[ 4K Ultra HD ] 冬の鬼怒川 & 霧降高原 ドローン空撮 Aerial Drone Shots of Kinugawa & Kirifuri Plateau in Winter


Advertisements

[4K ]Beautiful snow scene in Japan 日本の美しい雪景色 winter scenery,snowscapes, snow light


Modern VDB Residence: a long floating horizontal concrete framework made up by 2 volumes


http://www.caandesign.com/modern-vdb-residence-long-floating-horizontal-concrete-framework-made-2-volumes/

Modern VDB Residence: a long floating horizontal concrete framework made up by 2 volumes

Architects: Govaert & Vanhoutte Architects
Location: Sint-Martens-Latem, Belgium
Year: 2016
Photo courtesy: Tim Van De Velde
Description:

“The river Leie, that runs through the historic city Ghent is well known for its leisure boating. A bit further downstream from the city centre of Ghent, many boats reduce throttle or come to a full stop to gaze upon a residence, quite different from the other houses along the river. Amidst a golf terrain like garden lies a sculptural concrete bachelor pad, grafted on the lifestyle of its owner.

The view from the river shows a long floating horizontal concrete framework that defines the ground floor, inside as well as outside. The ground floor holds all day functions, the pool area, and pool house. A second smaller concrete volume contains the master bed & bath room and two extra bed / bath rooms. A private terrace on the roof, linked only to the master bedroom, has a lowered floor towards the top of the volume, creating a private outside space with marvellous views towards the river and the garden.

The entire ground floor area is strongly directed towards the river. Most parts of the facade are completely glazed to allow as much visibility with the garden and river as possible. To allow more privacy, the wooden box like volume that holds the pool house, can be extended with sliding panels, to completely hide the pool area from the passing boats on the river. The front façade towards the street is partially closed by a wooden plane, holding 2 entrance doors and a gate towards the car elevator. An inclined plane allows the entrance on the elevated concrete slab of the framework. The night quarters on the first level are completely opened up towards the garden, and closed off by concrete walls towards the street and river. Each bedroom has a private terrace.

Nightly activities reside underground. Descending the stairs along the glazed front façade, the bright ground floor becomes dark & cosy in the cave. Wood and black Moroccan tadelakt set the tone. The focus in the basement lies on the big window behind the bar, revealing the inside of the pool. The bar behind the pool window, a DJ booth, a glazed wine cabinet, the long lounge benches, the area for exclusive cars, a built in cigar cabinet, are the embodiment of an exclusive underground club.”

Thank you for reading this article!

 

LAMA House in Bucharest by LAMA Arhitectura


http://www.caandesign.com/lama-house-in-bucharest-by-lama-arhitectura/

LAMA House in Bucharest by LAMA Arhitectura

Architects: LAMA Arhitectura
Location: Bucharest, Romania
Year: 2015
Area: 2,422 sqft / 225 sqm
Photo courtesy: Radu Malașincu
Description:

Connection: The venture could be considered as brave in light of its site extents, a long yet extremely tight piece of area (7.5 X 40 M) with a visually impaired divider on one side.

 

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-01

Idea: The house was fabricated for a group of 4, keeping in mind the end goal to secure its individuals and address the issues as most ideal as.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-02

Because of the state of the site and its surroundings, the house came about as a long and 4.5 mnarrow shape, appended to the neighbors visually impaired divider. The exteriors and the design of the house were assembled by position towards general society or private ranges of its encompassing and the cardinal focuses.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-03

The exteriors and the design of the house had diverse methodologies, given the introduction towards the general population or private regions of the surroundings and the cardinal focuses. The best sample would be the southern exterior, shaped to fill in as a sun trap.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-04

Format: The house was fabricated with the goal that it would have a little frontyard which gives passage from the road, and a bigger private lawn. The acces point inside the house is motioned by a blazed wooden box, the vestibule, joined to the white principle volume of the house, in this way making a visual difference.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-05

This task was fabricate with thought towards the fundamental standards of latent lodging. The southern exterior opens expansive windows towards the private family patio, without neglecting to shield itself from the sun. It utilizes detached shading making a pipe formed exterior and a pergola. The primary material utilized for the lawn veneer is smoldered wood. The picture made is amicably coordinated with the ensured cozy greenery enclosure, because of its natural refference and impelled warmth.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-06

The exteriors confronting the road (North) and the neighbor on the left (East), because of the nearing position giving little protection, are more misty and calm. On the majority of the exteriors, the windows are bigger at the base and littler at the top, as to catch the perfect measure of light for every space.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-07

The format of the house utilizes the same guideline as the exteriors, considering the position of the space towards open or private standpoint, and the measure of got common light. This is the reason towards the patio (South) you will discover essential practical ranges, for example, the livingroom, the main room and the youngsters’ room, whilst towards the road (North), the kitchen, bathrooms and the second floor porch are positioned.This design was fundamentally considered to have an utilitarian structure.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-08

The storm cellar contains a diversion room, the utility room and storage room. The ground floor gives the outside acces by means of the vestibule, to the living territory and the kitchen, and a first floor cloakroom. On the first floor you will locate the main room with a dressing space, the family bathroomand a little room for the family’s 2 year old child . The second floor gives the third room, a library, a washroom, a capacity wardrobe and a private porch.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-09

Materials, Systems.

For the outside configuration, we utilized PU froth with white enhancing completion, blazed pinewood, white painted steel outlines for the openings and triple coated windows with timber outlines.

 

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-10

The performant triple coated windows and the PU warm froth togheter with the cellulose storage room protection, makes a warm assurance that is twice as productive to the regularly utilized protection implies. A practical ventilation framework was incorporated, comprising of air tubes covered at the level of the building’s establishment.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-11

With respect to inside configuration, the dividers were secured in assurance mortar kicked the bucket white, and the oak floor has a characteristic shading. The livingroom roof purpusely left the uncovered concrete, noticeable. Travertine plates were utilized for the acces lobby and inside the bathrooms .The staircase’s structure was constructed of steel and kept with a characteristic lacquered appearence. The greater part of the furniture for the venture was specially crafted.

LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-12LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-13LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-14LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-15LAMA-House-in-Bucharest-by-LAMA-Arhitectura-16

Thank you for reading this article!

 

Los Feliz Residence by Techentin Buckingham Architecture


http://www.caandesign.com/los-feliz-residence-by-techentin-buckingham-architecture/

Los Feliz Residence by Techentin Buckingham Architecture

Architects: Techentin Buckingham Architecture
Location: Los Feliz, Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, USA
Year: 2010
Area: 3,000 sqft
Photo courtesy: Eric Staudenmeier
Description:

The house is composed by Warren Techentin, AIA and is arranged in Los Feliz, CA an old Los Angeles neighborhood fabricated in the 1920’s, known at the ideal opportunity for its lavish, intensely finished domains. Since that time the domains have all been subdivided into a thick cluster of littler parts while its trees have developed to full, develop statures. The house looks to incorporate the encompassing perspectives, trees, and neighborhood while keeping up security inside. A few configuration methodologies were sought after in parallel including the usage of maintainable frameworks, customary strategies for common cooling, the showcase and preservation of a craftsmanship gathering, and the organization of streams amid gatherings and different occasions. By and large, it is the cover between these that permitted surprising configuration minutes.

Los-Feliz-01

Tree House

The essential building procedure was to alter the constant inside-outside relationship of Los Angeles Architecture Lore – embodied by the clearing, dematerialized dividers of Richard Neutra – into a nearly choreographed set of connections in the middle of inside and outside through deliberately balanced windows, set close by craftsmanship (as windows unto themselves), which reenacts, expands, and intervenes the impact of this indoor-open air relationship while all the while giving protection in a thick neighborhood. The house is based on a submerged rock out-trimming, putting the principle floor of the house specifically at the level of the encompassing tree shades and the upper level disregarding the area overhang to the city past.

Los-Feliz-02

Be that as it may, the vicinity of the neighboring houses made huge openings hazardous. Rather, similar to Dutch speculations of “dry” outline, diagrammatic structure and materiality were utilized to section the life of the home into discrete ‘performative boxes’ calmly loaded with windows. Openings were set to arrange a progression of vistas between the inside scene of the home and particular trees in the area. The windows make a ‘telescopic impact’ whereby the inhabitant feels a dynamic association with the trees adjusted past. Fluid Ambers specifically are crowded in the area and a few windows are committed to surrounding these trees and their foliage change consistently.

Los-Feliz-03

Accumulation of spaces

Montage versus composition: The establishment was for all intents and purposes the main bit of the first home that remained and served as the beginning stage for the redesign. The arrangement and stream of the house were re-attempted to create diverse circles and circuits. An upper, third floor was included too. In the new 3,000 square foot design (300m), the distinctive exercises of the house were isolated, dormant residential boxes were characterized and five “crucial” boxes were portrayed: 1. life spaces (rooms and family rooms), 2. live/work ( workplaces and media space for proprietors – one of which is a TV author), 3. kitchen, 4. inserted pool restroom, and 5. the semi-underground backing and storage rooms.

Los-Feliz-04

Joining these volumes is a free, faceted fenced in area which unites the containers, presses in the middle of them, and makes a twofold high space around which the action of the house moves. Like the windows making associations with the area, the rooms were each shaped and proportioned to make an inside web of associations. Yet a feeling of separation was kept up between each. The distinctive materials of every space loans their own particular identity to the spaces – each butting up to the following, however without uncovering the creases between them. The outcome is a semi “mutant Victorianism” where every room has its very own coherency yet educated by and some portion of the perspectives into the nearby spaces.

Los-Feliz-05

Inside scene and overlays

Stream was created to support dissemination among the diversely scaled rooms amid gatherings. The house was produced to support regular ventilation – as the upper “tower” warms up, it makes draft pulling the hot air lower in the house up and out. The materials and hues were all chosen to fortify issues of maintainability and additionally impact. The dark siding was raised off the divider to shade it, drawing the warmth far from the surface of the house. As some time recently, much center was put on windows and specifically the glass. UV channels, ultra-clear, protected boards, low-E reflected surfacing, and different glass advancements were overlaid to tweak the execution of the glass: securing the work of art, diminishing warmth addition, or generally changing visual recognition. Different materials incorporate nursery plastic, platinum tile, shine oblivious plexiglass, poplar, fleece covering, felt, stainless steel, wallpaper, pool tile, cowhide.

Los-Feliz-07-1Los-Feliz-07Los-Feliz-08Los-Feliz-11Los-Feliz-12-1Los-Feliz-12Los-Feliz-15Los-Feliz-16

Thank you for reading this article!

 

Paddington Terrace by TomMarkHenry


http://www.caandesign.com/paddington-terrace-by-tommarkhenry/

Paddington Terrace by TomMarkHenry

Architects: TomMarkHenry
Location: Paddington, Australia
Year: 2014
Area: 1,421 sqft
Photo courtesy: TomMarkHenry
Description:

We were asked to design this Paddington terrace for a young growing family. We focused on finishes and fixtures that represented their youth but remained conscious to ensure they would stay timeless.

Paddington-Terrace-01

It was successfully converted from 2 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms plus attic into a 4 bedroom, 3 bathroom home meeting their needs and maximizing the value of the property. The palette was driven by contrasting pops of black and white, softened by the timber veneer and marble used throughout.

Paddington-Terrace-02Paddington-Terrace-03Paddington-Terrace-04Paddington-Terrace-05Paddington-Terrace-06Paddington-Terrace-07Paddington-Terrace-08Paddington-Terrace-09Paddington-Terrace-10Paddington-Terrace-11Paddington-Terrace-12Paddington-Terrace-13Paddington-Terrace-14Paddington-Terrace-15

Thank you for reading this article!

 

Transformation of the spaces and rethink the home for a clean minimalistic environment


http://www.caandesign.com/transformation-spaces-rethink-home-clean-minimalistic-environment/

Transformation of the spaces and rethink the home for a clean minimalistic environment

Architects: Shachar Rozenfeld
Location: Ramat HaSharon, Israel
Year: 2016
Area: 3.229 ft²/ 300 m²
Photo courtesy: Shachar Rozenfeld
Description:

“This 300 sqm. home renovation in Ramat-Hasharon reflects the change in the homeowners’ status in life and the number of occupants the home was originally planned for.

The design approach was to transform the spaces, that once served a family, into a clean minimalistic environment, that will suit the parents today, infuse it with a more contemporary touch and serve as a personal gallery to display their photographs.

The house has five levels and was built on a 250 sqm. plot in the 1980s’ as part of a four-house complex.

The first change you will notice when you walk through the main entrance is the reallocation of space in the entryway. By removing as many of the walls as possible, integrating the inner patio and moving the powder room, a more open and welcoming experience was created in which the couple can showcase their art as a prelude to the spaces to come.

A glass banister was put in place of the bent steel baluster that separated the seating area and the entryway, to create a clearer bond between the two. Furthermore it hints at the upcoming space, creates visual contact with the main seating area and further enhances the openness of the space.

The main living space, situated half a level above the entryway, includes an open kitchen, a seating area and a large dining table. The original curved wall, as well as the other nonstructural walls, were demolished in favor of large panes of glass that create a more seamless transition to the small garden. In order to minimize visual clutter, the lighting fixtures and appliances were integrated in the ceilings and walls.

The walls are decorated with artistic photographs taken by the owners and the lighting can be adjusted to accommodate multiple photographs as reference to gallery spaces.

Further up the stairs is the work space that also doubles as a guest bedroom when the grandchildren come to visit. Prior to the renovation, this room was the master bedroom with an adjacent balcony. Merging the balcony with the room helped make it more functional in terms of size.

The bathroom was extended to fit a bathtub and a large closet neatly hides away the washer and dryer.

The top level has become a large and spacious master bedroom by removing all of the inner walls that made up three bedrooms. The walls were aligned to streamline the rectangular shape of the new rooms and there is now a foyer, with built-in closets on each side, that leads to the elongated master bathroom with window openings at both ends.

Below the main living space is the basement which features a focal wall with a floor to ceiling bookcase and a corner seating area.”

Thank you for reading this article!

 

二二八70週年 興大師生投票拆蔣銅像獨具意義|賴彥丞


校園透過校內師生民主投票的方式決定拆除威權象徵是一小步,對於轉型正義與自由民主而言卻是一大步。興大拆老蔣,盡管過程不全然盡善善美,但仍是是大學自治的具體落實,對於其他同樣有威權象徵的學校而言值得借鏡;也是校園轉型正義的一次重大勝利,在今年適逢二二八事件(大屠殺)70周年來說更有其象徵意義。

二二八70週年 興大師生投票拆蔣銅像獨具意義|賴彥丞

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6004

二二八70週年 興大師生投票拆蔣銅像獨具意義

人氣指數: 212
友善列印版本

在政治大學討論是否將「蔣校長」移除之際,最近中興大學校方則已拆除「興大廣場」前的蔣介石銅像,換成了興大備受敬重的已故校長湯蕙蓀銅像,同時原本蔣銅像下方充滿黨國洗腦與威權崇拜的「永懷領袖」四個字也已改成興大校訓「誠樸精勤」。

中興大學已故校長湯蕙蓀銅像(圖片來源:蘋果日報)

蔣介石銅像會被移除導因於去年二二八前夕,興大校內蔣銅像遭抗議人士潑漆,而警察在校方未報警的情況下擅自進入大學校園拍照蒐證更引發學生不滿,痛批警方「破壞大學自主,侵犯校園自由」。事後,校方召開多場師生公聽會與專家會議討論蔣銅像存廢,同時興大新聞社也單獨做了兩次網路問卷調查,然因樣本數稀少且未限制投票者身份及限制填答次數,導致兩次問卷投票結果差異甚大,使得問卷代表性產生疑義。最後校方與新聞社於10月底舉辦網路投票作為期末校務會議參考方向,投票資格限興大在職教職員及在校生並限一人只能投一票,最終拆除方以逾六成得票率大勝保留方。校方對拆除一事刻意低調引來部分雜音,但據筆者深入了解其因某部分是為了防止部分統派團體及深藍群眾以不理性的方式暴力阻撓,況且校方雖低調但基本上也是按照民意進行,只不過對於整體處事模式尚有改善空間。

實際上,長久以來一直有興大師生訴求拆除這個黨國威權的象徵但都未果,於今終獲成功,令人欣喜又感慨。

一、威權象徵留學術殿堂最不該:民主國家本就不應有紀念獨裁者的任何校名、路名、銅像與陵寢,而作為追求自由正義與實踐人文關懷的大學更不該有如此反民主的符號。何況興大附近就是二二八紀念公園,老蔣在興大彷彿猶太人大屠殺紀念館旁有希特勒雕像,何其荒唐!

二、「天然獨」世代崛起追求轉型正義:隨著民主的深化,加以太陽花、反課綱學運推波助瀾,「台灣意識」已深入到年輕世代的心中,因此熱愛腳下土地的青年自然會去探索那段曾被抹煞的台灣史,這也是為什麼以白色恐怖為背景的《返校》電玩會激起年輕人這麼大的迴響。他們看到蔣介石政權在二二八、白色恐怖對這塊土地上的人們恣意逮捕、刑求、屠殺,再看到校園裡面居然還矗立著蔣銅像,自然會反感並起而要求校方移除之。

三、美化老蔣的觀點不堪一擊:每當去蔣化事件發生,總有一批人以「如果沒蔣公台灣就怎樣」這類荒謬論述試圖美化這位屠夫的暴行。然而要知道,歷史討論的是「過去的事實」而非「如果」,這些擁蔣的藍營、統派人士自行亂延伸足見除了顯示自身歷史常識有多麼不及格,有更多是背離史實的偏頗論述。

吾人承認,蔣介石對台灣某方面來說確實有貢獻(不過其實有很多的建設成果都只是餵飽黨營事業的口袋而已),然而物質上的建設萬一遭破壞可以重建,成千上萬無辜的政治受難者遭到槍決(很多原本只是坐幾年牢,卻被蔣介石親筆改判死刑)卻不能復生。而世界上大多數民主國家對於曾經貢獻國家、提振經濟卻迫害異議分子的獨裁者也大多採批判立場,正是由於對自由、民主、人權之崇高價值的堅持。

校園透過校內師生民主投票的方式決定拆除威權象徵是一小步,對於轉型正義與自由民主而言卻是一大步。興大拆老蔣,盡管過程不全然盡善善美,但仍是是大學自治的具體落實,對於其他同樣有威權象徵的學校而言值得借鏡;也是校園轉型正義的一次重大勝利,在今年適逢二二八事件(大屠殺)70周年來說更有其象徵意義。

 

《 Bruce Springsteen – One Step Up 》


《 Bruce Springsteen – One Step Up 》

Woke up this morning my house was cold
Checked out the furnace she wasn’t burnin’
Went out and hoped in my old Ford
Hit the engine but she ain’t turnin’
We’ve given each other some hard lessons lately
But we ain’t learnin’
We’re the same sad story that’s a fact
One step up and two steps back
Bird on a wire outside my motel room
But he ain’t singin’
Girl in white outside a church in June
But the church bells they ain’t ringing
I’m sittin’ here in this bar tonight
But all I’m thinkin’ is
I’m the same old story same old act
One step up and two steps back
It’s the same thing night on night
Who’s wrong baby who’s right
Another fight and I slam the door on
Another battle in our dirty little war
When I look at myself I don’t see
The man I wanted to be
Somewhere along the line I slipped off track
I’m caught movin’ one step up and two steps back
There’s a girl across the bar
I get the message she’s sendin’
Mmm she ain’t lookin’ to married
And me well honey I’m pretending
Last night I dreamed I held you in my arms
The music was never-ending
We danced as the evening sky faded to black
One step up and two steps back
Songwriters
BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group, Downtown Music Publishing

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

【書評書介】警世預言:我們就是《靜寂工人》|葉明叡


作者真正批判的,是國家對此挑戰沒有採取比較積極的行動者角色,而是被動的全盤接受,「國家代理人放棄獨立而深刻的思考,全然繞著新自由主義的邏輯打轉」(頁209)。但這裡我有個邏輯上的小問題,這麼說來,作者是在暗示在過去的時代,國家代理人「曾經」對前一階段的全球化或新自由主義採取深刻的思考過嗎?新自由主義不是2010年代的現在才冷血,而是一以貫之始終如此。

【書評書介】警世預言:我們就是《靜寂工人》|葉明叡

http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/6006

【書評書介】警世預言:我們就是《靜寂工人》

人氣指數: 90
友善列印版本

本書是由作者的碩士論文改寫而成,作者發現在全球化和新自由主義的經濟政策脈絡下,港城(作者用語,指基隆)在1960、70年代被連接到全球市場,獲得它的繁榮,碼頭工人以及他們由高收入支撐起生活模式,形成了特殊的「伴文化」。但到了1990年代,隨外在條件改變,相同的新自由主義邏輯又再將港城拋棄,切斷其與全球市場的連結,經濟活動大幅下降,城市與工人生活逐漸歸於沉寂。以上基隆興衰過程或許可以用非常簡易的巨觀經濟觀點來說明(以前有競爭力,現在沒了,所以變這樣),但作者田野工作的成果,正是透過跟隨報導人(informant,即作者在研究地點中建立良好關係以獲得資料和與田野人物連結的關鍵人物)的日常生活,以及與報導人和田野中人的訪談之中,拼湊出其中特別是文化變遷的真實樣貌。

新自由主義

隨著對報導人的生活情境描寫和故事鋪陳,到第四章作者終於講出他心中想要解釋碼頭工人的陷落的原因,在結尾時用一個專有詞彙來總結:「新自由主義」。新自由主義的說法非常多,起源已不可考,約略是在1970年代出現的一系列經濟政策原則,它與二十世紀初的新古典經濟學派(舊自由主義?)有某種接續的關聯,但對於在全球產業分工鍊中的國家經濟政策,有更多「應該怎樣做」才是「對的做法」的指導。例如,國家應該開放市場、減低關稅、減少勞工保護以提升競爭力等,而對不對的判斷標準,則是賺不賺錢。以上是一百五十字版本的新自由主義介紹。

在本書中,國際貨船帶來的經濟機會,以及其背後的全球化和新自由主義邏輯,似乎是個外來因素,它沒有什麼理由而來,也沒有什麼理由而去,海港與工人就在這樣的歷史偶然性之下被捧起、然後摔落。從微觀的角度看,全球化過於巨大,2016年被全球化摔落的憤怒的美國人投給川普正是一例,大家總想要個解釋,然而菁英們繞來繞去許多術語給不出好解釋,但給不出好解釋的同時,這些菁英似乎仍然過得不錯,而自己卻無昔日的榮景,有志一同,美國與台灣的工人,歸咎的都是彼岸的、那些有競爭力的工人─或許台灣的工人歸咎更多的是自己的能力不足(詳見本書第四章)。

這讓我想到小說《大亨小傳》當中,敘事者尼克說的,「像布坎南和黛西那種有錢人,他們把人家世界搞得一團亂之後,什麼都不管,就再退回他們自己那紙醉金迷的小天地裡」。如同本書作者所發現,全球化帶來的國際貨船改變了碼頭工人的世界,讓他們建立起屬於自己的文化,但一段時間之後又退出此地,尋找其他更便宜、更有效率的替代物,於是勞工的文化模式被摧毀、彼此之間的社會關係被切斷,勞工從「行動主體」變成「勞動物件」(頁186-199)。新自由主義造成工人「集體陷落底層」(頁199),是作者暗示男性高自殺率的原因。

基隆港(圖片來源:Bigmorr ,公有領域)

評論

我認為可以反省的地方是,繁榮當然是人類社會期待的狀況,基隆港以及碼頭工人的活動,正是由全球化所帶來的物質所支撐起來的,歷史偶然性把大量資本交給基隆港、工人以及貿易商分配,分多分少分得公不公平是一回事,總之若沒有這些物質基礎,工人的「伴文化」也無從建立。雖然這樣問很尖銳,但這種文化(或工人不從這種文化關係中被拔除)的維繫,會是集體或國家的責任嗎?雖然在閱讀過程中產生這樣的質疑,不過到最後就豁然開朗了,作者並沒有要為特定文化的維繫做辯護,她只是想藉由基隆工人的處境,指出新自由主義邏輯底下,人類社會必然遭遇的處境,差別只是時間早晚而已。

作者真正批判的,是國家對此挑戰沒有採取比較積極的行動者角色,而是被動的全盤接受,「國家代理人放棄獨立而深刻的思考,全然繞著新自由主義的邏輯打轉」(頁209)。但這裡我有個邏輯上的小問題,這麼說來,作者是在暗示在過去的時代,國家代理人「曾經」對前一階段的全球化或新自由主義採取深刻的思考過嗎?新自由主義不是2010年代的現在才冷血,而是一以貫之始終如此。

作者的推論是悲觀的,沒有人或社會逃得過歷史偶然性,差別只在人們要採取什麼態度來面對它。但作者在最後提出的積極行動的可能,卻略為蒼白,當然,要求一部民族誌提出具體方案未免過於嚴苛,只不過這積極行動的提示與作者所說「看見文化與此間所扮演的關鍵機制」(頁210)之間的關係,並無法從前文中看出來。或許作者是想批評,現行的國家或社會福利介入方法錯誤,都簡化為服膺新自由主義邏輯的個人式歸因,著重提升個別工人的工作能力與工作意願,以將個人改造為符合新自由主義的勞力提供者,而無視結構性失業以及失去文化造成關係斷裂的底層處境(頁204-205)。又或者,作者只是想要在灰暗的結論當中,勉強湊出一絲希望之光。

新文化

其實,我是可能最沒立場質疑本書的讀者。首先,我對於民族誌(或一般而言的研究)有錯誤的期待,民族誌的責任本來就不在提出任何解方,而我身為一個無聊的政策研究者,總是對於人文社會(科)學研究提出錯誤的提問。其次,我剛好就是作者所說的那種,進行政治正確的正當休閒活動的市民(頁143-148)。我與基隆的關聯,除了遙遠孩提時期的去和平島戲水的記憶,就是開始有些經濟能力之後,能與台北的生活暫時脫離的去處。基隆港邊巷子內的三層樓建築,通過彎曲木造樓梯而上的一家咖啡店,是我幾次出走基隆的短暫落腳處。店裡面有一切屬於「潮」、「文青」的各種元素,超過三分之二基本時薪的飲品單價、販賣小物飾品、溫暖又憂鬱的擺設基調,重點是還有一隻貓。坐在二樓窗邊,斜眼可望見基隆港一隅,晴天雨天的人來人往,剛好讓我這自以為有閒階級(其實說不定只是祖上積德)、不事生產的人,去胡思亂想一些事情,進行我稱之為思考的活動。

對於海港來說,我應該就是那些帶著新的資本、新的文化入侵的那群人吧,就像碼頭工人在四、五十年前來時做的事情一樣。或許我們沒有定居於此,也沒有提供勞動力,我們的物質基礎是分散的,但我們參與了海港的經濟活動。觀光、藝文、小確幸,成為新的被捧起的文化模式,接下來,就等著看它什麼時候被重重拋落吧。我們「就是」他們。

 

 

參考資料

魏明毅,《靜寂工人:碼頭的日與夜》。游擊文化:台北,2016。

魏明毅,《基隆碼頭工人:貨船、情感及其社會生活》(link is external)。國立清華大學人類學研究所碩士論文,2012。

 

《 Bruce Springsteen – Atlantic City 》


《 Bruce Springsteen – Atlantic City 》

Well they blew up the chicken man in Philly last night
Now they blew up his house too
Down on the boardwalk they’re gettin’ ready
For a fight gonna see what them racket boys can do
Now there’s trouble busin’ in from outta state
And the D.A. can’t get no relief
Gonna be a rumble out on the promenade and
The gamblin’ commission’s hangin’ on by the skin of its teeth
Well now everything dies baby that’s a fact
But maybe everything that dies someday comes back
Put your makeup on, fix your hair up pretty
And meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Well I got a job and tried to put my money away
But I got debts that no honest man could pay
So I drew what I had from the Central Trust
And I bought us two tickets on that Coast City bus
Now baby everything dies baby that’s a fact
But maybe everything that dies someday comes back
Put your makeup on fix your hair up pretty
And meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Now our luck may have died and out love may be cold
But with you forever I’ll stay
We’re goin’ out where the sand’s turnin’ to gold
Put on your stockin’s ’cause the night’s getting’ cold
And maybe everything dies that’s a fact
But maybe everything that dies someday comes back
Now I been lookin’ for a job but it’s hard to find
Down here it’s just winners and losers
And don’t get caught on the wrong side of that line
Well I’m tired of comin’ out on this losin’ end
So honey last night I met this guy
And I’m gonna do a little favor for him
Well I guess everything dies baby that’s a fact
But maybe everything that dies someday comes back
Fix your hair up nice, fix yourself up pretty
Meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Meet me tonight in Atlantic City
Songwriters
BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group, Downtown Music Publishing

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

【活動邀請】2月5日,來看空中表演


Greenpeace 綠色和平

親愛的朋友們:

這星期天2月5日,您有活動了嗎?如果還沒有,我想邀請您來參加「為海洋減塑」活動。當天11:30、15:00,我與另外10名攀爬隊員將在環保署12樓高的牆面上,進行兩場空中演出

您好,我是家嬅,是綠色和平的行動志工,平常是幼稚園老師。

多年前當我第一次注意到綠色和平的攀爬行動,就很想成為其中一員,儘管我其實很怕高。在2月5日這天,我必須克服懼高,在離地30公尺演出。

這場不同以往的表演,想跟您說一個故事:海洋生物們原本是幸福的,因為人類不負責任的行為受害。
過度捕撈深深傷害海洋。因為多半發生在遙遠的海上,很少人知道跟自己有關。
我們才剛剛開始了解,塑膠廢棄物對生態的負面效應。塑膠柔珠會經由食物鏈再次回到人體,塑膠垃圾會纏勒海鳥、海龜,還有鯨魚和海豚因此活活餓死。
走一趟海邊,沙灘上觸目的塑膠垃圾……
前年,一支塑膠吸管卡在海龜鼻孔,志工一邊解救海龜,海龜痛得流淚的畫面讓很多人都深受震撼。

這場表演是由一群綠色和平行動志工自主發起,想邀請更多人一起反思:如果其他所有海洋生物都消失,人類,也不能獨活。

「為海洋減塑」活動與空中表演
時間:2017年2月5日(週日)11:30 / 15:00
地點:環保署|臺北市中華路一段83號

從籌劃到密集練習,歷時三個月,怕高的我,一度真的很想放棄。至今,不管是在宜蘭高六層樓的場地練習,或上週在環保署牆面上預演,表演中我會看著隊員夥伴、看向天空,從來不看向地面。

綠色和平所有行動都以安全為最優先,但真的很害怕時,我會大叫、會唱歌,隊員夥伴會跟我聊天,負責確保繩索的夥伴會告訴我「你現在很安全」,不要緊張。

如果只有我自己一個人,我不敢說為了環境我一定能做到。但因為有一群人相互打氣、一起堅持下去,普通人如我,也能成為堅強的夥伴,一起做到最好。

正式演出就在2月5日,除了兩個場次各約10分鐘的演出,現場還有減塑短講與藝術裝置體驗。您是否願意邀請朋友一起來,認識海洋的危機、一同減塑守護海洋?

我真心覺得,真的愛海洋,就值得想一想,如何真正愛它、珍惜它。小至在日常生活使用環保餐具,以至挺身而出,參與更廣泛的集體行動。

這就是我藉著參與演出想要傳達的。

2月5日這天,我工作的幼稚園的家長、學生都會來看。希望您也一起來!

家嬅
綠色和平行動志工與攀爬隊員

P.S. 2月5日,在臺北市環保署大樓,綠色和平11名攀爬隊員將在12樓高的牆面上進行兩場空中演出。現場還有減塑短講與藝術裝置體驗,邀請您和家人、朋友一起來!

 

《 Bruce Springsteen – Stolen Car 》


《 Bruce Springsteen – Stolen Car 》

I met a little girl and I settled down
In a little house out on the edge of town
We got married, and swore we’d never part
Then little by little we drifted from each other’s heart
At first I thought it was just restlessness
That would fade as time went by and our love grew deep
In the end it was something more I guess
That tore us apart and made us weep
I’m driving a stolen car
Down on Eldridge Avenue
Each night I wait to get caught
But I never do
She asked if I remembered the letters I wrote
When our love was young and bold
She said last night she read those letters
And they made her feel one hundred years old

Songwriters

BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN

Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group, Downtown Music Publishing

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

氣候變遷調適 一道中國式難題


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202690?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=30c82365fb-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-30c82365fb-84956681

氣候變遷調適 一道中國式難題

 建立於 2017/02/02

作者:梁麗(海外發展研究院風險和恢復力的項目主管);翻譯:金豔

從古至今,洪水、乾旱和熱浪始終未曾放過中國。可以預見的是,隨著全球平均溫度的上升,此類極端天氣事件發生的頻率、強度和地區分佈都將有所變化,由此導致的氣候風險也難以預料。氣候風險分急性和慢性。發生嚴重氣候災害的可能性以及人們在不同災害面前的脆弱性並不確定——這些災害可能是緩慢發生的如海平面上升和乾旱,也可能是極端的,如颱風和熱浪。

中國幅員遼闊、地形多變,要適應各地不同的氣候風險尤為困難。氣候變化對各地季節性天氣模式和氣候的影響各有不同,再加上各地區人口統計數據、自然資源、地形以及社會經濟發展水平等方面的巨大差異,使得氣候適應工作具有難度。例如,高度城市化地區和欠發達農村地區面臨的氣候風險可能截然不同。

乾裂的土壤。圖片來源:Willem van Aken。CC BY 3.0

中國政府面臨的挑戰是,解決並把握氣候變化帶來的風險與機遇,同時還要實現長期經濟社會發展目標。

艱鉅的挑戰

中國的氣候確實在變化。從1951到2009年,中國年均溫上升了約1.4攝氏度。氣溫的升高導致區域降水發生了重大變化,北方年降水量不斷減少,南方長江中下游地區降水則逐年增加,因此出現了「南澇北旱」,即南方洪水氾濫、北方卻飽受干旱和水資源短缺問題的困擾。

中國不僅必須解決水土污染、水土流失、土地退化及生態系統和棲息地喪失的問題,還必須繼續用僅佔全球9%的耕地和6%的可再生水資源養活全球七分之一的人口。此外,發展不平衡、城市化、城鄉人口流動和工業化發展確實提高了一些人的生活水平,但同時也令另外一些人生活更加艱難。

氣候影響的模式也並非一成不變。例如在廣東省廣州市,由於沿海低窪地區的快速城市化,天氣災害對該地區居民的影響日益加重。面對日益頻發和加劇的熱帶氣旋和風暴潮,當地政府必須採取行動保護那里數量不斷增加的人口和他們賴以為生的基礎設施。

無獨有偶,由於溫度上升和鐵路建設,平均海拔超過4000米的西藏出現了未曾有過的蚊子種群。2009年,拉薩市居民開始報告當地出現大量蚊子,那年夏天尤為炎熱,白天溫度最高達到30.4攝氏度,遠高於該地區夏季白天22.5攝氏度的平均溫度。這些蚊子被認為是在該地區傳播西尼羅河熱以及絲蟲病的元兇。而當地居民沒有應對大量蚊子的經驗,對此毫無準備。

升溫與農業

氣候變化的影響並非全是負面的。氣溫上升延長了中國北方的農作物生長期,減少了寒冷天氣對作物的傷害。在一些地區,適合耕作的土地面積擴大,更長的生長季節使一些作物在一年內可以種植兩季甚至更多。北部和西部地區的農戶也開始種植南方水稻品種和冬小麥作物。

氣候變化也擴大了農作物種植總面積。全國復種指數(即年內耕地上農作物總播種面積與耕地面積之比)從1985年的143%上漲至2001年的164%,其中一部分原因在於青藏高原等高原地區種植面積的擴大。

適應複雜多變的氣候

氣候變化影響的預測和應對是一項極為複雜,並且需要耗費大量資源的工作。無論對決策者、企業還是個人來說,氣候適應都十分令人頭疼,因為未來需要適應的不是一個既定、單一的氣候,而是一系列變化中的氣候、環境和社會經濟條件。這些變化意味著不同的人群、資產、基礎設施和經濟部門面臨的風險各不相同,且不均衡。

單一措施很少能實現有效適應。相反,只有將政策和行動相聯繫,並且加強能力建設確保適應措施的執行,才可能實現這一點。中國必須針對水資源保護、災害風險控制、人類健康、能源基礎設施、草原/畜牧業、沿海地帶管理、農業和旅遊業等部門製訂全面綜合的適應措施。

2013年,中國發布《國家適應氣候變化戰略》,該戰略是包括中國氣象局和農業部在內的12個國家部委和政府機構在國家發展和改革委員會(發改委)協調下歷時2年多的工作成果。

該戰略可以說是中國迄今為止最為重要的氣候適應政策,它讓中國的氣候適應工作從評估走向政策制定,並通過針對省級政府和主管部門的一系列指導方針為省市級適應規劃的製定提供了框架。發改委官員強調,該戰略並不是一份計劃,而是一個需要時間來執行的工作綱要。

2016年2月,國家發改委與住房和城鄉建設部起草了《城市適應氣候變化行動方案》,具體細節有待公佈,但其目標是在2020年之前覆蓋30個試點城市。

由於氣候條件已經發生變化,社會適應的壓力很快顯現,基礎設施建設一時難以跟上,部門層面的規劃者開始採用軟、硬結合的方法來建設抵禦災害的能力。中國已經採取關鍵舉措,推動水資源管理政策朝著更加全面、更具前瞻性思維的方向發展,將水資源系統的抗災能力視為適應氣候變化的一部分。

決策者也更加注重保育、保護工作,以及分配政策的變化。例如,中國通過制定《全國水資源綜合規劃》,開始更多地採取一體化的流域管理方式。

適應要以科學為本

人們開始更多地利用衛星數據等遙感手段來獲取更加及時詳細的災害風險信息。中國開發了一套災害性天氣氣候地圖,幫助改善了颱風、暴雨以及乾旱風險的評估。此外,中國還發布了《氣候變化國家評估報告》,以及長江流域、華東地區、雲南省、鄱陽湖和三峽壩區的氣候影響評估報告。

然而,在省一級,氣候適應要麼沒有得到一致重視,要麼沒有被納入省級五年發展規劃之中。國家發改委承認許多省級和地方官員沒有能力製定適應規劃。內蒙古和廣東等地在這方面領先於其他省份。

內蒙古自治區發展研究中心計劃於2017年3月底之前出台一份雄心勃勃的規劃,內容涉及水資源、農林業、生態、城市化、能源和草地畜牧業等領域。

廣東省正在努力修復佔地650公頃的淇澳紅樹林自然保護區。珠江三角洲匯集了數座大都市,但生態退化和污染已經破壞了該地區沿海生態系統緩衝颱風和海潮衝擊的能力。

紅樹林在降低災害風險、協助氣候適應工作中的重要性正日益受到重視。2008年,廣東省遭颱風「黑格比」重創,與健康的生態系統相比,人造基礎設施的御災能力相形見絀。颱風對珠海市造成了巨大破壞,三分之一的花崗岩海堤被摧毀,但附近的淇澳紅樹林自然保護區卻絲毫不受影響。

在適應氣候變化的過程中,中國領導人要應對的不僅僅是多樣的地理環境、龐大的人口數量、各種亟待發展的事項,還要應對區域間不斷擴大的經濟差距。

中國為了維護生態系統健康,提高國民生活水平,已經費盡心力,氣候變化的出現無疑添加了新的壓力。中國決策者、企業和公民必須在這一充滿挑戰的背景下,更好地管理氣候風險,增強自身抵御氣候災害的能力。

因此,以風險為基礎制定綜合性適應政策和規劃是保護弱勢群體、阻止環境退化的關鍵所在。只有這樣,中國才能實現惠及全民的可持續發展。

 

《 Bruce Springsteen – Drive All Night 》


《 Bruce Springsteen – Drive All Night 》

When I lost you honey sometimes I think I lost my guts too
And I wish God would send me a word
Send me something I’m afraid
Lying in the heat of the night like prisoners all our lives
I get shivers down my spine and all I want to do is hold you tight
Baby, baby, baby, I swear I’ll drive all night again, just to buy you some shoes
And to taste your tender charms
And I just want to sleep tonight again in your arms
Oh yeah, oh yeah
Tonight there’s fallen angels and they’re waiting for us down in the street
Tonight there’s calling strangers
Hear them crying in defeat
Let them go, let them go, let them go
Do their dances of the dead, let’em go right ahead, girl
You just dry your eyes, and c’mon, c’mon, c’mon, c’mon
Let’s go to bed, baby, baby, baby
I swear I’ll drive all night again just to buy you some shoes
And to taste your tender charms
And I just want to sleep tonight again in your arms
Oh yeah, oh yeah
I know, I know, I know
There’s machines and there’s fire, baby waiting on the edge of town
They’re out there for hire but baby they can’t hurt us now
‘Cause you’ve got, you’ve got
You’ve got my, my love, girl you’ve got my love, girl
Through the wind, through the rain, the snow, the wind, the rain
You’ve got, you’ve got my, my love
Oh, girl you’ve got my love
You’ve got, you’ve got my love
Oh girl you’ve got my love
You’ve got, you’ve got my love
Oh girl you’ve got my love
You’ve got, you’ve got my love
Oh girl you’ve got my love
Heart and soul
Heart and soul
Heart and soul
Heart and soul
Oh we’re done, now don’t cry now
Baby don’t cry now
Oh, don’t cry now (don’t cry now)
Oh, don’t cry now (don’t cry now)
Just dry your eyes baby (don’t cry now)
Yeah dry your eyes (don’t cry now)
Baby I’ll drive all night
I swear I drive all night
Through the wind, through the rain, through the snow
Through the wind, through the rain, through the snow, through the rain
I swear I’ll drive all night
I swear I’ll drive all night
Through the wind, through the rain, through the snow
Songwriters
BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group, Downtown Music Publishing

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

At least 3,000 geese killed by toxic water from former Montana copper mine


https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jan/23/geese-die-montana-toxic-mine-epa

At least 3,000 geese killed by toxic water from former Montana copper mine

Incident raises questions about how Trump’s administration would the country’s largest Superfund site from leaking its poisonous mix into other waters

‘They need to be prepared, and they’re not prepared,’ said a former Montana lawmaker-turned activist.
‘They need to be prepared, and they’re not prepared,’ said a former Montana lawmaker-turned activist. Photograph: Jim Lo Scalzo/EPA

At least 3,000 geese were killed by a toxic stew formed by a former copper mine in Butte, Montana, last fall, raising questions about how the new Trump administration will handle the largest Superfund site in the country.

In November, a large flock of geese making a late migration over Montana was blown off course by a snowstorm, which sent the birds toward the abandoned copper mine. They splashed down into the 50bn-gallon pool, polluted heavily by acidic chemicals and metals, and died en masse.

Before the Trump administration took office last Friday, federal regulators were struggling to make a plan to keep the poisonous mix from leaking into other waters and seeping into the town’s groundwater system.

“We need to be prepared, and they’re not prepared,” former state lawmaker-turned-activist Fritz Daily said. “I’m talking about the environmental future of this town, I’m talking about the economic future of this town, I’m talking about the social future of this town.”

The Anaconda Copper Co mined thousands of miles of tunnels under Butte over a century, finding gold, silver, lead, zinc, manganese and especially copper, and earning the city of 30,000 the nickname “The Richest Hill on Earth”. The old mine shafts started flooding when mining there ended in 1982, sending contaminated water into the Berkeley pit. It has been slowly filling up ever since.

The liquid is expected to reach a critical level in 2023, and environmental officials are finalizing a plan for keeping it from contaminating Butte’s groundwater and Silver Bow creek, a stream at the headwaters of the Columbia river basin.

The critical level of 5,410ft was set by the Montana bureau of mines and geology as the lowest elevation in Butte’s drainage system. Above that, water from the pit and flooded mines under the city could escape into Silver Bow creek. Fifty feet higher, the pit and mine water would enter the city’s groundwater.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Anaconda’s owner Atlantic Richfield and Montana Resources, owner of an adjacent mine, negotiated a solution that relies on a water treatment plant built near the pit in 2000.

The Horseshoe Bend plant now treats more than 4m gallons of water a day that would otherwise flow into the pit, and the plan is for it to treat another 3m gallons a day directly from the pit starting in 2023.

The plant has never handled 7m gallons at once, but EPA officials say there is enough time for a thorough review to ensure the contaminated water will never escape into the city’s Silver Bow creek, whose banks have yet to be cleaned of the mine waste that was dumped there for decades.

“We’re going to really start digging into pilot studies and performance testing,” said EPA project manager Nikia Greene, “to determine what kind of upgrades, what kind of redundancies do we need.”

Atlantic Richfield and Montana Resources, which operates Horseshoe Bend, are confident the treatment plant will work as designed. Atlantic Richfield spokesman Brett Clanton said the plant received $1m worth of upgrades in 2015, and additional improvements will begin by 2019.

Old mining frames dominate the skyline of Butte, Montana.
Pinterest
Old mining frames dominate the skyline of Butte, Montana. Photograph: Matt Volz/AP

Mark Thompson, Montana Resources’ environmental affairs manager, compared the plan to a sewage treatment plant that continuously discharges water that meets environmental standards. “It’s nothing to be worried about,” he said.

The recent mass goose deaths were an anomaly, he said, and activists’ attempt to tie them to a threat to Butte’s human population is “well overblown”.

But community activists worry the treatment-plant option is being favored because it’s the cheapest technology, not necessarily the best. They also noted that only last month, thousands more geese died at the pit under similar circumstances.

They also suspect Atlantic Richfield will seek a waiver from the EPA allowing the company to discharge pit water into Silver Bow creek, even when that water does not meet Montana’s clean water standards.

If that happens, Silver Bow creek will be devastated, and the hundreds of millions of dollars spent on cleaning waterways downstream will be erased, according to a community coalition, Restore Our Creek.

“When you think about the Berkeley pit water, whatever form that takes, it’s going to have to go through this one mile,” member Evan Barrett said of the creek running through the city. “I think the community understands this mile is critical to our future and also the future of the whole watershed.”

Greene acknowledged the EPA is studying a possible waiver of the state’s water quality standards, but said he could not elaborate because it is part of confidential negotiations with Atlantic Richfield. Donald Trump’s pick to lead the EPA, Scott Pruitt, has not yet been confirmed by the Senate; activists have called Pruitt, a state attorney general with a history of suing the EPA in favor of corporations, an “unprecedented disaster” for the environment.

“I’m very confident that whatever discharged water, however it’s treated, will not be allowed to be discharged if it affects Silver Bow creek,” Greene said.
Perhaps the community’s biggest concern is that there is no strategy for the Berkeley pit beyond keeping the water from reaching the critical level.

Daily and the Restore Our Creek coalition members said the plan only ensures that Butte will remain a Superfund site forever. That would be unusual for a program meant to permanently clean places polluted by hazardous pollutants. Cleanups of nearly 400 sites across the nation have been completed and removed from the Superfund list as of December, according to the EPA.

The EPA’s Greene could not say whether Butte will always be a Superfund site, though he said there will always be some form of operation maintenance for the treatment plant plan.

“That’s a tough question,” he said. “I guess Superfund is going to be there for a long time.”

  • This article was corrected on 26 January to account for a mistake in its timeline: the geese died in November 2016, not in January 2017.

Since you’re here…

…we have a small favour to ask. More people are reading the Guardian than ever but far fewer are paying for it. And advertising revenues across the media are falling fast. So you can see why we need to ask for your help. The Guardian’s independent, investigative journalism takes a lot of time, money and hard work to produce. But we do it because we believe our perspective matters – because it might well be your perspective, too.

If everyone who reads our reporting, who likes it, helps to pay for it, our future would be much more secure.

 

《 Bruce Springsteen – I’m On Fire 》


《 Bruce Springsteen – I’m On Fire 》

Hey little girl is your daddy home
Did he go away and leave you all alone, mmm mmm
I got a bad desire
Oh, ho ho, I’m on fire
Tell me now baby is he good to you
And can he do to you the things that I do, oh no
I can take you higher
Oh, ho ho, I’m on fire
Sometimes it’s like someone took a knife baby
Edgy and dull and cut a six inch valley
Through the middle of my soul
At night I wake up with the sheets soaking wet
And a freight train running through the middle of my head
Only you, can cool my desire
Oh, ho ho, I’m on fire
Oh, ho ho, I’m on fire
Oh, ho ho, I’m on fire
Songwriters
BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group, Downtown Music Publishing

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

3000隻野雁暴斃 考驗川普政府礦場除污能力


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202689?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=30c82365fb-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-30c82365fb-84956681

3000隻野雁暴斃 考驗川普政府礦場除污能力

 建立於 2017/02/02

本報2017年2月2日綜合外電報導,賴慧玲編譯;蔡麗伶審校

川普新政府能管理好美國超級基金最大的污染場址嗎?美國蒙大拿州布特市(Butte)上月驚傳一處廢棄銅礦場流出的毒液濃湯,毒殺了3000多隻野雁。

上月底,一大群遷徙的野雁試圖橫跨蒙大拿州,但遭暴風雪襲擊偏離航線,被迫飛往一處廢棄銅礦場。野雁群被吹落到銅礦場內一個500億加侖的廢水池,池水已遭酸性化學物質和金屬嚴重污染,造成雁群集體暴斃。

一場野雁集體暴斃事件,考驗著川普政權是否有能力阻止美國境內最大超級基金整治場址的毒水混入其他水域,也讓川普政權的污染整治能力被打上問號。

雪雁。圖片來源:USFWS(CC BY 2.0)
濕地是鳥類遷徙的重要棲地之一。圖片僅供示意用途。圖片來源:美國魚類及野生動物管理局 USFWS(CC BY 2.0)

早在上月20日川普就職之前,美國聯邦政府監管機構已試圖提出計畫,防止這些有毒複合廢水逸漏到其他水域,或滲透入當地地下水系統之中。

「我們需要做好準備,但礦場和環保機關還沒準備好。」前州議員、現為運動人士的戴利(Fritz Daily)強調,「我講的是布特市的環境、經濟、社會的未來。」

昔日輝煌 淘金小鎮今氾毒水

一個多世紀以來,蟒蛇銅礦公司(The Anaconda Cooper Co)在布特市的地底下挖了好幾千英里的隧道,運出金、銀、鉛、鋅、鎂等金屬,還有大量的銅礦。興盛的礦業讓這個人口不過3萬人的小城贏得「地表上最富有的山丘」的稱號。

然而,1982年棄礦之後,古老的礦井開始淹水氾濫,毒水淹溢到柏克萊露天礦坑(Berkeley pit),從此慢慢匯積於此。預估2023年,這些毒液量將升高到可侵入地下水位的關鍵點。目前,環保官員正在定案一項整治計畫,以防止毒水會污染布特的地下水和位於哥倫比亞河流域上游的銀弓溪(Silver Bow creek)。

蒙大拿礦物與地質局所設定毒水侵入地下水的臨界高度為5410 英呎(約1650公尺),這也是布特排水系統的最低海拔高度。只要水位高於這個數字,來自露天和地底礦坑的毒水就可能滲漏到銀弓溪裡;若再升高50英呎(約15.2公尺),毒水恐將污染布特市的地下水系。

除污重任 交予十多年歷史的淨水廠

美國國家環境保護局(EPA)、持有該礦場的大西洋富油田與蒙大拿資源公司(Atlantic Richfield and Montana Resources)、以及鄰近一處礦場場主已為整治方案進行協商。該方案將依賴2000年柏克萊露天礦坑旁興建的一處淨水廠來進行除污工作。目前,馬蹄灣淨水廠(the Horseshoe Bend plant)每日攔截和處理超過400萬加侖的礦場廢水,避免毒水流入露天礦坑。

依照整治方案的規畫,自2023年起,該淨水場每日還將直接處理300萬加侖的露天礦坑積水。

儘管馬蹄灣淨水廠從未一次處理700萬加侖廢水,EPA官員認為,目前還有時間可以進行通盤檢討,確保污水絕不流入銀弓溪。目前銀弓溪畔仍有數十年堆積出來的礦場廢土,亟待清除。

EPA 專案經理格林(Nikia Greene)說,「我們將確實地進行先導行研究和成效測試,來決定我們需要什麼樣的配備升級和裁員措施。」

「野雁群暴斃非常例」 淨水廠公司信心滿溢

馬蹄灣淨水場由大西洋富油田與蒙大拿資源公司經營,該公司對於淨水廠能否使命必達,信心滿滿。公司發言人克蘭頓(Brett Clanton)表示,大西洋富油田公司已於2015年投入100萬美金升級淨水廠的設備,並將於2019年起進行其他改善工程。

該公司環境事務經理湯普遜(Mark Tompson)將淨水廠比作是一個持續排放符合環境法規標準廢水的污水處理廠,「沒有什麼好擔憂的。」

他認為,近期發生的大規模野雁暴斃事件並不是常例。運動人士試圖將該公司描繪成是布特市民的威脅,實屬「無稽之談」。

毒水葬送野雁群 居民:不只一例

但社區運動人士擔憂,淨水廠之所以獲得青睞,是因為這是最便宜的科技,不必然就是最佳的污染解決方案。他們也指出,就在去(2016)年12月底,數以千計的野雁也因類似的情況死於露天礦坑的毒水之中。

他們也懷疑,大西洋富油田公司將試圖向EPA申請豁免資格,好將未達蒙大拿州淨水標準的毒水直接排入銀弓溪中。

由在地社區運動人士組成的「復育吾溪」聯盟(Restore Our Creek)指出,如果不符標準的毒水獲准排入溪中,不僅銀弓溪將毀於一旦,過去耗費數以億計的除污經費成果,也將功虧一簣。

聯盟成員巴瑞特(Evan Barrett)表示:「不管是用什麼樣的處理方式,柏克萊露天礦坑的毒水必然都得經過這一英哩的河段。社區居民了解這一英哩河段對我們的未來以及整個集水區的未來至關重要。」

格林承認,EPA正在研究讓該公司免除受州立水質標準限制的可能性,但表示因涉及與大西洋富油田公司的保密協商,無法向記者多談。目前,川普政府提名普魯特(Scott Pruitt)擔任EPA局長的人事案仍有待上議院通過。環保人士已將這位向來在法庭上偏袒大企業的前奧克拉荷馬州檢察長,稱作是環境「前所未見的大災難」。

「不管廢水標準如何、怎麼淨化,只要有影響銀弓溪之嫌,我有信心這些廢水將不會被排放到溪裡。」格林表示。

根治無望? 整治方案只求低於臨界值

或許最讓當地居民擔憂的,是目前的整治方案只管將毒水量保持在臨界點之下,卻沒有徹底整治污染源的策略。

戴利和復育吾溪聯盟的成員們認為,這個方案只會讓布特永遠擺脫不了超級基金污染整治場址的命運。一般來說,整治計畫的目的是永久清除危險污染源,但布特整治計畫卻不是以此為目標,並不尋常。根據 EPA 去年12月的統計,美國境內已有將近400處的污染場址完成整治,並從超級基金名單中除名。

對於布特將永遠列為超級基金場址的說法,EPA 官員格林不予置評。但他坦言,淨水場計畫將一直保持某種運轉維護的狀態。

「這個問題很難回答」他說,「我猜超級基金將伴隨此地很長一段時間。」

參考資料

作者

蔡麗伶(LiLing Barricman)

In my healing journey and learning to attain the breath awareness, I become aware of the reality that all the creatures of the world are breathing the same breath. Take action, here and now. From my physical being to the every corner of this out of balance’s planet.

賴慧玲

Undisciplined. 學習當個研究者、記者和翻譯。追逐著新的境界,在回首中不斷向前。

 

《 Bruce Springsteen – Glory Days 》


《 Bruce Springsteen – Glory Days 》

I had a friend was a big baseball player
Back in high school
He could throw that speed ball by you
Make you look like a fool boy
Saw him the other night at this roadside bar
I was walking in, he was walking out
We went back inside sat down had a few drinks
But all he kept talking about was
Glory days, well they’ll pass you by
Glory days, in the wink of a young girl’s eye
Glory days, glory days
Well there’s a girl that lives up the block
Back in school she could turn all the boy’s heads
Sometimes on a Friday I’ll stop by
And have a few drinks after she put her kids to bed
Her and her husband Bobby, well they split up
I guess it’s two years gone by now
We just sit around talking about the old times,
She says when she feels like crying
She starts laughing thinking about
Glory days well they’ll pass you by
Glory days in the wink of a young girl’s eye
Glory days, glory days
I think I’m going down to the well tonight
And I’m going to drink till I get my fill
And I hope when I get old I don’t sit around thinking about it
But I probably will
Yeah, just sitting back trying to recapture
A little of the glory of, well time slips away
And leaves you with nothing mister but
Boring stories of glory days
Glory days well they’ll pass you by
Glory days in the wink of a young girl’s eye
Glory days, glory days
Well they’ll pass you by
Glory days in the wink of a young girl’s eye
Glory days, glory days
Well alright oo yeah
Well alright come on now
Well alright oo yeah
Well alright come on now
With you, with you, with you, with you
All right boys keep it rocking now
Keep on going, we gonna go home now
Bring it home, yeah bring it home
Alright, alright, well alright, well alright, well alright, well alright
Well alright, alright, alright, let’s go
Songwriters
BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group, Downtown Music Publishing

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

全國重要河川嚴重污染長度 最後73.7公里待改善


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202662?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=30c82365fb-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-30c82365fb-84956681

全國重要河川嚴重污染長度 最後73.7公里待改善

 建立於 2017/02/02

本報2017年2月2日台北訊,賴品瑀報導

環保署水保處公布2016年全國50條重要河川水質監測結果,指出加重水污法罰鍰與祭出總量管制與加嚴放流水標準後,「嚴重污染」長度合計降為73.7公里。

全國50條重要河川的嚴重污染長度比率,從過去3年徘徊在4.2%至4.6%之間,大舉降低至2.5%;另,11條遭列為重點整治河川的,嚴重污染比率也降至7.4%,已是2001年以後水質最佳的一年,2001年時,嚴重污染長度比率為13.2%。

水保處處長葉俊宏表示,終極目標是要全國河川都脫離「嚴重污染」,改善至中度污染以下。將繼續對生活污水、工業廢水及畜牧廢水等三大污染源採取措施。

水保法在2015年獲得修正,將罰鍰上限大幅提升至2000萬元。此外,未取得排放許可證或許可文件而排放廢污水、貯留或稀釋廢污水者,除了處分罰鍰,主管機關應令事業全部停工或停業。新法上路到2016年底,共有137家因違反水污染防治法命停工、停業,其中無廢污水排放許可證逕行排放或貯留而令停工、停業事業達76家次。

葉俊宏表示,未來還要再推動修法加重水污法的刑責,讓污染河川者,除了挨罰還要面臨更重刑罰。對於嚴重污染河川或重金屬超標河段,則將採總量管制或加嚴放流水標準的手段來改善。

總量管制或加嚴放流水標準有成效 下一波可望8溪再加入

在2016年,環署優先選定了農地污染現況較嚴重的桃園、台中及彰化3市縣,將桃園新街溪、埔心溪、台中市詹厝園圳及彰化東西二圳等河川,劃定及公告總量管制區,並執行總量管制計畫。在加嚴部分河川水體沿岸污染源放流水標準的部分,也已有部分縣市開始公告加嚴,如桃園市大坑崁溪(老街溪支流)的氨氮放流水標準,宜蘭縣也要求進入水利會灌溉渠道的廢污水,需符合灌溉用水水質標準等。

河川污染。攝影:袁廷堯,圖片來源:地球公民基金會。

葉俊宏指出,接下來包括新北市塔寮坑溪、大安圳、桃園南崁溪、新竹縣茄苳溪、新竹市客雅溪、台南市三爺溪、高雄市阿公店溪、後勁溪等8條溪,可望是下一波優先加嚴管制的對象,環署與各地縣市政府正在研議,要以總量管制抑或是加嚴放流水標準來進行。水保處科長張根穆解釋,若很明確污染來源,例如南崁溪、三爺溪的污染是電鍍業為主的話,那麼從加嚴特定物質的放流水標準就是對症下藥,並不需要走總量管制,影響範圍就可縮小。

畜牧業水污費開徵 作肥發電可免繳

水污費在2017年開徵畜牧業的部分,全台將有約7800多家大小型畜牧場納入其中。水保處則再次提醒,若是進行作肥發電等再利用,設法讓畜牧廢水不排到地面水體,那麼業者就可大舉減少水污費的支出。

葉俊宏解釋,畜牧糞尿具有高有機質,若將這些豬糞尿進行厭氧發酵後,將沼渣沼液糞尿作為農地肥分使用,既可畜牧業可減少廢水處理設施操作維護費用、農民也可減少化學肥料的使用,更能減少河川的污染。葉俊宏統計,目前全國已有22家畜牧業者提報之「農地肥分使用申請書」經審查同意,總計施灌農地面積達146公頃。在2017年,環署目標至少100個畜牧場加入。

在生活廢水方面,環署則將繼續補助地方政府,以人工溼地或礫間處理等水質淨化場的方式,減少生活用水直接排入河川。

作者

賴品瑀

新店溪下游人,曾在成大中文與南藝紀錄所練功打怪撿裝備,留下《我們迷獅子》、《我是阿布》兩部紀錄片作品。現為人類觀察員,並每日鍛鍊肌肉與腦內啡,同時為環境資訊電子報專任記者,為大家搭起友誼的橋樑。

 

Previous Older Entries

【◎心靈研磨坊 - 曼陀羅藏◎】

《心靈研磨坊 ─ 身心體能極限的突破,放慢步調,邁開腳步,輕鬆地悠遊著....》

%d bloggers like this: