13 Poses to Relieve Tension Headaches


http://www.yogajournal.com/article/health/13-poses-to-relieve-tension/

13 Poses to Relieve Tension Headaches

When it comes to preventing or curing a headache, there is no substitute for a thorough, daily yoga program. The following sequence offers poses that are helpful for opening the chest and stretching and relaxing the upper back and neck. Include them in your regular practice if you are prone to headaches and see if they help bring some relief and new awareness. Breathe deeply and slowly during all the postures and remember to relax the forehead, eyes, jaw, and tongue. The first part of the program is prevention, practiced when you do not have a headache. The second part, beginning with Supta Baddha Konasana, may be helpful in relieving a headache when it first begins. You will have better results if you start stretching and releasing at the first sign of a headache, before the muscles go into spasm.

1. Tadasana (Mountain Pose): Discovering Alignment and Finding the Center

Standing upright with awareness is one basic way to discover your own unique posture. It is difficult to correct something until you have found out what is really there. Use the wall to identify your alignment, and then practice standing in the center of the room.

Stand with your back to the wall, with your feet together. If that is uncomfortable, separate the feet three or four inches. Plant the feet firmly, feeling the ground with the soles of the feet. Check the distribution of weight between the right foot and the left. Move front, back, and side-to-side on your feet to find the most balanced stance. Make sure that the arch of each foot is lifted, the toes spread apart. The placement of your feet becomes the foundation of your awareness of your whole body. Give yourself enough time to explore and discover how you are actually standing.

When you are ready to move on, firm and straighten the legs. Bring the tailbone and pubic bone towards each other, but do not suck in the abdominals: Lift them. There should be space between the wall and your lower back; do not flatten the lumbar curve. With your “mind’s eye,” go into the area below the navel, inside the belly, in front of the sacrum. Locate this “center” point. Extend the side torso up, lift the sternum without sticking out the ribs, and drop the shoulders. Take the tips of the shoulder blades and move them into the torso, opening the chest. Let the back of the head reach up. If the chin is raised, let it drop slightly, without tightening your throat; focus your eyes on the horizon. Make sure that the shoulders and back of the head both touch the wall. Relax any tension in the face and neck. Remember that your “center” resides in the area below the navel and in the belly, not in the neck and head. This exercise may feel very constricted if your head is normally forward of your shoulders. Use the wall to inform you, so that you know the relationship of your head to your shoulders, but try not to create more stress as you adjust your alignment.

On an exhalation, raise the arms up to the ceiling, bringing the elbows back by the ears. Let the arms grow from the shoulder blades. Stretch the little finger side of the hand and connect that stretch all the way down to the little toe and into the ground. Remember to keep the feet grounded, the legs strong, and the center of your pose in the area below the navel. Observe whether the movement of the arms has caused tension in the neck area. As you stretch up with the hands, bring the tips of the shoulder blades more deeply into the torso. Hold for a few breaths and then release on an exhalation.

2. Parsvottanasana Arms: Opening the Chest

Move a little away from the wall and roll the shoulders back. Clasp your elbows with your hands behind your back. If you have more flexibility you may join your palms behind your back, with the fingers pointing upward. On the exhalation, roll the upper arms back toward the wall, opening the chest between the sternum and shoulder. As you open, keep the ribs relaxed; make sure they don’t jut forward. Remember to stay grounded in your feet and center the movement below the navel. Relax the eyes, jaw, and tongue. Release on the exhalation. Change the arm on top, if you are clasping your elbows, and repeat.

3. Garudasana Arms: Opening Between the Shoulder Blades

This pose is helpful for relieving pain between the shoulder blades. It reminds us to keep that area open in the process of stretching the upper back. Wrap your arms around your torso, right arm under the left arm, hugging yourself. Exhale and bring the hands up, the left elbow resting in the right elbow, with the hands rotated palms towards each other. Breathe and feel the stretch; after a few breaths, raise the elbows up higher, to the level of the shoulder. Remain grounded in the feet, centered in the area below the navel. Relax the eyes, jaw, and tongue. Feel the expansion of the inhalation between the shoulder blades and the release on the exhalation. Lower the arms on the exhalation and repeat with the left arm under the right.

4. Gomukhasana Arms: Stretching the Shoulders

This pose opens and facilitates movement in the shoulders, which helps correct the rounded upper back and forward head position. Plant your feet firmly in a parallel position and extend the sides of the torso up, pressing down through the sitting bones. The shoulders drop down, and the head rests on the body’s midline. Lift the right arm into the air (with a belt in your hand if you have tight shoulders), stretching from the little finger side. Bend the right elbow and reach down between the shoulder blades. Bring your left arm behind your back and swing the left hand up to meet the right, clasping the hands or taking hold of a belt. Relax the ribs. Lift the right elbow into the air and drop the left elbow down. Make sure that the spine stays extended and is not leaning left or right to compensate for tightness in the shoulders. Release on an exhalation and reverse the arm positions.

5. Simple Seated Twist: Relieving Strain in the Back, Rotating and Stretching the Neck

Sit on the chair, feet firmly on the ground, sitting bones pressing down, sides of the torso extended. On the exhalation, reach around and take your right arm to the back of the chair and your left hand to your right knee. Extend the back of your head up and make sure the head is on the midline. Turn on the exhalation, breathing low into the belly, then into the chest. Lastly, turn the head and eyes. Remember to keep the shoulders down, the chest open, and the shoulder blade tips in. Center the movement below the navel and in the belly; relax the eyes, jaw, and tongue.

6. Setu Bandha (Bridge Pose): Actively Opening the Chest

Lie down on your back with your knees bent and feet hip-width apart. Roll the shoulders under and reach the hands towards the feet, keeping the little finger side of the hands on the floor. On the exhalation, raise the buttocks, lifting the sternum towards the chin. Elongate the back of the neck without pushing it into the floor; you want the neck to stretch, not flatten. Interlocking the fingers on the ground under the back helps to roll the shoulder blades under and is an interesting variation. Relax the facial muscles and jaw, breathe deeply, and come down on an exhalation. This pose is not appropriate during the second half of pregnancy, or if you have been diagnosed with spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis.

7. Supta Baddha Konasana: Passively Opening the Chest, Releasing Tension From the Neck

This pose can be done when you first feel signs of a headache. It opens the chest, and with the head resting, encourages the neck to relax. It is best done with the eyes closed and covered with an eye bag, a wrap, or a blanket. Lie back on a bolster or a narrow stack of three blankets, with your head supported on an additional blanket. The lower edge of the blankets should come directly into contact with the buttocks to support the lower back. The chin should drop down so that there is an elongation of the neck muscles, particularly the ones at the base of the skull.

Bring the soles of the feet together and spread the knees apart, supported by an additional blanket roll, or if this is uncomfortable, straighten the legs and support the knees with a blanket roll. Experiment with the height of the support to find the most comfortable position for your body. Breathe deeply and slowly, relaxing the forehead, eyes, jaw, and tongue. To come out of the pose, put the soles of the feet on the ground with the knees bent and roll to the side. Do not do this pose if you have been diagnosed with spondylolysis or spondylolisthesis.

8. Supported Child’s Pose: Resting the Upper Back and Releasing the Neck

Sit on a folded blanket with your knees bent and your feet under your buttocks. Separate your knees more than hip-width apart and bring your feet together. Bring your torso forward, resting it on a stair-stepped arrangement of blankets or a bolster, adjusted to a comfortable height. Pull the support into your belly. Drop your chin towards your chest as you rest your head. You may want an additional blanket to support your forehead, but continue to lengthen the neck. Dropping the chin to the chest provides a gentle stretch to the back of the neck, right below the skull. The arms should rest on the floor, palms down, elbows bent, hands near the head.

9. Supported Forward Bend: Releasing and Relaxing the Neck

Sit on the floor in front of a chair with your legs crossed, with enough blankets on the seat so your forehead can rest on the blankets without strain, or if this is difficult, sit with the legs straight under the chair. Rest your head on the chair seat or blankets with your arms under your forehead. If your legs are straight, pull the chair over your legs towards your belly. Drop the chin towards the chest to gently stretch the neck muscles. Let the weight of the head fall down onto the chair seat. Breathe deeply and slowly.

10. Supported Ardha Uttanasana (Half Forward Bend): Stretching the Lower Back, Relaxing the Upper Back and Neck

Stand in front of a table stacked with blankets high enough so that when you bend over and rest your torso on them, you are forming a right angle. Extend the spine and rest the arms straight forward or crossed, whichever is more comfortable. Drop the chin towards the chest and let the neck gently stretch. Breathe deeply and slowly.

At this point, if the headache has improved, do the next two poses. If the pain has continued, go to Viparita Karani, or rest flat on the ground in Savasana with the eyes covered and a blanket under the head.

11. Adho Mukha Svanasana (Downward Dog): Deeply Stretching the Back, Shoulders, and Legs

This position should be done with the head resting on a support and the chin moving towards the chest to elongate the neck. If possible, use the resistance of a belt secured to door handles, or a partner and a belt at the top of the thighs to bring the spine into more release. Begin on hands and knees; as you exhale, turn the toes under and lift the sit bones, straightening the legs and arms. Press your hands into the ground as the base of the spine moves diagonally up. The weight of the head will create a stretch in the neck. Watch that the ribs do not sink down; lift them to create a space between the shoulder blades and to avoid jamming the spine. Come down on an exhalation.

12. Viparita Karani: Inverting the Blood Flow and Calming the Mind

Since this pose increases blood flow to the head, it is excellent in the beginning stage of a headache. But if you are having migraine symptoms, indicating that the blood vessels are dilated, and if the pain increases, skip this pose and rest in savasana. Do not do this pose if you have hiatal hernia, eye pressure, retinal problems, heart problems, or disc problems in the neck, or during menstruation or pregnancy.

Lying on the floor with a blanket or bolster under your lower back, place your legs up against the wall. Remember to drop the chin down, creating length in the neck. Cover your eyes with an eye bag or wrap. Some people find headache relief in this pose when they place a weight, such as a sand bag, on the head, with one end on the forehead and the other draped over the top of the head onto the floor. This additional pressure helps to drop the head further into the ground, releasing the strain in the neck muscles.

13. Savasana (Corpse Pose): Relaxing Completely

Lie on your back on the floor with your eyes covered and a blanket under your neck and head. You may put an additional blanket under your knees. If you are pregnant, lie on the left side, extending the bottom leg and bending the top one, with a blanket under the top knee. Relax completely, breathe deeply, and let go.


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Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects


http://www.caandesign.com/modern-camino-real-drive-home-in-palm-springs-by-ojmr-architects/

Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects

Architects: OJMR-Architects
Location: Palm Springs, California, USA
Year: 2015
Photo courtesy: OJMR-Architects
Description:

OJMR-Architects completed the design of this modern home, a one level residence located in Palm Springs. With a contemporary exterior defined by a high level of originality, the project easily stands out in its neighborhood.

ultramodern residence in californiaModern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-12Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-11Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-10Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-09Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-08Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-07Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-06Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-05Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-04Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-03Modern Camino Real Drive Home in Palm Springs by OJMR-Architects-02front view of the residence

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Arguelles Apartment Refurbishment into bright wooden new home


http://www.caandesign.com/arguelles-apartment-refurbishment-bright-wooden-new-home/

Arguelles Apartment Refurbishment into bright wooden new home

Architects: Carrascal•Blas
Location: Argüelles, Madrid, Spain
Year: 2016
Area: 1.023 ft²/ 95 m²
Photo courtesy: Guiomar Martín Domínguez
Description:

“An awkward distribution, typical of speculative architecture in 1950s Madrid, constituted the point of departure in this renovation, as much as an opportunity to re-think domestic inner space.

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The commission aimed at the thorough transformation of a 95-square-meter apartment in the central district of Argüelles, which was very much conditioned by the dwelling’s unusual depth, i.e. a considerable distance between the entrance and the main, exterior rooms. The design responded by introducing unexpected relationships while valuing uncommon spaces, often deemed residual.

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Such a strategy results, in the first place, in a careful articulation between the entrance, the kitchen plus office, and the hallway. The latter’s spinal role within the flat made it worthy of a special treatment through geometry, so reflecting the layout’s irregularity, as well as by a play of quivering textures integrated in the continuous panelling of the surrounding walls and lattices, all in lacquered wood.

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In second place, the renovation seeks to preserve the flat’s identity by the modulation of light, the use of warm tones in wooden overlays and hydraulic tiling, or the restoration of the traditional, hard-wood floors, in a herringbone pattern with edgings.

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In the main rooms, the ampleness of the original height is emphasized by lowering the hallway and server spaces, as well as by particularizing the ceilings at different places: entrance (pyramid), office (pitched roof) and dining room (gilded, with a curved moulding). The combination of different textures and tones in wood, along with the variation among stances result in a spatial interplay of surprise and familiarity.

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Including demolitions, the work had to be ready in barely three months, so leading to the use of dry solutions for the partition walls and their facing. Speed was thus made compatible with the high quality of detailing and materials in the final result.”

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Minimalist apartment design focused on raw materials and pure forms by Jonathan Stene


http://www.caandesign.com/minimalist-apartment-design-focused-raw-materials-pure-forms-jonathan-stene/

Minimalist apartment design focused on raw materials and pure forms by Jonathan Stene

Architects: Jonathan Stene
Location: Paris, France
Year: 2016
Area: 915 ft²/ 85 m²
Photography:©Agathe TISSIER

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Small Courtyard House on White River by Robert Hutchison Architect


http://www.caandesign.com/small-courtyard-house-on-white-river-by-robert-hutchison-architect/

Small Courtyard House on White River by Robert Hutchison Architect

Architects: Robert Hutchison Architect
Location: Greenwater, Washington, USA
Year: 2014
Photo courtesy: Mark Woods
Description:

This little living arrangement situated on the banks of the White River five miles from Mt. Rainier unobtrusively mixes into the encompassing woodland. A passage yard serves as a move space from outside to inside, and keeps the pervasive elk crowds under control. A steel-clad chimney mass isolates the front room from a secured open air porch.

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By working tirelessly with our customer (who likewise served as General Contractor for the task), the building foot shaped impression was kept as conservative as could be allowed to minimize site unsettling influence. The home typifies the little home living development through its accentuation on configuration over size.

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Modern penthouse situated on the 11th floor in a high-rise in Taipei


http://www.caandesign.com/modern-penthouse-situated-11th-floor-high-rise-taipei/

Modern penthouse situated on the 11th floor in a high-rise in Taipei

Architects: Ganna Design
Location: Taipei, Taiwan
Year: 2016
Photo courtesy: Siew Shien Sam /MWphotoinc
Description:

“Advantage:
The acreage of this project provides more flexibility to arrange rooms. Sufficient natural illumination in the house makes lighting design easier. Also, since it is in 11th floor in a high rise, the window view is one of superiority.

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Disadvantage:
There were too many scattered corners in this house, making the whole layout incomplete. Besides, the original condition of the house was a high ceiling house, which made the height of the windows various and limited the development of spatial arrangement. The formation of pillars was also a serious problem to hinder the unification of each space.

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Clients’ Attitude toward Life:
We believe that everyone has his or her own dream house in mind. The male house is and introverted lawyer, but he is also gentle and soft while facing his wife and two little daughters. That’s why he accepts all the ideas proposed by the hostess.

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We try to convince him that even light color or some colors girls favor can be presented in a textured way. He agrees and chooses pink to be the color of furniture settings. His choice means not only the respectfulness for his beloved family but also his change from a simple life to lively colorful life with families.

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This 30-years old house, which owned by the hostess’ parents, is place filled with memory for the hostess. Therefore, we preserve those elements and stuff meaningful for her, and combine her ideal of a dream house to extend the love in her live and to give the old house a new life.

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Design Concept of this project:
The original condition of the house is equipped with sufficient rooms for the family. The designers made the first floor to be common areas, including a kitchen, a dining area, a living room and an indoor playground. The wide cement wall and the long dining table in front of it are the main areas for cooking and social activities.

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The second floor was designed to be the place for the main room and the kid’s room. Since the hostess was lived with her younger sister and really cherished her childhood, she hopes her two daughters can live as happy as she did; they can be companied by each other and have great time together.

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Concept of Interior Spatial Arrangement.
Kitchen/Dining area:
Because the hostess’ sister lives near the house, these two families are accustomed to have a lunch together. Hence, kitchen is an important place for them to get closer to each other.

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The couple specializes in Chinese cuisine and Western dessert individually, the kitchen is designed a place to put two refrigerators to store a large amount of food ingredients. Besides, a kitchen island connects the dining table so that the host can interact directly with guests.

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Storage:
There are enough places for storage in this house. Based on the demand of store the hostess ’collection of cups books, the designers plans an entire wall of bookcase behind the TV wall.

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Arrangement of Traffic Line and Space:
Let’s illustrate each area as below:
Main Wall in the dining area:
Considered the pillar, we try to spilt the façade into several sizes, and adopt cement finished, veneer, and painted glass three materials. The cement finished wall is the ground color of this house. Besides, we use uneven dyed veneer in order to create colorful main wall with various texture and colors.

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The guest toilet and shower were hidden on the left side of the main wall, as well as were the kitchenware and fridge on the right side. On this broad wall, we deliberate use some open squares as shown as the cabinets, making the overall picture balanced and vivid.

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Wooden floorings:
When we re-plan the house, wooden flooring is the first one we decide to adopt. The lower black wooden flooring presents the calmness of the host, and contrast to the white wall. The higher wooden flooring is used to be the main theme of the space.

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Staircase:
Colorful glass serves as a partition wall of a storage room. Natural light can be projected through the staircase and create a wonderful performance stage for light to make different image on the white wall and on the black staircase.

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Natural Lighting and Overall Lighting Design:
Since the house is equipped with sufficient natural illumination, people in the house do not need to turn on the light in daytime. However, the lighting designed has not been neglected. For example, the designers choose a crystal chandelier in the master’s bedroom in order to dot the fineness in the simplicity. So do the two chandeliers in the common areas.

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Color Configuration Design and Adoption of Soft Decorative Assembly:
White is a color that can cover up some fragmented blocks, so we use white to be the main color on the wall. Then we choose black to be the color of floorings. From top to the bottom, the color is from light to dark. Besides, pink furniture dots the space and vitalizes the house. On the second floor, each bedroom has theme settings of color configuration.

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With the illumination of natural sunlight, the corner in the staircase becomes a center bringing colors and two layers together. The idea of colorful glass partition extends from pink furniture and pink wardrobe. Like a color palette, this corner can be projected with various colors while lighting by the sunlight. In addition, this corner is also a wonderful and peaceful place for this Christian family.

Design Concept Description:
Chorus
This is a place full of memories of growth for the hostess. She grown up and lived with her parents in this house, which is a 30 years house with mezzanine. Regarding to the design genre, the style, influenced by the religion of this family and the two little daughters, tends to be changed from sedate dark to vigorous colors. The design point is the colorful window ornamented in the stairwell.  The concept of this colorful window generates from beautiful glass windows in a church. This window view provides a wonderful corner for the users to take a breath and think deeply.

The lower layer is used to be common areas. The overall adoption starts from black wood floors. Designers connect the open kitchen with a long dining table. By doing so, the users in the house can feel a sense of extensiveness. The main wall in the dining room is cement finish plus dyed veneer and painted glass, creating a multi-layer color change.

The upper layer is used as private areas, the master’s bedroom and the kid’s room. Lotus color is the main color is the master’s bedroom and pink is the main color in the kid’s bedroom. The color adoption clear presents the characteristics of different users. In a word, through the renovation, this family can live in a familiar space, where is full of accumulated memories, with a new face.”

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Urban Treehouse by baumraum


http://www.caandesign.com/urban-treehouse-by-baumraum/

Urban Treehouse by baumraum

Location: Zehlendorf, Berlin, Germany
Year: 2014
Area: 226 sqft
Photo courtesy: Laura Fiorio
Description:

The Urban Treehouse is a family project and is based on the initiative of the grandfather Hans-Joachim and his grandson Kolja, who ultimately implemented the project. Once more, it is conceived as an experiment and a research project for new construction and housing in tune with nature. It is intended to serve as an oasis and inspire friends and guests of the family, as well as students and those interested in architecture. We were very enthusiastic when the developer, Kolja Stegemann, approached us with the idea of implementing treehouses in the urban environment of Berlin. Treehouses are normally associated with a rural environment or natural surroundings. Thus, such an undertaking is somewhat rare and very appealing for a planner. In Berlin, one is in good company with regard to small, extraordinary buildings. Here, there mare many alternative projects, which often with small budgets occupy niches in the city. As planners, we looked forward to contributing to the tradition of architectural culture in Berlin through this task.

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The district of Zehlendorf is characterised by somewhat bourgeois residential buildings with larger properties and gardens. There are not many multi-storey residential buildings here, unlike many other parts of Berlin. The special feature of the site lies in its outstanding location. Bordering the forest, it is located in the immediate vicinity of the beautiful lakes of Krumme mLanke and Schlachtensee. The fact that this land was not built on earlier is surely a stroke of luck and is certainly due to the specific demands of the family. The treehouses were to cover a relatively small proportion of land. Thus, the usual requirement of using the last available square metre profitably does not apply here. Of course, the preservation of the tree population on the 650 square metre (6,996.5 square foot) garden property was one of the essential concerns of the developer.

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After studying various designs, two cubic units were created – each with 21 square metres (226 square feet) of living space. Both buildings hover on a four metre (thirteen foot) high base and are equipped with a covered exterior surface at the same height, as well as a lower terrace at a height of 2.60 metres (8.5 feet). For one of the treehouses, the intermediate level and both flights of stairs are supported by flexible suspensions from the oak. The building’s utilities, supply circuit and storage space for garden tools and waste are located in the base that is lined with larch slats. The load-bearing design, supports and frame above it consist of galvanised steel sections. Solid prefabricated five-layer spruce panels are used in the walls, ceiling and floor.

Urban-Treehouse-03

The advantage of this construction lies in its structural and ecological qualities. These solid wooden parts have a high insulating quality, are breathable, have a high heat storage capacity and can be installed quickly and easily. The rear-ventilated façade consists of aluminum composite panels. Depending on the angle of the light, this can result in a vivid interplay of colour on the outer envelope of the buildings. The interior provides everything one could possibly need: a bathroom with a shower, a lightflooded interior featuring a kitchenette and comfortable bed, as well as some beautiful home accessories. When it comes to the wall and ceiling panels, the solid wood spruce panels have been left visibly in their natural state.

Urban-Treehouse-04

The Urban Treehouses are places that enrapture, inviting one to play and reflect and what is more, to look at things objectively and change perspectives in other words, these are inspirational places to gather strength. The two treehouses are situated precisely at the transition from city to countryside and thus connect both worlds – vibrant Berlin with restorative scenery. Shortly before the start of construction, Hans- Joachim Stegemann died in old age. Unfortunately, he was not able to witness the completion of the treehouses and the development of his idea to build something unusual on his land. The treehouses are dedicated to him and his wife. We would like to thank Hans-Joachim Stegemann and his grandson Kolja for this beautiful project.

Urban-Treehouse-05Urban-Treehouse-06Urban-Treehouse-07Urban-Treehouse-08Urban-Treehouse-09Urban-Treehouse-10Urban-Treehouse-11Urban-Treehouse-12Urban-Treehouse-13Urban-Treehouse-14Urban-Treehouse-15Urban-Treehouse-16Urban-Treehouse-17Urban-Treehouse-18Urban-Treehouse-19Urban-Treehouse-20Urban-Treehouse-21Urban-Treehouse-22Urban-Treehouse-23

Thank you for reading this article!

 

33 Kinds of Joys of Life darken theme flat by Taipei Base Design Center


http://www.caandesign.com/33-kinds-joys-life-darken-theme-flat-taipei-base-design-center/

33 Kinds of Joys of Life darken theme flat by Taipei Base Design Center

Architects: Taipei Base Design Center
Location: Taipei City, Taiwan
Photography: ©Kyle Yu
Description:

““33 Kinds of Joys of Life” is a new flat that on the 4 th floor of 10 floors, the construction company offered the equipment of kitchen and two bathrooms, but in the other rooms there are only partition walls and homogeneous tile floors. The advantage of this flat is the large French window that brings natural light into the room.

The owners are a couple. Both of their jobs are related to fashion, and they visit modern cities quite often. Thus we could spend much less time of defining “What is fashion”, but put more emphasis on how to connect this flat with their life concept tightly together. The point of the design becomes “open” and “free”. Except for some spaces which need to be hidden, we tried to avoid ceiling and partition walls. Even in the sleeping area which needs extreme quietness, we reduced visual clutter and avoided the traditional way to define the partition by its function. In this way, the users can do daily works and activities in any corner of this space, instead of staying in the specific place and being limited by space and equipment.

Before entering the multifunctional living room, there are shoe and clothes closets. In the living room, we used a 360 degree rotatable video/audio wall as partition, which satisfies the video/audio needs by different angles. Chinese and western style kitchen is half hidden and half open. The hidden part is made for the owner’s cooking habit and the storage need, and the open part is connected with an irregular long table which is the focus of the space. Equipment for drinking water and making some snacks offers the functions of sharing and interaction.

We’ve integrated the half transparent master’s bedroom and bathroom with separate wet & dry area in a smooth traffic flow. In this way, the needs from getting up, washing up and dressing up are all satisfied in the same time, which makes the process more convenient and each step won’t disturb the other.

This project started from the end of year 2014. The interesting part is the personalities of this couple; they had really appropriate team work during the communication process of design. Optimistic wife sees the big picture and cares about how to live, while the careful husband focuses on the details and even observes the difference of material under the light.

Until now, we still remember the sentence through the phone: “what we want is perfection.”, with gentle but firm voice.”

Thank you for reading this article!

 

《 Nina Simone – Strange Fruit 》


《 Nina Simone – Strange Fruit 》

Southern trees bear strange fruit,
Blood on the leaves and blood at the root,
Black bodies swinging in the southern breeze,
Strange fruit hanging from the poplar trees.
Pastoral scene of the gallant south,
The bulging eyes and the twisted mouth,
Scent of magnolias, sweet and fresh,
Then the sudden smell of burning flesh.
Here is fruit for the crows to pluck,
For the rain to gather, for the wind to suck,
For the sun to rot, for the leaves to drop,
Here is a strange and bitter crop
Songwriters
WIGGINS, DWAYNE P. / PEARL, MAURICE / ALLAN, LEWIS
Published by
Lyrics © Warner/Chappell Music, Inc.

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

一次搞懂永續、永續發展、永續轉型:問永續轉型為何物?(上)


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202837?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=ac1523388a-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_25&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-ac1523388a-84956681

一次搞懂永續、永續發展、永續轉型:問永續轉型為何物?(上)

 建立於 2017/02/10

作者:賴慧玲(荷蘭鹿特丹伊拉斯姆斯大學博士班)

過去十年來,「永續轉型」(sustainability transitions) 不時出現在政策文件、倡議文宣、和學術研究中。為什麼這個詞彙突然暴紅?永續(性)、永續發展、永續轉型,彼此有何差異?

談論永續,不能只看「經濟發展」

永續 (性) (sustainability) 一詞由來已久,也出現在1987年的聯合國世界環境與發展委員會發表的《我們共同的未來》 (Our Common Future,或稱《布倫特蘭報告》) 中。永續(性)常跟「永續發展」一詞混用。兩者的定義皆有允許多重詮釋的模糊空間,但不脫「滿足當前世代與跨世代追求生活福祉的需求,並在人類社會、經濟活動、和生態環境之間創造互惠共榮的關係」基本概念。不過,和「永續發展」相比,永續 (性)至少有三個優點。

滿布沙灘的人造垃圾。人類活動與經濟行為的過度發展,嚴重衝擊環境生態與地球資源,衍生出許多如何「永續」的思考。圖片來源:本會資料照。

首先,自上世紀以來,許多由歐美主導的國際援助計畫,讓不少低度發展國家的人民和環境飽受剝削,備受爭議。因此甩掉「發展」這個詞彙,能讓永續概念擺脫相關的負面聯結。再者,永續 (性)並未預設經濟發展的必要性,保留了許多空間討論經濟要不要成長?或採取何種模式較好?在「綠色經濟」正夯的今日格外適用。

最後,永續 (性)能提供更細緻的語彙來探討多重面相,學者Paehlke曾在1999年區分出三種層次的永續概念:涵蓋所有經濟、環境和社會面向的「整體永續」 (sustainability),探討環境保護和保育價值的「環境永續」(environmental sustainability)、和強調妥善管理自然資源以維持當代社會生產和消費活動的「資源永續」(resource sustainability)。幫助識別隱藏在永續名詞下不同的意義層次,避免雞同鴨講或混為一談。

比方說,「資源永續」實作上可能會將河川視為「工業、農業、民生用水的供應者」,試圖將不同水域、水質、用途、和社會情境下的水,以同樣單位加以量化,目的偏向「讓水資源的分配與供應公平且不虞匱乏」。這類思維強調自然替人類服務,雖有助於管理自然資源,且符合市場經濟和工程科學的操作邏輯,卻可能輕忽了其他價值(如河川在美學、文化和生態面的意義),結果不一定能符合強調維持自然環境健全運作的「環境永續」目標。

同樣的,10萬公噸的水,對農夫和工廠兩者而言,不僅創造的產值不同,後續的環境社會影響也不一樣。前者用完後可補注地下水層,後者則須經廢水處理再排向大海,對生態和社會的衝擊程度,很難憑水量或產值的數據一概而論。因此,若僅以資源永續的角度來思考和制定政策,不一定能達成社會、經濟和環境面的「整體永續」目標。

看到這不難發現,永續之名下的做法,就跟「斯斯」一樣,不是只有一種。不同永續層次之間可能存在著競合關係,也不一定皆能如主流定義所宣稱地達成環境、社會和經濟三贏。哪一種永續觀念和做法獲得推行,不僅涉及「價值觀」的取捨,更牽涉難以避免的「犧牲」,不該因永續願景的美好而輕忽。

永續轉型,意為「系統性創新」

更重要的是,永續 (性)還能和「創新」及「轉型」等概念連結。

1995年,美國國家科學院 (National Academy of Sciences) 永續發展委員會 (Board on Sustainable Development) 便曾進行情境分析,認為可以在不依賴科技奇蹟和社會革命的情況下,於2050 年達成能源、資源、就業各方面皆符合世界人口需求、減少貧窮飢荒、同時維持地球生態系統的「永續轉型」 (sustainability transition),前提是要在價值觀、生活型態、經濟等面向進行巨大變革。

但直到2000年代後期,轉型概念才開始在永續的討論中扮演要角。這和傳統永續發展議程的失落息息相關。許多人都發現,永續發展議程問世近30年後,區域發展不均和環境惡化非但未能緩解、而且似乎越演越烈。

例如,2008年國際自然保護聯盟 (IUCN) 在《永續的轉型:通往一個人道與多元的世界》(Transition to Sustainability: Towards a Humane and Diverse World) 便指出,過往永續議程試圖將環境關懷鑲嵌至資本主義邏輯,卻形成一種「路徑依賴」(path-dependent),結果是一堆漂綠的「永續產業」(sustainability industry) ,假環境與經濟雙贏的美名,行「照舊經營」 (Business as usual) 之實,讓人們容易誤以為「不用改變什麼,就能達到永續發展」。如今越來越多民間團體、學者和跨政府機構都主張,現有經濟體制需要更多變革。關於「綠色經濟」、「低碳經濟」、「綠色成長」等新概念的研究,即是從此覺醒潮流中興起。

那麼永續轉型到底是什麼呢? 為了回答這個大哉問,過去二十年來有不少跨領域學者提供了豐富的理論和實證研究,組成了跨國的永續轉型研究社群 (sustainability transitions studies)。他們發展出不少理論和概念來描繪轉型發生的多重路徑,試圖挑戰這種被「閉鎖」在既有經濟發展模式的「路徑依賴」。

2012年一篇介紹永續轉型研究社群的論文裡,Markard等學者將永續轉型定義為「長時間、多面向、和根本的轉化過程,既有社會–科技系統被轉換到更永續的生產和消費模式。」即大規模和結構性的「系統性創新」(system innovation)。試圖跳脫以前永續議程的「科技管理」思維,不再將眼光侷限於改善科技和制度效能,更進一步觸及隱藏在背後的社會和文化結構。

這也讓永續轉型研究的著眼點和其他關注永續的領域不同。例如,從永續轉型研究的角度來看,工業生態學所提倡的循環型工業生產體系,雖然可以創造更永續的生產和消費模式,但比較偏向「創新系統」(innovation system) 思維,亦即提升工業生產過程與市場消費的綠化程度,而非強調多重深層結構轉變的「系統性創新」。前者著重於可觸摸和量化的科技及物質資源層次,例如以最少的能源和最有效率的物質資源循環利用,改造工業體系的產銷鏈。因此,容易輕忽科技與工業系統所鑲嵌的社會文化脈絡,未能進一步挑戰支撐著現行不永續發展的社會、文化和政治結構。

以交通部門為例,永續轉型研究除了關注化石燃料汽車的產銷、使用和法令政策,也會探究哪些價值觀、社會規範、生活習慣、和對汽車的認知,支持了汽車產業的興起,讓汽車成為最主要的交通工具和生活必需品。這些現行制度和既得利益會造成路徑依賴,當路徑依賴被挑戰時,轉型才得以發生。

由此,永續轉型跨越了傳統永續發展的「雙贏」論述,因為轉型的過程必有陣痛,而且還會產生「贏家」與「輸家」,甚至還必須做出不利經濟成長的艱難決定。即便市場經濟是現代社會相當重要的體制,也只是眾多交互影響結構裡的一種,而非全貌。(待續)

※ 本文轉載自 低碳生活部落格 

參考資料

  • Adams, W.M. and S.J. Jeanrenaud (2008) ‘Transition to Sustainability: Towards a Humane and Diverse World’, IUCN Future of Sustainability Initiative 2008. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.
  • Dryzek, J.S. (1997) The Politics of the Earth: Environmental Discourse. (1 edn) New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Geels, F.W. and J. Schot (2007) ‘Typology of Sociotechnical Transition Pathways’, Research Policy 36: 399-417.
  • Grin, J., J. Rotmans and J. Schot (2010) ‘Conclusion: How to Understand Transitions? how to Influence them?’, in J. Grin, J. Rotmans and J. Schot (eds) Transitions to Sustainable Development: New Directions in the Study of Long Term Transformative Change, pp. 320-337. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Kates, R.W., T.M. Parris and A.A. Leiserowitz (2005) ‘What is Sustainable Development? Goals, Indicators, Values, and Practice’, Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 47(3): 8-21.
  • Paehlke, R. (1999) ‘Towards Defining, Measuring and Achieving Sustainability: Tools and Strategies for Environmental Valuation’, in E. Becker and T. Jahn (eds) Sustainability and the Social Sciences: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to Integrating Environmental Considerations into Theoretical Reorientation, pp. 243-263. New York: Zed Books.
  • Smith, A., J.-P. Voß and J. Grin (2010) ‘Innovation Studies and Sustainability Transitions: The Allure of the Multi-Level Perspective and its Challenges’, Research Policy 39: 435-448.

作者

賴慧玲

Undisciplined. 學習當個研究者、記者和翻譯。追逐著新的境界,在回首中不斷向前。

 

《 Gene Chandler – Rainbow 》


《 Gene Chandler – Rainbow 》

There’s a rainbow in my heart
That reminds me of how we parted
And I, I know my love is gone forever
But deep down in my heart I’ll love her forever
There’s a rainbow, ohh in my heart
Baby, baby, baby, come on my baby
Now listen to me
I’m down on my knees, oh, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah, yeah
Please listen to my plea, oh, yeah, yeah, yeah
I’m looking up above oh, yeah, up above
Praying for your love
Baby, baby, baby, come on now my baby
Come on stop this rainbow
Come on now baby, and stop this rainbow
And I know the things I done to you was wrong
I’m asking you to give me one more chance
Just one more chance to prove to you
That I know I was wrong
And I realize now baby, and I realize now baby
That love only comes once and when it comes you better grab it
‘Cause it may not come no more
And I’m askin’ you baby, and I’m askin’ you baby
And I’m askin’ you baby, and I’m askin’ you baby
I’m askin please, please, please, please, please
Baby, baby, baby
You look so good this evening baby
Sometimes when I look out at you baby
I feel like I just want to, I just want to
I just want to reach out to you
I just want to reach out to you
I just want to reach out to you
I just want to reach out to you
I just want to reach out to you
I want to reach out and bite, yeah
And I just want to ask you one thing baby
And I just want to ask you one thing baby
I just want to ask you one thing
I just want to ask you one thing
I just want to ask you one thing, one thing baby
I want you to stop, stop this rainbow in my heart
Songwriters
MAYFIELD, CURTIS L/DIXON, EUGENE
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Warner/Chappell Music, Inc., Universal Music Publishing Group, BMG RIGHTS MANAGEMENT US, LLC

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

Perfluorinated Chemicals Found in Fast Food Wrappers


http://ens-newswire.com/2017/02/05/perfluorinated-chemicals-found-in-fast-food-wrappers/

Perfluorinated Chemicals Found in Fast Food Wrappers

WASHINGTON, DC, February 5, 2017 (ENS) – The health hazards of perfluorinated chemicals, or PFCs, are well known to scientists, yet some fast food chains still use food wrappers, bags and boxes coated with these grease-resistant compounds, according to nationwide tests reported in a new peer-reviewed study.

“Fluorinated Compounds in U.S. Fast Food Packaging,” is published in the current issue or the journal “Environmental Science and Technology Letters.”

fast food

Greasy fast foods may pick up perfluorinated chemicals from paper wrappers. (Photo by

Lars Plougmann)

PFCs are nonstick, waterproof, stain-resistant chemicals that companies have used since the 1950s in consumer products and industrial applications.

“PFC-based coatings are applied to food wrappers, bags and boxes to stop grease from dripping through. But the hot, often fatty foods served in those papers pick up the chemicals, and when the food is consumed, so are the chemicals,” write Environmental Working Group, EWG, senior scientist Dave Andrews and Bill Walker, managing editor of the EWG blog, describing the testing conducted for the study.

Scientists from nonprofit research organizations including EWG, federal and state regulatory agencies and universities collaborated to test samples of sandwich and pastry wrappers, french fry bags, pizza boxes, and other paper and paperboard from 27 fast food chains and local restaurants in five regions of the United States.

They found that of the 327 samples used to serve food, collected in 2014 and 2015, 40 percent tested positive for fluorine.

The paper samples were collected from restaurants in and around Boston, San Francisco, Seattle, Washington, DC, and Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Fast food chains tested for fluorine in wrappers and containers ranged from zero to 100 percent of samples where perfluroinated chemicals were found.

wrappers

Fast food wrappers (Photo by Travis)

The chains where all wrappers and containers tested positive for fluorine were: Taco Time, Quiznos and Jimmy John’s.

The chains where no wrappers, boxes or bags contained fluorine were: Carl’s Jr., Checkers, Culver’s, Domino’s and Round Table Pizza.

The other chains fell somewhere in between. On the high end were: Chik-a-Fil-A, Chipotle and Starbucks.

On the low end were: Arby’s, Burger King, Dairy Queen, Jack in the Box, KFC, McDonald’s and Wendy’s.

See the entire chart here.

The presence of fluorine does not automatically indicate the presence of PFCs, write Andrews and Walker. But one of the study authors is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency expert who, in further tests of a smaller number of samples, found that the majority of materials he tested contained known PFCs, they explain.

Some, but not all studies in humans have shown that certain perfluroinated chemicals may affect the developing fetus and child, including possible changes in growth, learning, and behavior. They may decrease fertility and interfere with the body’s natural hormones, increase cholesterol, affect the immune system and increase cancer risk, according to the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances.

PFCs are persistent in the environment and have built up in the bodies of people and wildlife worldwide. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have found PFCs in the blood of virtually all Americans, and in 2005, tests commissioned by EWG were the first to show they are passed from mother to child through the umbilical cord and breast milk, Andrews and Walker explain.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 20 next-generation PFCs for coating paper and paperboard used to serve food.

But EWG argues that these chemicals have not been adequately tested for safety, and trade secrecy laws mean that, in some cases, the limited safety data submitted to the EPA does not publicly disclose the identity of the specific chemicals or even the companies submitting them for approval.

What little information manufacturers have provided to regulators is “troubling,” write Andrews and Walker.

In documents filed with the EPA, DuPont reported that a next-generation chemical used to produce food contact paper, called GenX, could pose a “substantial risk of injury,” including cancerous tumors in the pancreas and testicles, liver damage, kidney disease and reproductive harm, they write.

pizza

Pizza may absorb perfluorinated chemicals from the box and paper it comes in. (Photo by Helga Weber)

EWG is advising that fast food companies stop using PFCs or other fluorinated compounds in wrappers, containers and pizza boxes or wherever they might come into contact with food.

“The FDA should further restrict the use of fluorinated chemicals in food or food contact materials. The FDA should close the loophole that allows companies to self-certify chemicals as Generally Recognized as Safe,” write Andrews and Walker.

PFC-free paper is easily available, and the tests found no fluorine in more than half of the paper samples.

Depending on where they are, individual fast food restaurants or regional franchise groups in the same chain may get their wrappers and containers from different suppliers. So parent corporations may not know if outlets are using PFC-coated paper or if suppliers are accurately disclosing whether their paper contains such chemicals.

Some of the containers that tested positive for fluorine may not have been intentionally coated with perfluorinated chemicals, but were made from recycled paper containing PFCs.

“Parent companies should exercise more oversight over their supply chains and the paper sources of their franchises,” Andrews and Walker recommend.

For consumers, exposure to PFCs in food wrappers can be reduced by eating fresh foods and preparing meals at home, they advise. Avoid the use of paper tableware and microwave popcorn.

For more tips on how to keep these chemicals out of your body and your home, see EWG’s Guide to Avoiding PFCs.

Copyright Environment News Service (ENS) 2017. All rights reserved.

 

全美防油紙袋抽測 知名連鎖速食都驗出全氟化合物


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202790?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=ac1523388a-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_25&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-ac1523388a-84956681

全美防油紙袋抽測 知名連鎖速食都驗出全氟化合物

 建立於 2017/02/10

摘譯自2017年2月5日ENS美國,華盛頓特區報導;姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

科學家長期以來熟知全氟化合物(PFCs)對健康的威脅,但美國最新的全國性研究顯示,尚有多家速食連鎖業者仍然使用含PFCs的食物包裝紙、包裝袋、包裝盒,因為PFCs具有防油效果。

研究抽測全美27家速食連鎖店和地方餐館,其中不乏知名連鎖業者麥當勞、肯德基、星巴克,發現2014年到2015年間搜集的三明治和點心包裝袋、薯條紙袋、披薩盒、炸雞桶等包裝紙類,327個樣品中有40%檢出氟。

Pizza盒。防油紙。Helga Weber(CC BY-ND 2.0)
Pizza盒內的防油紙,極有可能含有對人體有害的PFC。圖片來源:Helga Weber(CC BY-ND 2.0)

速食防油紙袋含PFCs 消費者吃下肚

PFCs是無黏性、防水、防污的化學物質,1950年代起開始廣泛使用於消費性和工業產品。美國環境工作小組(Environmental Working Group,EWG)資深科學家安德魯斯(Dave Andrews)和沃克(Bill Walker)指出,「PFC塗料常用於食物包裝,防止油質滲透。但高溫高油的速食食品往往會吸附PFC,讓消費者吃下肚。」

EWG和其他非營利研究組織、聯邦與州級監管機關、學校的科學家合作,抽測全美五個區域27家速食連鎖業和地方餐館的三明治和點心包裝袋、薯條紙袋、披薩盒和其他包裝紙類的PFC含量,並將研究(Fluorinated Compounds in U.S. Fast Food Packaging)發表於《環境科學與科技通訊》期刊。

研究人員發現,2014年到2015年間搜集的327個樣品,有40%檢出氟。檢出氟不代表一定有PFC,但是研究團隊中來自美國環保署的專家進一步檢驗少數樣品後發現,大部分他測試的樣品均含有PFC。

速食店家 樣本數( 檢出氟比例(%)
漢堡王(Burger King) 37 27%
美式甜甜圈品牌DUNKIN’DONUTS 12 33%
肯德基(KFC) 20 25%
麥當勞(McDonald’s) 31 19%
必勝客(Pizza Hut) 3 33%
星巴克(Starbucks) 21 76%
賽百味(Subway) 19 42%
溫蒂漢堡(Wendy’s) 31 23%
附註:樣本為2014-2015年間,蒐集於美國波士頓、洛杉磯、西雅圖、華盛頓特區、密西根大急流城的速食連鎖店,包含三明治、墨西哥捲餅、披薩盒、炸雞桶,以及其他直接以紙類盛裝的品項。 資料來源:EWG;製圖:環境資訊中心

幾乎所有美國人的血液都含PFCs

部分人體研究發現,某些PFCs可能影響發育中胚胎和兒童,包括其成長、學習和行為。根據美國毒物暨疾病登記署(ATSDR)資料,PFCs可能減少生育能力、影響人體荷爾蒙、增加膽固醇、影響免疫系統和增加癌症風險。

安德魯斯和沃克說,PFCs可以長期存在環境中,並會在人體與野生動物體內累積。疾病管制暨預防中心(CDC)發現,幾乎所有美國人的血液裡都含有PFCs,而且2005年EWG委託的研究顯示,PFCs會透過臍帶和母乳母傳子。

EWG呼籲速食業者停止使用PFC或其他氟化化合物於可能直接接觸食物的包裝紙。

Lars Plougmann(CC BY-SA 2.0)
防油紙直接與食物接觸,容易產生健康風險。圖片來源:Lars Plougmann(CC BY-SA 2.0)

新一代PFC塗料隱藏未知風險

美國食藥署核准20種新一代PFC塗料用於食物包裝紙。但是EWG認為,這些化學物質並未經嚴謹的安全性測試,而且《商業機密保護法》有時會讓企業不必公開揭露特定化學物質的存在,甚至不必送交主管機關核准。

在杜邦公司送交美國環保署的文件中,甚至明確指出一種叫做「GenX」的新一代食物包裝紙塗料,可能具有「顯著健康損害風險」,包括胰腺和睾丸中的癌性腫瘤、肝臟損害、腎臟疾病和生殖功能損害。

我國食藥署網站則稱,目前國際間對全氟烷化合物(PFCs)的人體健康風險評估,以及管理標準均「尚處於研究階段」。整體而言,民眾對防油紙袋之安全性無需過於擔憂

Perfluorinated Chemicals Found in Fast Food Wrappers
WASHINGTON, DC, February 5, 2017 (ENS)

The health hazards of perfluorinated chemicals, or PFCs, are well known to scientists, yet some fast food chains still use food wrappers, bags and boxes coated with these grease-resistant compounds, according to nationwide tests reported in a new peer-reviewed study.

“Fluorinated Compounds in U.S. Fast Food Packaging,” is published in the current issue or the journal “Environmental Science and Technology Letters.”

PFCs are nonstick, waterproof, stain-resistant chemicals that companies have used since the 1950s in consumer products and industrial applications.

“PFC-based coatings are applied to food wrappers, bags and boxes to stop grease from dripping through. But the hot, often fatty foods served in those papers pick up the chemicals, and when the food is consumed, so are the chemicals,” write Environmental Working Group, EWG, senior scientist Dave Andrews and Bill Walker, managing editor of the EWG blog, describing the testing conducted for the study.

Scientists from nonprofit research organizations including EWG, federal and state regulatory agencies and universities collaborated to test samples of sandwich and pastry wrappers, french fry bags, pizza boxes, and other paper and paperboard from 27 fast food chains and local restaurants in five regions of the United States.

They found that of the 327 samples used to serve food, collected in 2014 and 2015, 40 percent tested positive for fluorine.

See the entire chart here.

The presence of fluorine does not automatically indicate the presence of PFCs, write Andrews and Walker. But one of the study authors is a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency expert who, in further tests of a smaller number of samples, found that the majority of materials he tested contained known PFCs, they explain.

Some, but not all studies in humans have shown that certain perfluroinated chemicals may affect the developing fetus and child, including possible changes in growth, learning, and behavior. They may decrease fertility and interfere with the body’s natural hormones, increase cholesterol, affect the immune system and increase cancer risk, according to the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances.

PFCs are persistent in the environment and have built up in the bodies of people and wildlife worldwide. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have found PFCs in the blood of virtually all Americans, and in 2005, tests commissioned by EWG were the first to show they are passed from mother to child through the umbilical cord and breast milk, Andrews and Walker explain.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved 20 next-generation PFCs for coating paper and paperboard used to serve food.

But EWG argues that these chemicals have not been adequately tested for safety, and trade secrecy laws mean that, in some cases, the limited safety data submitted to the EPA does not publicly disclose the identity of the specific chemicals or even the companies submitting them for approval.

In documents filed with the EPA, DuPont reported that a next-generation chemical used to produce food contact paper, called GenX, could pose a “substantial risk of injury,” including cancerous tumors in the pancreas and testicles, liver damage, kidney disease and reproductive harm, they write.

EWG is advising that fast food companies stop using PFCs or other fluorinated compounds in wrappers, containers and pizza boxes or wherever they might come into contact with food.

※ 全文及圖片詳見:ENS

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance’s planet.

姜唯

如果有一件事是重要的,如果能為孩子實現一個願望,那就是人類與大自然和諧共存。

 

《 Doris Troy – Just One Look 》


《 Doris Troy – Just One Look 》

Just one look and I fell so hard
In love with you uh oh uh oh
I found out how good it feels
To have your love uh oh uh oh
Say you will, will be mine
Forever and always uh oh uh oh
Just one look and I knew
That you were my only one uh oh uh oh
I thought I was dreaming but I was wrong
Yeah yeah yeah
Oh but ah I’m gonna keep on scheming
‘Til I can ah make you, make you my own
So you see I really care
Without you I’m nothing uh oh uh oh
Just one look and I know
I’ll get you someday uh oh uh oh

Just one look, that’s all it took

Songwriters
PAYNE, DORIS / CARROLL, GREGORY
Published by
Lyrics © Universal Music Publishing Group

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

高市府空污季大放煙火、辦路跑 219反空污團體怒批毒害健康


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202821?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=ac1523388a-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_25&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-ac1523388a-84956681

高市府空污季大放煙火、辦路跑 219反空污團體怒批毒害健康

 建立於 2017/02/09

本報2017年2月9日高雄訊,特約記者李育琴報導

中南部空污持續惡化,政府應對政策無感又慢半拍,台灣健康空氣行動聯盟等環保團體號召民眾2月19日站出來,分別在台中和高雄舉行反空污大遊行。南台灣廢核行動聯盟今年也以「能源轉型」為訴求,在3月11日發起廢核反空污遊行。

今(9)日一早,高雄市長陳菊舉行高雄輕軌動工典禮,高雄反空污團體前往抗議並召開記者會,表達對市府近日錯誤政策不滿,批評市府不顧空污嚴重卻放煙火辦路跑,危害市民健康。

219我在高雄反空污遊行團體批評市府2月大放煙火、辦路跑,對空污無感,對市民健康不負責任。攝影:李育琴。
「219我在高雄反空污」遊行團體批評市府2月大放煙火、辦路跑,對空污無感,對市民健康不負責任。攝影:李育琴。

高雄市政府不僅在春節過後,2月連續在愛河、光榮碼頭、西子灣和旗津等地施放14天煙火,製造大量惡化空氣品質的PM2.5。本月12日教育局更將舉辦國際馬拉松比賽,環團質疑,PM2.5是一級致癌物,每年10月開始到次年3月為高雄PM2.5霧霾嚴重時期,為何市府無視選手健康,舉辦路跑活動?

路口PM2.5瞬間破百 環團:辦路跑是吸毒

「219我在高雄反空污」行動團體在博愛二路大順路口演出行動劇,諷刺市府空污季辦路跑,毒害國際跑者和上萬民眾。

219遊行總召陳椒華拿出隨身攜帶的PM2.5偵測器,測得路口即時數據達100微克/立方公尺。她指出,根據環保署公布之PM2.5檢測資料,高雄市是南部空氣品質最差城市,2016年11月起的每月PM2.5月平均值分別為40.7、45.4、45.3、40μg/m3(微克/立方公尺),約是世界衛生組織年平均標準值的2.7到3倍。

她說,高雄每年從10月到第二年4月都不適合舉辦路跑,在空污季節舉辦路跑是慢性自殺,反對於PM2.5高的季節舉辦路跑,殘害民眾健康。

路口PM2.5瞬間破百,環團批市府辦路跑草菅人命。
路口PM2.5瞬間破百,環團批市府辦路跑草菅人命。

要宜居不要移居 青年發起「簡單生存節」

高雄號稱宜居城市,但是每到空污季卻讓人想「移居」外地。由議員助理等高雄在地青年透過網路號召成立的「簡單生存節」成員,戴上特製的綠色口罩,要求「呼吸健康空氣」的基本生存權。

市議員吳益政助理蕭芷倩說,高雄城市硬體愈來愈好,但是散不去的霧霾卻讓在地青年無法安居樂業。高雄每年有一半的時間空污嚴重,不適合生存,市府應拿出智慧和協調能力,在發展經濟的同時,讓市民擁有基本的生存權。

「簡單生存節」因此提出訴求,要求市府在4月市議會開議時,專案小組報告提出空污解決辦法。政府應明確承諾南部空污天數要逐年遞減,當空污指數達危險級時,要啟動防災措施,例如限制外出,停課停班等。

他們並呼籲2月19日全民站出來,一起讓政府聽到公民的聲音。

高雄市議員及助理戴上綠色口罩發起「簡單生存節」,要宜居不要移居。攝影:李育琴。
高雄市議員及助理戴上綠色口罩發起「簡單生存節」,要宜居不要移居。攝影:李育琴。

沒有人可以不呼吸 時代力量籲參加遊行表達心聲

時代力量志工陳先生今戴上3M防毒防塵面罩出席記者會。他說,戴防毒面罩雖然是行動宣示,「不過在高雄這個城市帶這個口罩並不為過,一般口罩無法完全過濾PM2.5。」

時代力量高雄黨部219也發動志工參與反空污遊行,「空污嚴重政府卻沒有作為,很多志工站出來關心,因為沒有人可以不呼吸。」

台灣健康空氣行動聯盟高雄分會召集人翁榮輝表示,高雄應該走向產業轉型並走出經濟困局。「為何六都中高雄市民的平均壽命最短?為何高雄空氣污染最嚴重?」他指出,高雄應擺脫重污染、高耗能的傳統產業,蛻變為防治污染和節能的創新科技產業,如此高素質的人力和產業才會來到高雄。

台灣親子共學教育促進會帶著孩子出席記者會,他們手拿標語、高呼口號,「我要乾淨好空氣」、「不要路跑跟煙火」、「拒當人體清淨機」。領隊江敏榕說,面對空污,家長似乎無技可施,只能減少外出、看醫生、戴口罩。但是,「為什麼是這樣?該減少污染的應該是工廠,該戴口罩的應該是煙囪,政府應該擔起照顧人民健康的責任!」

江敏榕表達對高雄市政府帶頭製造污染的不滿,「竟然沾沾自喜施放煙火,甚至還舉辦國際馬拉松邀請大家來吸毒。」她批評市府無感,根本不想面對污染問題,直稱高雄並非宜居城市。

時代力量志工戴防毒防塵口罩出席反空污記者會,稱「沒有人可以不呼吸。」攝影:李育琴。
時代力量志工戴防毒防塵口罩出席反空污記者會,稱「沒有人可以不呼吸。」攝影:李育琴。

制定PM2.5分級標準 環署到中南部辦公聽會

除了219台中、高雄兩地同步發起反空污大遊行。南部廢核行動聯盟也在今年311遊行加入反空污的訴求,聯盟表示,能源轉型是解決空污的重要手段,呼籲政府透過節能和綠能,不製造核廢料,也減少然煤發電,改善空氣品質。

另一方面,環保署去年在台北市舉辦「空氣品質惡化緊急防制辦法」修正草案公聽會,遭環團批評官員對南部嚴重霾害無感,設定空污緊急因應機制啟動標準太過寬鬆,要求到中南部舉辦公聽會。

環保署將在本月10日起在台中、高雄、雲林、彰化舉辦公聽會,地球公民基金會、主婦聯盟等環團呼籲民眾積極參與公聽會,表達民眾心聲,要求下修PM2.5分級標準。

作者

李育琴

站在南方的土地,用平躺的島嶼歷史視角,說環境與人的故事。炙風拂面,腳踏黏土之時,試著讓心保持冷靜。

 

《 Martha & The Vandellas – Heatwave 》


《 Martha & The Vandellas – Heatwave 》

Heat wave
Heat wave
Whenever I’m with you
Something inside
Starts to burn deep
And my heart’s filled with fire
Could be that I’m very sentimental
Or is this just the way love’s supposed to be?
I got a heat wave
Burning in my heart
I can’t keep from crying
Tearing me apart
Sometimes she calls my name
Yeah, yeah, yeah, I can’t explain
I feel, yeah I feel
I feel this burning flame
This high blood pressure’s got a hold on me
‘Cause this is the way love’s supposed to be
I got a heat wave
Burning in my heart
I can’t keep from crying
Tearing me apart
Oh yeah
Oh yeah
Oh yeah
Oh yeah
Just give me another chance
This could be a new romance
Heat wave
Heat wave
Heat wave
Heat wave
Songwriters
HOLLAND, EDWARD, JR./DOZIER, LAMONT HERBERT/HOLLAND, BRIAN
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

誰偷走蜥蜴的尾巴? 跨域研究揭開草蜥求生術 登國際期刊


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202820?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=ac1523388a-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_25&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-ac1523388a-84956681

誰偷走蜥蜴的尾巴? 跨域研究揭開草蜥求生術 登國際期刊

 建立於 2017/02/09

本報2017年2月9日台北訊,特約記者廖靜蕙報導

我們常說「斷尾求生」是有道理的!最近科學研究證實了蜥蜴為了求生,不得以斷尾獲得存活機率,而少了尾巴之後,生存危機也跟著急速增加,因此必須在最短時間內長回尾巴。台灣師範大學生命科學系師生林展蔚、林思民研究團隊,透過與中華鳥會鳥類資料庫跨域合作及鳥友觀察影像獲得印證,論文獲得《英國皇家學會報告》(Proceeding of the Royal Society B)接納刊登[1],為生態研究增加溫度。

翠斑草蜥棲息在干擾過後的草生地環境,在北海岸形成高密度的龐大族群,也成為研究者探討掠食效應的重要題材。攝影:林展蔚

草蜥斷尾有理 再生是為提升存活機會

蜥蜴被抓之後會斷尾脫逃,大概是多數人的共同的印象。台師大生科系教授林思民指出,大多數蜥蜴都有斷尾、再生能力,台灣已知的原生蜥蜴約30多種,其中只有5種不會斷尾。斷掉的尾巴持續在地上翻滾扭動,吸引掠食者的注意,使得蜥蜴有機會逃之夭夭。

草蜥受到攻擊斷尾之後,傷口會迅速癒合,形成一個迅速生長的肉芽,最後長出一條比原本略短,而且顏色和材質都有明顯差異的再生尾。攝影:林思民。

「斷尾之後,蜥蜴會在短短幾個月內重新長出新的尾巴;這根新尾巴雖然在功能上和外觀上都有些缺陷,卻左右蜥蜴存活的機會。」林思民解釋。

體長約4~5公分的翠斑草蜥,擁有體長兩倍多的尾巴,主要分布於台灣北部的草生地,能適應開墾地與干擾環境,並形成極為龐大的族群;是2008年由林思民與呂光洋師生共同發表的新種,這類族群龐大的物種,有助於研究所需的大量數據。

2006~2014年期間,研究人員在北海岸的金山地區長期追蹤蜥蜴族群的動態,每個月抓超過200隻草蜥,8年來總共在12000隻蜥蜴身上做記號,追蹤其生老病死,以及寄生蟲對其族群的影響,包括斷尾情形,累積的資料有如醫院的病歷表。

研究人員發現在特定的季節中,草蜥就有斷尾的情形。他們開始解答「誰偷走了蜥蜴的尾巴?」身兼台灣猛禽研究會副理事長的林思民得知中華鳥會累積數十萬筆鳥類觀察記錄,遂動念借重鳥會的資料庫以及廣大鳥友回報系統跨域合作,並從蜥蜴與鳥類(天敵)進行配對,得出幾項結論:

當月伯勞越多,蜥蜴斷尾比例越高;前個月紅隼數量,與當月蜥蜴斷尾比例成正比。由此推論,斷尾策略對防禦小型攻擊者(約幾十克重量的鳥種)有效,頂多讓這類型的天敵偷走尾巴。

另外,當黃頭鷺(約400克)越多,草蜥的存活率就隨著下降;也就是當遇到整盤端走的大型攻擊者,連斷尾求生的機會都沒有。

斷尾逃生對付紅尾伯勞這類小型掠奪者比較有效。圖片來源:台師大林思民研究團隊。

研究團隊也從幾位自然觀察者拍攝牛背鷺吃草蜥的影片證實,在大型鳥類攻擊下,草蜥幾乎沒有存活機會[2]

草蜥遇到黃頭鷺這類大型掠食者,斷尾策略無從發揮功用。圖片來源:台師大林思民研究團隊。

那麼,斷尾之後草蜥真能重生?研究統計得出,斷尾前原本活得還不錯的草蜥,斷尾之後到尾巴再生之間,母蜥蜴雖仍有一半以上的(57%)的存活機會,公蜥蜴則為了繁殖要花很多能量求偶、交配,一旦繁殖期間失去尾巴,存活率從未斷尾前的81.0%下降到47.0%,生存機率驟減30%以上。研究團隊推論可能和尾巴受傷影響體能,以及沒有尾巴可以逃避天敵追殺有關。此時,讓尾巴快點長回來是唯一的活路。

「只要尾巴長出來,生存率又會增加到80%!」林思民表示,許多實驗都證實過了斷尾的好處,但對於「再生」的好處卻從未經科學證實,這項研究得出「尾巴很重要,沒尾巴生存威脅增加,長出尾巴才能增加存活率」的重要結論。

認真仔細標準化紀錄 公民也能為貢獻科學研究

林思民表示,這項研究在科學上的重要性包括,大家都「猜測」尾巴很重要,但是從還沒有人可以真正「證明」這項原理,尤其是野外調查證據。另外,利用龐大的蜥蜴數據跟鳥類數據作結合,更是史無前例的嘗試。而證明「尾巴長回來有好處」,也是研究上的創舉。

他將研究成果歸功於長期野外觀察累積的資料,這些持之恆累積的資料,常被忽視重要性。

中華鳥會從1970年代開始累積國內賞鳥人回傳的賞鳥紀錄, 40多年來累積的資料量接近200萬筆。研究過程更因兩年前任職於中華鳥會的洪貫捷協助,調閱與蜥蜴同步的鳥類資料庫,並鎖定北台灣賞鳥人觀察到的紅尾伯勞、紅隼、黃頭鷺和大捲尾這四種鳥作為統計的對象。

當上萬筆的蜥蜴資料與等量的鳥類紀錄配對,並利用高速電腦進行運算,才能得出草蜥斷尾與四種鳥類的關係,這也是首度利用大型資料庫來追蹤蜥蜴和鳥類之間的掠食效應。

研究團隊合照留影。圖片來源:台灣師範大學。

「賞鳥人們記錄下來的鳥類數量,當下或許說不出功用,卻能發揮聚沙成塔的功效,對科學進展提供了極為重要的貢獻。」林思民說,而蜥蜴斷尾的研究本來就少,寥寥可數的幾篇研究通常都是在實驗室中進行,如今能從野外族群存活趨勢來推估斷尾的長期影響,在世界上也是首見。

翠斑草蜥簡介

2008年由呂光洋、林思民師生發表的台灣特有種,全世界只分布在台灣北部的縣市。雌蜥全身褐色,但是雄蜥在生殖季節會在體側出現金屬光澤的翠綠色斑點,因而得名。成蜥的體長大約四至五公分,尾長是體長的兩倍半左右,尾部具有纏繞、抓握的能力,但是容易受到鳥禽等掠食者的攻擊而斷尾。喜歡棲息在開墾過後的草生地,有時會在適合的棲息環境形成數量極為龐大的高密度族群。

研究者簡介

本研究團隊的第一作者是林展蔚同學,目前就讀於師大生科系博士班,並即將赴美進行交換研究。第二作者陳盈蓉同學從大學時期就幫助實驗室建立起整個草蜥的病歷研究系統,取得碩士學位之後任職於中央研究院。
研究團隊的負責人林思民為台師大生科系教授,研究題材包含兩棲爬行動物、野生動物貿易、猛禽生態學等等。較為廣為人知的著作是在2008年發現台灣特有新種「翠斑草蜥」與「鹿野草蜥」,2013年撰文描述金門原生「緬甸蟒」的發現過程,2015年與游崇瑋發表「泰雅鈍頭蛇」,也是「2014年國際十大新種」,以婚姻平權命名的「彩虹大臍蝸牛」的共同作者之一。課餘時間也樂於撰寫科普文章,作品散見於臉書、電子與紙本媒體。

※ 註1 詳見:Tail regeneration after autotomy revives survival: a case from a long-term monitored lizard population under avian Predation

※ 註2研究團隊研究期間陸續接獲彰化環保聯盟的蔡嘉陽提供了兩張牛背鷺覓食草蜥的瞬間照片,而知名的網路插畫家,中興大學學生郭人毓(玉子)也提供了一段牛背鷺捕獲草蜥之後直接吞食的珍貴影片。而讓研究發現得到證據支持。

※ 本文與 行政院農業委員會 林務局  合作刊登

作者

廖靜蕙

環境記者/自由撰稿人。從事社工10餘年,認知到畢竟是人的社會,再弱勢的人都可以為自己發言,決定轉投生態保育,為無法以人類語言發聲的生命與土地寫報導。現居台北市,與貓先生、龜小姐,微曦中閱讀,斗室中寫作。個人粉專「小麻通訊」。

 

《 The Four Seasons – Walk Like A Man 》


《 The Four Seasons – Walk Like A Man 》

Oh, walk, walk, walk, walk
Oh, walk, walk, walk man
Oh how you tried to cut me down to size
Tellin’ dirty lies to my friends
But my own father said give her up, don’t bother
The world isn’t comin’ to an end
(He said)
Walk like a man, talk like a man
Walk like a man my son
No woman’s worth crawlin’ on the earth
So walk like a man, my son
Oh, walk, walk, walk, walk
Oh
Bye bye baby, I don’t-a mean maybe
Gonna get along somehow
Soon you’ll be cryin’ on account of all your lyin’
Oh yeah, just look who’s laughin’ now
(I’m gonna)
Walk like a man, fast as I can
Walk like a man from you
I’ll tell the world forget about it, girl
And walk like a man from you
Oh, walk, walk, walk, walk
Oh, walk, walk, walk, walk, walk
Oh
Songwriters
BOB CREWE, BOB GAUDIO
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Kobalt Music Publishing Ltd.

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

王光祿非常上訴開庭 原民會主委首度上火線辯護狩獵權


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王光祿非常上訴開庭 原民會主委首度上火線辯護狩獵權

 建立於 2017/02/09

本報2017年2月9日台北訊,賴品瑀報導

布農族獵人王光祿非常上訴一案,最高法院9日上午開啟調查庭,聽取台大法律系教授王皇玉、東華大學財經法律研究所副教授蔡志偉、輔仁大學法律系鄭川如助理教授鄭川如等三位學者的意見,原民會主委夷將‧拔路兒也親上火線參與。

此次非常上訴案,不但是王光祿能否改判無罪、免除3年6個月的刑期,更是重新審視原民狩獵與司法人權的課題,因此除了首次有原民會主委出庭外,最高法院提供網路直播,也是首例。

2017-02-09_05-50-33
王光祿非常上訴案開庭,原民會主委夷將‧拔路兒為此案開先例,親自到最高法院出庭。賴品瑀拍攝。 

此案將在聽證調查完畢後,再由合議庭作出決定。

「希望法官把獵人傳統還給我們。」王光祿與母親一同北上旁聽。陪同他們的台東利稻教會牧師Kavas透露,王光祿的母親至今不知王光祿有可能為此案入獄,也不願意幫忙翻譯相關提問,直說若是讓他知道此事,等於拿刀刺在他的心上。

「盼能成為正面的判例。」夷將表示,肯定法院重新審視並深入調查,此案並非個案,涉及的是整體原住民族狩獵權,原住民族相沿過去數千年的生活慣習與傳統狩獵文化。此案律師陳采邑更表示,在原民部落中,原本善獵者能獲得部落成員的尊敬,如今卻因狩獵一一入罪,反遭年輕一代族人鄙棄,是嚴重打擊部落秩序與傳統文化,盼此案能將尊嚴返還給獵人。

學者:狩獵是文化權 不該僅限祭儀時

因拾得一枝具有瞄準鏡的土造長槍和5顆子彈,並為供95歲老母親食用而持以獵殺山羌、長鬃山羊各一隻,因此違反槍砲彈藥刀械管制條例而遭判刑。

審判長洪昌宏表示,此次開庭是為了釐清,包括原住民持有撿拾他人遺失的現代化獵槍,是否符合槍砲彈藥刀械管制條例,所定「自製」和「供作生活工具之用」的免責要件?野生動物保育法就原住民為「自用」之目的,而狩獵情形,沒有特設除罪規定,是否符合國際公約精神及立法在後的原住民族基本法意旨等課題。

三位學者與原民會皆主張,原住民族狩獵權,從人權兩公約、憲法、原基法來看,屬於保障原住民族文化發展權的延伸。

夷將指出,鑑於「野生動物保育法」第21條之一第1項規定原住民得依「傳統文化」狩獵,本就包含「非營利自用」的立法原意,原民會日前也向農委會提出解釋令草案,後續將共同研擬發布,來將「非營利自用」明文納入狩獵許可事項,以符合原基法所保障的原住民族狩獵。

「自用就是文化實踐」蔡志偉這麼認為,王皇玉更以「如果規定漢人只能在端午節才能吃米飯」來比喻目前法規將原民狩獵限縮只能在祭儀時進行,是將傳統文化的定義窄化。至於如何定義「非營利」?蔡志偉認為應以原住民的方式來作解釋,鄭川如則認為,若是為了生存所用的交易,也不該視為營利。

農委會則要求原民會對「非營利自用」做出定義與釐清,將來縣市政府執法才能有所依據。

原民自製獵槍是傳統?學者:恐是誤會一場

至於王光祿因為「撿拾」到「具有瞄準鏡的土造長槍」,而不符合槍砲彈藥刀械管制條例所規定的「自製」等規定。學者則以經濟社會文化權利國際公約中「人人有權享受科學進步」來論述。王皇玉指出,依照現有規定,原住民獵人若要打獵,必須先自制一把獵槍,且這把獵槍卻得使用沖天炮的火藥、一次只能擊發一顆沒有膛線的玻璃珠或鉛丸,火力不足、必須近距離開槍、且子彈發射後方向無法預期,「等於是丟出一顆石頭」、「對獵人或是獵物都不人道」。

王皇玉認為,現行規定要求自製而不能購買制式獵槍,是相當不合理的,等於要求原住民獵人都得天生是製槍高手,卻否定了社會間的分工、與有權享用科技進步權利,也等同於鼓勵小型兵工廠林立,反而更增危險的疑慮。

「危險」、「殘忍」、「野蠻」、「違反保育」、「不文明」,王皇玉指出,在漢人本位的法律中,以這些負面標籤看待原住民狩獵。蔡志偉更批,這顯示長久以來主流社會將原住民視為落後、需改善的殖民心態,仍是「視為蕃人」,原民為何不能使用進步的科技?

王皇玉更指出,「使用自製手槍」並非原民傳統,反而很可能是誤會一場。從歷史照片可見,清代時原民手持制式手槍,直到日式時期,逐漸已沒收、出借等方式來管理,國民政府來台後,即便要開放原民生活所需的狩獵,獵人手上卻無槍可用,因此才轉向自製。

蔡志偉認為獵槍的定義應是「狩獵用」的槍,而非限制規格。鄭川如也認為,不論是用什麼樣的槍,重點是能維護傳統生活、維護原住民與土地的關連。

原民會:落實原基法 優先完成野保法、森林法修法

「是立法怠惰還是行政怠惰?」對於原基法上路超過十年,相關修法與子法尚未完成,洪昌宏如此提問。在去年8月總統蔡英文代表政府向原住民族道歉時,也特別提及此事。夷將表示,過去8年間「原基法推動小組」的確只開了兩次會,但新政府上任後,已恢復4個月一次,更由行政院長主持會議,下(3)月即要再次召開。將優先完成野保法、森林法的部分,更要盡快完成土地相關的原住民族自治法、原住民族土地及海域法。

作者

賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

《 The Chiffons – One Fine Day 》


The question is not where we will be extremists,

but what kind of extremists we will be.

– Martin Luther King Jr.

問題不在於我們是否會變成極端分子,

而是我們會變成哪種極端分子。

– 馬丁。路德。金

※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※※

《 The Chiffons – One Fine Day 》

One fine day, you’ll look at me
And you will know our love was, meant to be
One fine day, you’re gonna want me for your girl
The arms I long for, will open wide
And you’ll be proud to have me, right by your side
One fine day, you’re gonna want me for your girl
Though I know you’re the kind of boy
Who only wants to run around
I’ll keep waiting and someday darling
You’ll come to me when you want to settle down, oh!
One fine day, we’ll meet once more
And then you’ll want the love you threw away before
One fine day, you’re gonna want me for your girl
Songwriters
CAROLE KING, GERRY GOFFIN
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

【◎心靈研磨坊 - 曼陀羅藏◎】

《心靈研磨坊 ─ 身心體能極限的突破,放慢步調,邁開腳步,輕鬆地悠遊著....》

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