,學界才確認罪魁禍首是蛙壺菌。

然而距離蛙壺菌首次發現,至今幾十年後,蛙壺菌的起源和全球擴張的時間,仍存在許多爭議,研究人員一直無法確定牠來自何方、何時擴散。

為了找出答案,由倫敦帝國學院傳染病流行病學系的Simon O’Hanlon博士與Matthew Fisher博士召集了全球32個國家、38個研究單位的科學家共同參與了這一項蛙壺菌起源的研究,調查範圍包含六大洲,花了十年時間建立了全球蛙壺菌基因庫(Bd Library)。

在國內,農委會特生中心則充分掌握台灣兩棲類動物基本資訊,近年來陸續與美國、英國與德國共同進行了台灣兩棲類動物感染蛙壺菌與蠑螈壺菌的相關研究。這些表現使得倫敦帝國學院邀請特生中心兩棲類研究室加入團隊,共同合作蛙壺菌起源的跨國研究;東亞國家目前有日、韓、台三個國家加入。

原來「系」出韓國 隨著全球貿易趴趴走

研究人員分析全球各地蛙壺菌全基因組序列,繪製出這個真菌家族的演化樹,揭示了4個不同的蛙壺菌品系。而所有菌株品系都與朝鮮半島上發現的Bd ASIA-1菌株,擁有最多重疊序列,且Bd ASIA-1比任何其他品系的菌株有更高的遺傳多樣性。因此證明Bd ASIA-1為韓國特有品系,也就是說,在韓國並非外來入侵種;此外,它是為現代其他品系的祖先。

蝌蚪口器的蛙壺菌取樣。林春富攝,特生中心提供

對韓國蛙壺菌的野外族群調查結果也顯示,當地並沒有爆發蛙壺菌症導致兩棲類大量死亡的現象。研究結果支持東亞為蛙壺菌多樣性的熱點,也是現在全球蛙壺菌品系可能的發源地。

在4個蛙壺菌的品系中,引發兩棲類大量死亡的現象大都歸因於「全球性的蛙壺菌品系」,這是一種稱為Bd GPL(Global Panzootic Lineage)的致命菌株。

研究人員更藉由蛙壺菌的基因突變率,推算出Bd GPL品系是在約50~120年前,由亞洲向外擴展。此一時間點剛好符合兩棲類全球交易(寵物、醫用和食用等目的)擴展時間。

研究人員推測,除了寵物交易外,人類活動也可能直接或間接,通過航運、食用等行為,將受蛙壺菌感染的兩棲動物,散播到各地。

台灣兩棲類蛙壺菌量少、未爆發蛙壺菌症 有望找出關鍵密碼

台灣兩棲類包括有尾目山椒魚科以及無尾目蛙類6科,共2目7科42種,其中蛙類有37種。

依特生中心近8年來的研究顯示,台灣野生兩棲類族群感染蛙壺菌本島約為6%。林春富解釋,有蛙壺菌不等於有蛙壺菌症。研究人員依據蛙類體表上的菌株多寡以及是否有群聚感染判斷,菌株多、群聚感染是蛙壺菌症的兩大特徵,但台灣蛙類身上的菌株數少,已感染的個體並無死亡的風險,又未有群聚感染,因此並沒有蛙壺菌症。

台灣蛙類多樣性豐富,雖帶有蛙壺菌,卻未有蛙壺菌症。圖為諸羅樹蛙。攝影:吳仁邦

特生中心也從從各單位典藏的兩棲類標本,進行回溯檢測,發現台灣最早有蛙壺菌感染的個體為1990年所採得的梭德氏赤蛙Rana sauteri)標本。

此外,1994年及2003年的台灣山椒魚Hynobius formosanus)標本,以及2001年的阿里山山椒魚Hynobius arisanensis)標本,也有部分個體偵測到蛙壺菌感染,顯示蛙壺菌存在台灣已達數十年之久,卻未有群聚感染。在保育行動上,台灣除了加強跨境生物安全檢查外,持續與國際研究團隊合作相形重要。

「由於蛙壺菌系出亞洲,研究亞洲有感染但未發病的個體,有可能成為解決蛙壺菌感染的方法之一。」林春富表示,台灣蛙類與蛙壺菌之間,是否存在菌相平衡之道,或具備抑制蛙壺菌的蛋白質,都將成為未來研究方向,期待透過這些研究,找出其他地區蛙壺菌感染的解決之道!

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廖靜蕙

環境記者/自由撰稿人。從事社工10餘年,認知到畢竟是人的社會,再弱勢的人都可以為自己發言,決定轉投生態保育,為無法以人類語言發聲的生命與土地寫報導。現居台北市,與貓先生、龜小姐,微曦中閱讀,斗室中寫作。個人粉專「小麻通訊」。

 

《 Aretha Franklin – Freeway Of Love (04:07) 》


《 Aretha Franklin – Freeway Of Love (04:07) 》

有害空污物排放標準 環署拼7月再預告


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211930?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=d7980d3024-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-d7980d3024-84956681

有害空污物排放標準 環署拼7月再預告

2018年05月31日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導

環保署31日舉行「有害空污物排放標準」公聽會,這個子法主要是將民眾健康風險做為限值,要算出既有工廠個別的有害物排放標準。環團普遍表達支持,甚至指出落後美國太多,應該再加快期程並建議部分再加嚴;不過,業者卻對模擬試算仍有疑慮,要求環保署先公開模擬工具讓各界試算過後,再繼續後續的公告。

環保署則表示,模擬工具將在一兩個月內公開,有害空污物排放標準的再預告則目標暫訂最快7月推出。而有害空污物中的VCM、苯都是環署想優先處理的,除了這個排放標準,環署下半年也將拋出「熱區」管制機制的討論,高雄小港應會是優先名單。

由彰化遠望麥寮六輕。攝影:楊維晟。

有害空污物(HAPs)包括揮發性有毒污染物(VOCs)、重金屬、戴奧辛、酸性氣體等,近年獲社會關注,也成為環保署推動減排的重點。

有害空污物排放標準,主要對既有的特定行業所排放的有害空污物,面對環團遺憾此排放標準正式上路還要三年,中間要等二年公告、一年改正。空保處高級環境技術師戴忠良解釋,這與過去空泛給出兩三年緩衝期、期限到了卻才發現業者無法達成不同,這次除了要訂出排放標準,更是在過程中,讓個別業者與縣市環保局盤點其排放,與安排增設防制設備與制訂減量計畫,以求達到真的有效的減量。

環署預定2020年開始實施第一階段。二年內業者必須提出評估報告,環保單位則是確認模擬參數的正確性,並核可業者的評估報告,若是不符標準的業者,在第三、四年必須提出改善計畫,並完成改善符合標準。

此排放標準將納管約1000家業者,其中2020年第一波要優先納管的主要會是燃煤電廠、水泥廠、煉鋼廠的製程,他們因為排放重金屬、VOCs而遭列優先鎖定,將有72項有害物納管。後續尚有40多種,預計將在2021、2023年陸續加入。

有害空污排放標準與過去的排放標準不同,將是先訂容許環境濃度限值,在透過空氣擴散模擬工具來核算管道與逸散兩種排放,等於將由縣市環保局量身打造既存各廠排放量,區域內排放源的數量與排放量也將影響個別排放源能排放的量。而新設的工廠,則是在環評、申請許可時就遭管制。

戴忠良強調,這是環署空污整治的其中一環,在有害空污物排放標準上路前,相關的減量也已經一直在設法。

業者對模擬計算工具有疑慮 盼先試算再定標準

有害空污物排放標準已是進行第二次預告的程序,比起去年9月第一次預告,考量縣市環保局實際執法的能量,刪除了製程排放標準的小時值,新增的管道排放與管制逸散周界標準兩項,則引現行的「固定污染源空氣污染物排放標準」,以方便環保機關查核與執法。

不過參加公聽會的業者,普遍仍對空氣擴散模式工具的模擬結果採質疑的態度。化學工業責任協會等業者建議,環保署應該先公布模擬工具供業者試算,討論過後再定標準會較為妥當。戴忠良表示模擬工具過去環保署以自行對幾個重點大廠做過試算,目前正在納入本土係數,預料一兩個月內就會釋出模擬工具給業者試算。

台玻質疑過去已合法取得的操作許可與排放量,又是否將因此需重新處理?塑膠原料公會則擔憂,若是業者已經使用目前最好的防制、達到最好的標準,但是該區域的健康風險還是沒有辦法容許,那麼既有的業者又該怎麼辦?

科學園區公會更提醒,日前立院才完成《刑法》第190條之1的三讀,未來污染空氣、土壤、河川將面臨刑法,若有害空污排放標準訂得太嚴苛,將導致業者面臨刑法。

環團期待快上路 提醒加嚴管制、資訊公開

而環團大多肯定環署這項政策,除了要求盡快上路外,也建議在做更多的資訊公開,並再加嚴管制。

台灣環保聯盟副會長劉志堅表示,有害空污物對人類健康的影響不亞於PM2.5,應該加速管制。應以「80-20原則」,先從貢獻80%污染的那20%業者下手,並特別把他們公告出來,而且應該把MACT(最大可行控制技術)納入,以求有效率也最大化的控制有害空污物。

綠色公民行動聯盟研究員曾虹文要求,此排放標準必須做好資訊公開,相關的計算、模擬等資料,都應該揭露。台大風險中心研究員林木興建議,周界測定的頻率與地點,應該納入當地居民的意見,通知民眾一起參與,這樣的排放標排放標準才是立基在可受公評的容許環境濃度限值。

林木興更建議,曾經發生工安、環境污染事件的風險化學物質,與流行並學研究成果,都應該新增入管制種類,並要求企業申報。

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賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 Aretha Franklin – You Make Me Feel Like A Natural Woman (02:51) 》


《 Aretha Franklin – You Make Me Feel Like A Natural Woman (02:51) 》

環署實測大台北通勤空品 機車污染物暴露最高、排放第二


http://e-info.org.tw/node/211933?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=d7980d3024-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2018_04_17_COPY_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-d7980d3024-84956681

環署實測大台北通勤空品 機車污染物暴露最高、排放第二

2018年05月31日
環境資訊中心記者 賴品瑀報導

31日環保署空保處公布大台北都會區通勤期間空氣污染物暴露量的調查報告,搭乘不同交通工具通勤時,PM2.5暴露平均濃度分別為汽車7.6μg/m3、捷運21.9μg/m3、公車23.5μg/m3及摩托車32.1μg/m3。根據這個結果,環保署建議民眾多搭乘捷運系統及公車,才是保護自己也保護他人健康的選擇。

-11-1024
研究人員佩帶微型感測器,模擬民眾通勤型態,研究空氣污染物暴露量。圖片取自環保署簡報。

環保署於2017年的4、5月間,在大台北地區研究通勤期間空氣污染物暴露量。研究人員佩帶微型感測器模擬民眾通勤型態進行,在東起南港展覽館、西至亞東醫院、南達捷運新店站、北抵捷運北投站的區域內,以汽車、捷運、公車及摩托車各種交通工具,平均通勤距離約10.8公里。

空保處處長蔡鴻德指出,從他們蒐集到的PM2.5監測結果顯示,通勤空污暴露量明顯受到選擇通勤工具的影響,平均暴露量約為22.1μg/m3,而選擇使用摩托車通勤者,暴露平均濃度高達32.1μg/m3,因此建議民眾選擇多搭乘捷運系統及公車。

-8-1024
通勤空污暴露量明顯受到選擇通勤工具的影響。圖片取自環保署簡報。

蔡鴻德指出,雖然駕駛汽車的PM2.5暴露量7.6μg/m3是最低,但換算下來,以一台車以二名乘客來計算的話,單位乘客單趟產生通勤的空氣污染卻是最高,排放量可達0.31g,而捷運、公車及摩托車則分別為0.01、0.08及0.23g。

蔡鴻德提醒,選用摩托車的暴露最高、排放量也是第二高,是相當不建議使用的。騎乘摩托車時,空污暴露易受到大氣與機動車輛近距離排氣加成的影響,若民眾非得使用摩托車,建議應配戴口罩或是選擇遠離通勤尖峰路段。搭乘公車的暴露量高於駕駛汽車,是因為轉乘候車及車門開啟帶入等接觸外界的空氣,但整體而言,當車廂內的空調正常運作時,其車廂內PM2.5濃度可降至與汽車內相近。而腳踏車與步行屬短程通勤型態,雖然對空污沒有貢獻,卻是在短時間內發生暴露濃度升高現象,PM2.5暴露量平均濃度分別約29.2與24.5μg/m3,也需注意。

過去英國薩里大學研究報告(I. Rivas et al., 2017)指出,民眾於日常通勤時易暴露於多種空氣污染物的影響中,依據選擇不同型態的交通工具,所承受的空污健康風險程度亦不同。其中以搭乘地鐵時受影響最大,PM2.5的暴露量更明顯偏高(34.5 μg/m3),已趨近對敏感族群不健康的程度(35.5~54.4 μg/m3)。蔡鴻德表示,大台北捷運系統的空品是明顯比薩里大學的研究結果好,約落於AQI屬「普通」的級距(15.5~35.4μg/m3之間)。

-12-1024
大台北捷運系統的空品約落於AQI屬「普通」的級距。圖片取自環保署簡報。

蔡鴻德建議,在台北都會區內通勤時,民眾應盡量搭乘捷運系統與公車,除可減少交通工具的空氣污染排放量外,亦可降低通勤接觸的暴露量;若非使用汽、機車不可,則請避開通勤尖峰路段或做好自身防護工作,如配戴口罩及避開停等時間較長的路口,減少空氣污染及通勤時的空污暴露量,提升對健康的保障。

蔡鴻德表示,移動污染源佔全台空氣品質的影響約占1/3,而通勤時使用的運輸工具更影響空品與民眾的身體健康狀況。除了長期的2030年公車全面電動化的規畫外,環保署規劃全台1萬台微型空品監測裝置,今年也預計完成2~3000台的架設,主要以台中、高雄為第一波。蔡鴻德解釋,這一批微型空品監測裝置得到的即時資訊,就可以作為交通管制與調度的依據,將可改善交通空品。

喜歡這篇文章嗎?
快來媒體小農灌溉環境資訊中心吧!

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賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 Aretha Franklin – What I Did For Love (05:04) 》


《 Aretha Franklin – What I Did For Love (05:04) 》

Mysterious rise in banned ozone-destroying chemical shocks scientists


https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/16/mysterious-rise-in-banned-ozone-destroying-chemical-shocks-scientists

Mysterious rise in banned ozone-destroying chemical shocks scientists

CFCs have been outlawed for years but researchers have detected new production somewhere in east Asia

Scientists measure solar radiation, at the Glaciar Union camp in the Antarctica
 If the new emissions continue they could set back the recovery of the ozone layer by a decade. Photograph: Felipe Trueba/EPA

A sharp and mysterious rise in emissions of a key ozone-destroying chemical has been detected by scientists, despite its production being banned around the world.

Unless the culprit is found and stopped, the recovery of the ozone layer, which protects life on Earth from damaging UV radiation, could be delayed by a decade. The source of the new emissions has been tracked to east Asia, but finding a more precise location requires further investigation.

CFC chemicals were used in making foams for furniture and buildings, in aerosols and as refrigerants. But they were banned under the global Montreal protocol after the discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica in the 1980s. Since 2007, there has been essentially zero reported production of CFC-11, the second most damaging of all CFCs.

The rise in CFC-11 was revealed by Stephen Montzka, at the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Colorado, and colleagues who monitor chemicals in the atmosphere. “I have been doing this for 27 years and this is the most surprising thing I’ve ever seen,” he said. “I was just shocked by it.”

“We are acting as detectives of the atmosphere, trying to understand what is happening and why,” Montzka said. “When things go awry, we raise a flag.”

Erik Solheim, head of UN Environment, said: “If these emissions continue unabated, they have the potential to slow down the recovery of the ozone layer. It’s therefore critical that we identify the precise causes of these emissions and take the necessary action.”

CFCs used in buildings and appliances before the ban came into force still leak into the air today. The rate of leakage was declining steadily until 2013, when an abrupt slowing of the decline was detected at research stations from Greenland to the South Pole.

Scientists then embarked on an investigation, published in the journal Nature, to find out the cause. The detective work began by assessing whether there had been changes in how the atmosphere distributes and destroys CFC-11 that could explain the changed measurements. But this factor was mostly ruled out and in the most recent data – 2017 – it appears to have played no role at all.

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Next, the researchers looked at whether the release of CFC from older materials could have doubled, as required to explain the data. “But we don’t know of any folks who are destroying buildings at a much more dramatic rate than they were before,” said Montzka.

Lastly, the team considered whether the new CFC-11 was being produced as a by-product of some other chemical manufacturing process. But they ruled this out too, as the quantities involved are too high, representing a 25% rise in global emissions.

“You are left with, boy, it really looks like somebody is making it new,” said Montzka, who noted that the less damaging replacement for CFC-11 is more expensive to make.

“If the increased emissions were to go away [soon], it’s influence on the recovery date for the ozone layer would be minor,” he said. “If it doesn’t go away, there could be a 10-year delay, and if it continued to increase, the delay would be even longer.” The last option is a possibility, as if the new CFC-11 is being used in foams, then only a small fraction will have made it to the atmosphere so far and more could leak out for many years into the future.

Michaela Hegglin, at the University of Reading, UK, and not part of the research team said researchers had taken rigorous steps to rule out alternative explanations for the rise in CFC-11 when reaching their conclusion that new production must be occurring.

She said: “The study highlights that environmental regulations cannot be taken for granted and must be safe-guarded, and that monitoring is required to ensure compliance.” Prof Piers Forster, at the University of Leeds, UK, said: “This new study is atmospheric detective work at its finest.”

Paul Young, at Lancaster University, UK, said: “The Montreal Protocol has been rightly hailed as our most successful international environmental treaty, so the suggestion that there are possibly continued, unreported emissions of CFCs is certainly troubling and needs further investigation.”

Montzka said the world’s nations are committed to its enforcement. “I have a feeling that we will find out fairly quickly what exactly is going on and that the situation will be remedied,” he said. Even just the publicity about the new CFC-11 production could lead to its shutdown, he said: “Somebody who was maybe doing it purposefully will realise – oh, someone is paying attention – and stop doing it.”

 

有人在破壞臭氧層 氯氟碳化物劇增 排放源在東亞


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有人在破壞臭氧層 氯氟碳化物劇增 排放源在東亞

2018年06月01日
環境資訊中心綜合外電;姜唯 編譯;林大利 審校

英國衛報報導,科學家近日發現,全球禁用多年的臭氧破壞性化學物質氟氯碳化物(CFC)排放量驟升,原因不明。

科學家認為,除非找到肇事者並加以阻止,否則臭氧層的恢復可能會延遲十年。而新排放源已追踪至東亞,但還要進一步調查才能找到更精確的位置。

M.G.N. - Marcel(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
氟氯碳化物排放劇增。示意圖。圖片來源:M.G.N. – Marcel(CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

氟氯碳化物過去廣泛用於製造家具和建築物用的泡棉、氣膠和製冷劑。20世紀80年代人們發現南極上空的臭氧破洞後,全球透過蒙特婁公約禁用之。2007年以來,氟氯碳化物中破壞性第二強的CFC-11產量幾乎已經查不到。

美國國家海洋大氣管理局(National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,NOAA)科學家孟茲卡(Stephen Montzka)和負責監測大氣中化學物質的同事發現CFC-11排放量上升。「這行我已經幹了27年,這是我見過最驚人的事情。」孟茲卡說。

「我們是大氣層偵探團,試圖了解大氣中發生什麼事和背後原因,」孟茲卡說,「當事情不太對勁時,我們就要發出警訊。」

聯合國環境署負責人索爾海姆(Erik Solheim)說:「如果排放繼續增加,有可能減緩臭氧層的恢復。因此必須確定這些排放的確切原因並採取必要行動。」

禁令生效前已經用於建築物和電器中使用的氟氯碳化物至今仍然持續洩漏到大氣中。排放速度一直在下降,直到2013年,格陵蘭到南極的研究站發現下降幅度突然趨緩。科學家開始進行調查,評估大氣分散和分解CFC-11的能力是否有變化,但這個因素幾乎是被排除了,而最新2017年的資料顯示,這個因素似乎完全沒有作用。

接下來,研究人員檢視舊材料是否可能釋出如此大量、莫約兩倍的CFC。「但我們沒有找到有誰用比以前更戲劇化的速度摧毀舊建築物。」孟茲卡說。

最後,研究團隊探討是否有其他化學製程產生了CFC-11這個副產品。他們也排除了這一點,因為涉及排放量實在太高,全球排放量增加了25%。

「唯一的可能就是,有人正在製造新CFC-11。」

孟茲卡補充説,破壞性比較小的CFC-11替代品,製造成本比較高。「如果增加的排放量能迅速消失,那麼臭氧層恢復時程受到的影響會比較小。但如果沒能消失,可能會造成臭氧層恢復延後10年,如果持續增加,延遲得更久。」最後一種情境是可能的,當使用新的CFC-11於泡綿中,短期內只有一小部分會洩漏到大氣中,但之後會持續洩漏多年。

科學家將這份研究發表於《自然》期刊。

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參考資料

作者

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

林大利

於特有生物研究保育中心服務,小鳥和棲地是主要的研究對象。是龜毛的讀者,認為龜毛是探索世界的美德。

 

《 Aretha Franklin – A Change Gonna Come (04:24) 》


《 Aretha Franklin – A Change Gonna Come (04:24) 》

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