Feathers fell from the sky…..


“ Feathers fell from the sky. Like black snow, they drifted onto an old city called Bath.”

― Stefan Bachmann


Dancer: @laurenaureus 

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#YJ40: 10 Poses That Stand the Test of Time


http://www.yogajournal.com/slideshow/10-yoga-poses-do-every-day/

#YJ40: 10 Poses That Stand the Test of Time

As YJ turned 40, we asked Kathryn Budig to give it to us straight: 10 poses we should all be practicing on the regular—regardless of level and whichever shiny, new goal pose we’ve had tunnel vision on.

Home practice is hard. It’s only human to go through phases where you get distracted by the shiny, next, new challenge pose in your practice—or on the opposite end of the spectrum simply get stuck on your favorite feel-good sequence. And while you definitely don’t want to lose sight of goals or the sweet sensations that keep you coming back to your mat, it’s a good idea to take a critical eye to your practice now and then and look for the areas where you could strive for greater balance.

That’s what yoga is all about after all, and practitioners of every level can benefit from going back to basics regularly to reexamine the actions and alignment of foundational standing poses, backbends, forward bends, and inversions. So in honor of YJ’s 40th anniversary, I’ve compiled a list of poses that really stand the test of time—that is, 10 asanas every single yogi should be practicing on the regular. Here’s my top 10 list along with focus tips for beginner, intermediate, and advanced practitioners.

READ MORE 10 Things Beginners Must Know About Yoga

Top 10 Poses to Practice Every Day

  • 1. Garland Pose

    1. Garland Pose

    Malasana

    This beautiful squat is one of my all-time favorite poses. Malasana releases the lower back, opens the hips, and turns the practitioner into a cute little nugget. Explore variations and tips on how to make this pose easier or how to go deeper.

    Beginner

    It’s common for beginners to struggle with dropping their heels to the ground. Make sure to spin your heels in and toes out, as well as to widen your stance. If it irritates your knees to drop into a full squat, sit on one or more blocks.

    Intermediate

    Step up the hip-opening element of this pose by incorporating your arms. Lean forward to wiggle your upper arms to the inside of your legs. Draw your palms together in front of your heart and push your heart into your thumbs. This will naturally encourage external rotation and give you that extra ahhhh moment.

    Advanced

    Full Malasana is traditionally performed with the feet together, knees wide, and the torso in a forward fold with either the arms extending or wrapped behind the heels. You typically see this pose done with feet wider than the hips (which is still my personal favorite to release my back and hips after a long day).

    READ MORE How Yogis Do Squat: Malasana

  • 2. Four-Limbed Staff Pose

    2. Four-Limbed Staff Pose

    Chaturanga Dandasana

    Chaturanga is one of the most common postures in Vinyasa yoga—but also one of the most abused. Students tend to rush this pose, cheating its alignment, which with repetition can lead to injury. Check out my pointers below to revisit this foundational posture and begin treating it as its own pose instead of a transition.

    Beginner

    Many people don’t have the strength and/or body awareness to perform this posture with good alignment. I recommend most students learn this pose with their knees down. Focus on drawing the lower belly up to prevent dumping in the lower back. Keep your elbows in tight to your ribcage and stacked above your wrists.

    Intermediate

    Have the eye of the tiger! Gaze forward the entire time to prevent rounding in the upper back (we always want to look down here, look forward!) Draw the shoulder heads back and focus on extending your heart as you lower so the elbows stay over the wrists instead of falling behind the heels of your hands.

    Advanced

    Use full breath! People love to fly through this pose. Take a full inhale in Plank and a full exhale to come into Chaturanga. Don’t transition out of it until your exhale is complete. This takes control, awareness, and prevents you from making silly mistakes and moving too quickly.

    READ MORE The Step-by-Step Yogapedia Guide to Chaturanga Dandasana

  • 3. Extended Triangle Pose

    3. Extended Triangle Pose

    Utthita Trikonasana

    Trikonasana. Such a classic standing pose! We live in a world where standing poses are often ignored, but this one is part of my regular practice come rain or shine. It is a glorious way to release your lower back, strengthen your core, and expand your body (and mind).

    Beginner

    Students tend to collapse their lower body trying to get their hand or palm to the ground. Skip that step and place your palm either on a block outside of your shin or on your shin below your knee. This enables you to even out through both sides of your ribcage creating even length in the trunk of your body.

    Intermediate

    It’s so easy to get sassy in this pose! Most people stick out their butts (pitch in their lower backs) and puff their ribs. Focus on corseting your ribcage in (wrapping the bones towards your midline) and keeping your lower belly engaged and lifted to create space in your lower back.

    Advanced

    The final step is taking both of these tips and looking down. You want to line your torso up with your front leg (most students lean toward the inside). Can you keep both sides of your waist even, ribs in, belly engaged and lower back long as you lean back? Of course, you can! Practice, practice, practice.

    READ MORE Master an Essential Pose: Extended Triangle

  • 4. Crescent Pose, aka High Lunge

    4. Crescent Pose, aka High Lunge

    I can’t imagine a yoga practice without this perfect standing pose. Crescent Lunge my go-to for opening my hips and psoas, encouraging space in my chest, and feeling powerful on my feet.

    Beginner

    You’ll see newer students struggling for balance in this pose. Easy fix. Look down. Odds are your feet are too narrow. Make sure your front and back foot are hip-width apart. This will widen the stance and allow you to balance.

    Intermediate

    There’s a tendency to lean forward in this pose which is often caused by pitching in your lower back or tightness in the psoas connected to your back leg. Bend your back knee as much as you need to for mobility in your pelvis. Draw the front crest of your pelvis up to neutral (like a bowl full of kombucha that you don’t want to spill) and gently draw your back leg toward straight. It may not fully straighten, but this is a stronger posture.

    Advanced

    Try adding the element of a backbend/dropback in your upper body. Follow the rules you’ve read so far and then reach your arms overhead interlacing all the fingers except for your thumb and index. Keep the base of the neck relaxed as you lift your heart up and curl your upper chest. Draw an imaginary line along the ceiling going up and back. Keep the base of your building strong, aka don’t pitch your pelvis.

    READ MORE High Lunge, Crescent Variation

  • 5. Revolved Chair Pose

    5. Revolved Chair Pose

    Parivrtta Utkatasana

    I know Chair isn’t the most popular pose in the world, but this is why it’s on the list. It’s a great foundational pose to teach us how to twist safely. If you can learn the mechanics of a twist here, you’ll be safer in more advanced postures.

    Beginner

    Look at your knees! You want to keep your lower back even, and the best clue comes from your knees. You want them to stay even, so if you have one popping out, draw it back in! This will neutralize your lower back and keep you safe.

    Intermediate

    Draw your palms into Anjali Mudra and press them into each other. Press so much that your torso revolves and your heart lifts up to meet your thumbs. That’s a juicy twist!

    Advanced

    Reach your bottom hand down to the outside of your foot and extend the top arm back up. Combine the work of keeping your knees/hips level and using your outer arm to push into your leg to get the beautiful turn in your chest.

    READ MORE 5 Steps to Master Revolved Chair Pose

  • 6. Tripod Headstand

    6. Tripod Headstand

    Sirsasana II

    Inversions are a magical group of postures that reverses our perspective and give us a strong dose of empowerment. Tripod Headstand is one of the easier inversions to balance because of the large foundation. It’s also fantastic to understand if you want to move into advanced transitions such as lowering into arm balances.

    Beginner

    Place the crown of your head on the ground with your hands shoulder-width apart and elbows stacking over the heels of your hands. Curl your toes under and straighten your legs to enter a Dolphin Pose. Focus on keeping the elbows in (engage your adductors) and draw your shoulders up away from the ground to prevent collapsing into your neck. Try walking your feet in without loosing these actions.

    Intermediate

    Keep the same actions as above, but as you gain flexibility, walk your feet in enough so you can place one knee at a time onto the back of your arms (aim closer to the armpits if possible). Again, keep the elbows in and shoulders up to prevent collapsing your arms from the weight of your legs.

    Advanced

    From the knee position draw them up off of your arms and into your chest like a cannon ball. Continue to draw the legs up until they straighten out keeping the legs hugging into the midline the entire time. You can also enter this posture from Dolphin walking your feet in, keeping the legs straight, and entering from a press.

    READ MORE Kathryn Budig Challenge Pose: Sirsasana II (Tripod Headstand)

  • 7. Supported Bridge Pose

    7. Supported Bridge Pose

    Salamba Setu Bandha Sarvangasana

    This is my happy place. Funny enough, traditional Bridge Pose makes me crazy. Add a block under the lower back and voilà—I could stay there for hours with a smile on my face. This is a great modification for Shouderstand and a relaxing way to release the front body and release the spine.

    Beginner

    Start with a block on the low–medium level underneath your lower back.

    Intermediate

    Place the block the tall and narrow way underneath your lower back (you might need to press up onto tippy toes to fit the block in). Interlace your fingers in front of the block and hug your shoulders in.

    Advanced

    Following the steps above, if you can get a firm grip with your hands and keep the arms hugging in, extend one leg at a time to into a modified Shoulderstand.

    READ MORE A Beginner-Friendly Inversion: Shouldstand

  • 8. Camel Pose

    8. Camel Pose

    Ustrasana

    Camel is a love-hate pose for many people. The key is to trigger all of the proper alignment in the body to keep the lower back supported and the neck happy. The beauty lies in the fact that there are so many variations. So here we go!

    Beginner

    Stand on your shins with your knees and feet hip-width apart. Wrap your hands around your hips encouraging your tailbone to drop down while your lower belly lifts up to neutralize your pelvis. Keep your hands on your hips and lift your heart up powerfully as you roll your shoulder heads back. Hold here with hands on the hips for about 8 breaths.

    Intermediate

    Begin the same way as above but curl your toes under. Neutralize your pelvis then draw your hands to your ribcage encouraging them to lift and expand. Roll the shoulders back and keep the arms neutral as you drop your hands down to grab your heels. Keep hips stacking over the knees and the chest lifting.

    Advanced

    Keep all the previous actions but this time with the feet flat. After you adjust your ribs, keep the powerful lift of your chest and let your head fall back. Grab your heels and soften your face and throat.

    SEE ALSO Counteract Tech Hunch: Camel Pose

  • 9. Head-to-Knee Forward Bend

    9. Head-to-Knee Forward Bend

    Janu Sirsasana

    This one may seem random, but I have affection for it going all the way back to my Ashtanga days. This fabulous forward fold releases the calf and hamstring of the straight leg with the added benefit of opening the hip of the bent-knee leg. It also teaches the student to notice the effects of small nuances, such as squaring the chest with the straight-leg knee.

    Beginner

    Sit up on a blanket or block. Place a strap over the ball of your straight-leg foot. Hold onto each side of the strap and focus on sitting tall without rounding your spine. Gently pull back on the strap so you feel it pull into your foot encouraging it to stay flexed.

    Intermediate

    To start, inhale and extend your spine long. As you exhale, pivot your belly button to face your straight-leg knee. Keep the twist and length as you grab either edge of your straight-leg foot.

    Advanced

    Follow the steps above, but as your flexibility increases, clasp your outer wrist with your inner hand thumb and middle finger around the ball of your foot. Inhale as you clasp, and keeping your gaze forward, exhale and bend your elbows wide to draw you deeper into the fold.

    READ MORE 4 Steps to Master Head-to-Knee Pose

  • 10. Legs-Up-The-Wall Pose

    10. Legs-Up-The-Wall Pose

    Viparita Karani

    This is such a glorious pose and great for all levels of students! Leg-Up-the-Wall is the best way to relax after a long day or practice on your feet. It drains the legs and is also a fantastic posture if you struggle with insomnia.

    Beginner

    Place a folded blanket or bolster lengthwise along the wall. Sit on it sideways with one hip touching the wall. As you lie down, swivel around and sweep your legs up the wall, keeping your lower back elevated.

    Intermediate

    Lose the blanket or bolster, and just practice Legs-Up-the-Wall with your hips flush against the baseboard.

    Advanced

    Make a lasso out of a strap and tighten it around the balls of both of your feet. Bring your legs up the wall and wrap the strap around your shins twice. Take the tail end of the strap and thread it through the loop around your feet and two loops around your shins to tighten everything together. Let your legs fully relax.

    READ MORE 10 Poses Younger Than Yoga Journal

  • About Kathryn Budig

    About Kathryn Budig

    Kathryn Budig is the yoga teacher behind AIM TRUE, a regular writer for Yoga Journal, and a presenter at Yoga Journal LIVE! Catch up with her @ kathrynbudig.com and on:

    Twitter: @kathrynbudig
    Instagram: @kathrynbudig
    Facebook: @kathrynbudigyoga

  • Love Yoga Journal? Get rich asana content — master classes, in-depth anatomy instruction, pose and alignment cues, and interviews with all of your favorite teachers — right here in our brand new YJ Library. Study up and enrich your practice with timeless yoga articles.

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New York style warehouse in the heart of Darlinghurst, Sydney


http://www.caandesign.com/new-york-style-warehouse-in-the-heart-of-darlinghurst-sydney/

New York style warehouse in the heart of Darlinghurst, Sydney

Location: Sydney, Australia
Year: 2015
Area: 4,306 sqft / 400 sqm
Photo courtesy: Stephen Wan
Description:

This New York distribution center motivated property is a fortune in the popular society center point in Darlinghurst, Sydney. The designer outlined stockroom change has changed the space in a chic living arrangement with a lot of space for a casual, private family living.

New-York-style-warehouse-in-the-heart-of-Darlinghurst,-Sydney-01

The upstairs kitchen and feasting is styled with fantastic tastefulness highlighting an eating bar, rock benchtops and stainless steel apparatuses. This dazzling stockroom incorporates a lavishly expansive main room ensuite. The sitting region has juliet overhangs. This excellent living arrangement is city living getting it done.

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Tent House on Waiheke Island by Chris Tate Architecture


http://www.caandesign.com/tent-house-waiheke-island-chris-tate-architecture/

Tent House on Waiheke Island by Chris Tate Architecture

Architects: Chris Tate Architecture
Location: Waiheke Island, New Zeland
Year: 2015
Photo courtesy: Simon Devitt Photographer
Description:

The design features a spiral staircase to a mezzanine bedroom, an open plan kitchen and dining area leading out to a large deck, and a fire pit and spa pool.

“We created a completely natural, native landscape, basically looking at what plants should have been on that site. We cleared tonnes of weeds and ginger off the property, planted hundreds of natives.

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1001 Nights House by A-cero


http://www.caandesign.com/1001-nights-house-by-a-cero/

1001 Nights House by A-cero

Architects: A-cero
Location: Madrid, Spain
Area: 22,600 sqft
Photo courtesy:
Description:

A-cero presents one of its later undertakings in single family properties. It is a solitary family house situated in an advancement in the edges of Madrid. Over a plot of 7000 m2 the building, with 2100 m2, ascends with an exclusive expectation configuration noting the proprietors’ necessities.

1001-Nights-House-01

The entrance, through the improvement walkway, is put on a larger amount. Here is the property, mostly covered up by numerous bended dividers that appear to hoist from some water sheets over a stone covering in white, dim and dark shades, put intentionally as a piece of the scene here of the plot. Other than its sculptural elements, commonplace of the A-cero style, this side of the veneer expects the joining of the building in the encompassing environment. A wide stone way, with water sheets on both sides, lead us to a tremendous dark glass entryway that gives us access inside the property. In the greenery enclosure, taking after the wishes of the proprietors, there are palms, pome granate trees and Middle East vegetation.

1001-Nights-House-02

The back exterior of the house, the most noticeable, benefits as much as possible from the slight slant of the plot, where there is the patio, a pool and the greenery enclosure. All the perspectives from the diverse rooms of the property are engaged here, as the perspectives of the lakes in the basic territories of the advancement.

1001-Nights-House-03

All the building is wearing “dark villar rock stone”. In this some portion of the property enormous windows, with shrouded woodwork, are opened, accomplishing a great deal of light for within space. In the yard, the window in the primary lounge, of 10 meters, is naturally covered up, interfacing inside and outside.

1001-Nights-House-04

The acceptable zone is made of white marble, the vase in the pool of blue gressite. The outside furniture is from the Rest gathering by A-cero In.

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31 – 09 《 Frankie Laine – I Believe ( For Every Drop Of Rain That Falls ) 》


《 Frankie Laine – I Believe ( For Every Drop Of Rain That Falls ) 》

I believe for every drop of rain that falls
A flower grows
I believe that somewhere in the darkest night
A candle glows
I believe for everyone that goes astray
Someone will come to show the way
I believe
I believe
I believe above the storm the smallest prayer
Will still be heard
I believe that someone in the great somewhere
Hears every word
Every time I hear a newborn baby cry
Or touch a leaf
Or see the sky
Then I know why
I believe
Every time I hear a newborn baby cry
Or touch a leaf
Or see the sky
Then I know why
I believe (Why I believe)
Songwriters
DWAYNE CHIN-QUEE, MICHAEL FRANTI, JACOB HEMPHILL, DAVID BELL
Published by
Lyrics © Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Universal Music Publishing Group, Kobalt Music Publishing Ltd.

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

West London House by SHH


http://www.caandesign.com/west-london-house-by-shh/

West London House by SHH

Location: London, England
Year: 2012
Area: 10,000 sqft
Photo courtesy: Alastair Lever and Gareth Gardner
Description:

SHH has completed a new-build, detached, seven-bed, five-storey house in west London (with retained front façade), which features one of the largest pools of any property in the area (measuring 14m x 4.5m and located behind a sunken rear courtyard).

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An original Victorian property on the site had been split into four flats in the post-war period, which the current owner had purchased piecemeal over time, before coming to SHH with a vision of converting the entire property into a single, luxury family home, based on the principle of lateral living, with high ceilings and extensive living spaces, as well as a very generous pool and leisure complex below ground, to include a spa, sauna, steam room, gym, bar area, changing rooms, toilets, walk-in wine cellar, playroom and cinema/media room.

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“The new house’ commented Project Leader and SHH Associate Director Guy Matheson, “has a similar above-ground footprint to the one we replaced. A former 1950s flat-roof extension to the left of the property has been replaced in the same style as the retained façade, with the new roof covering both sections. The brickwork of the retained front façade has also been tuck-pointed, which is something of a lost art-form and gives the building a very crisp aesthetic.”

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31 – 08 《 APM Music Library – Moonlight Promenade 》


《 APM Music Library – Moonlight Promenade 》

The modern Rosemary House fills the open floor plan living with a lot of natural light


http://www.caandesign.com/modern-rosemary-house-fills-open-floor-plan-living-lot-natural-light/

The modern Rosemary House fills the open floor plan living with a lot of natural light

Architects: Kohn Shnier Architects
Location: Toronto, Canada
Year: 2016
Photo courtesy: doublespace photography
Description:

“The new house replaces an existing house on a conventional mid-town residential lot in the City of Toronto. Similar in area to the original house, the new design emphasizes fluid relationships between, and within, shared family spaces—both indoor and outdoor. Designed for a larger than average family, Rosemary House encourages modern family living that is interactive, open to choices, and growth. This is achieved by planning for living, working and playing in spaces that are zoned, yet not necessarily enclosed. Circulation, planned with continuous loops and visual overlook, provides for art display; endless running space for children; and continuous contact between family members.

The modest two-storey mass of the house sits unobtrusively within the neighborhood. While it is distinct from its pseudo-Tudor neighbors, it is neither overshadowed nor dominant in that distinction. The design of the house seeks to find the ‘sweet spot’ between formal innovations that break with conventional boundaries of its neighbours yet respects the essential qualities of its context. . It is innovative and assertive, yet modest and familiar. It is a home that will always be understood as both of its time; and a classic. An innovative use of custom solid limestone masonry is tonally sympathetic with other homes, yet demonstrates how contemporary design can contribute difference.

The compact stacked footprint of the house permits the use of robust, high quality materials and products within the budget. As a counterpoint to much larger homes being built in the neighbourhood, this modern home encourages larger living in smaller, useable and flexible space.”

Thank you for reading this article!

 

31 – 07 《 Patti Page – You Belong To Me 》


《 Patti Page – You Belong To Me 》

See the pyramids along the Nile
Watch the sun rise on a tropic isle
Just remember, darling, all the while
You belong to me.
See the marketplace in old Algiers
Send me photographs and souvenirs
But remember when a dream appears
You belong to me.
I’ll be so alone without you
Maybe you’ll be lonesome too, and blue
Fly the ocean in a silver plane
Watch the jungle when it’s wet with rain
Just remember till you’re home again
You belong to me
Songwriters
ZWIRN, ARTHUR/GIOSASI, ARISTIDES /
Published by
Lyrics © EMI Music Publishing, Sony/ATV Music Publishing LLC, Warner/Chappell Music, Inc., Universal Music Publishing Group

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

【2016回顧】農地變工廠,爐碴也來湊一腳


http://e-info.org.tw/node/201722?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=db5ef3f4ee-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-db5ef3f4ee-84956681

【2016回顧】農地變工廠,爐碴也來湊一腳

 建立於 2016/12/23

作者:彭瑞祥、鄒敏惠、詹嘉紋

FOCUS:農地有維護糧食安全、資源永續的功用,繼農舍濫建後,環團進一步揭露違章工廠侵占良田的醜聞,加上拖延多年的爐碴污染問題懸而未解,「農地不農用」再成媒體焦點。 這些農地上存在已久的沈痾,是台灣重工輕農的證據,也是缺乏國土規劃的結果。在《國土法》預備施行期間,各縣市以及中央如何釐清及劃分土地利用類型,估計仍有一段漫長的路要走。

發生什麼事?

據環團調查指出,台灣是全球第二大扣件出口國,但這些揚威國際的螺絲、水五金等世界級冠軍產業,卻是犧牲了農地,由一座座違章工廠所撐起。今年,高雄農民專程到國際扣件展外抗議,也提起行政訴訟,控訴震南鐵線公司在農場租地蓋酸洗工廠,污染農地。另一方面,高雄地方法院今年做出歷史性的一審刑事判決,針對三年前旗山區大林農地遭業者挖土石回填轉爐石案,將轉爐石判定為廢棄物,地主遭處有期徒刑四年。

法規的訂定與修正卻往往緩不濟急。輔導違章工廠的政策即遭批漏洞百出,恐讓財勢雄大,有政商關係的大廠就地合法,真正需輔導的小廠仍只能在外流竄。妥善管理爐碴的《廢清法》修法也未定,違章工廠與爐碴污染持續肆虐全台農地。

瞭解更多看這裡

農地違章工廠

爐碴埋農地

作者

彭瑞祥

六年級生,曾在咖啡店當吧檯兼翻譯,十多年前受南方電子報、破報、國家地理雜誌啟蒙,希望也能自己做媒體關心環境。

詹嘉紋

可能帶有天王星人血統,對地球人感到既好奇又困惑。

鄒敏惠

Another world is possible.

 

31 – 06 《 Johnnie Ray – Cry 》


《 Johnnie Ray – Cry 》

If your sweetheart sends a letter of goodbye
It’s no secret you’ll feel better if you cry
When waking from a bad dream
Don’t you sometimes think it’s real?
But it’s only false emotions that you feel
If your heartaches seem to hang around too long
And your blues keep getting bluer with each song
Remember sunshine can be found behind a cloudy sky
So let your hair down and go on and cry
Songwriters
CHURCHILL L. KOHLMAN
Published by
Lyrics © SHAPIRO BERNSTEIN & CO. INC.

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

《基改食品的秘密》 奪回飲食知情選擇權


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202312?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=db5ef3f4ee-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-db5ef3f4ee-84956681

《基改食品的秘密》 奪回飲食知情選擇權

 建立於 2017/01/08

作者:黃嘉琳(校園午餐搞非基行動發起人)

不過兩、三年的光景,基改食品在台灣獲得前所未有的重視。街頭巷尾的豆漿店掛起「本店採用非基因改造黃豆」的紅布條、醬油的宣傳賣點不再是醍醐味而是非基改。連鎖餃子專賣餐廳裡大大的海報廣告著新產品──非基改玉米水餃、連食用油品的瓶身上都要強調這芥花油(菜籽油)的非基改來源……。

國產非基因改造黃豆。照片來源:農委會。

從政策倡議的角度,基改食品全面標示和基改農產品與初級加工品禁入校園等法條,經過民間和公部門的一連串折衝協調,也在2016年正式上路。

執法嚴格與否是一回事,但至少強制規範標示的訴求和將高風險、爭議未定的基改食品拒於營養午餐菜單之外等規範,已經在台灣的管理法規上佔據一席之地。

對台灣民眾而言,基改作物與食品是既全球又在地的課題,一方面我國主管單位尚未許可任何基改作物栽種,因此民眾所接觸到的基改食品和飼料來源皆為太平洋彼岸美國、巴西、阿根廷等地的黃豆、玉米等作物;另一方面,雖不確切知道何時開始,但我們飲食選項已經確實被基改食品所壟罩,一杯豆漿、一塊豆腐、玉米澱粉、高果糖玉米糖漿等隨處可見,而從配方奶粉、嬰兒食品到醬油、沙拉油、休閒零食和營養補充品,可說無處不在,在基改食品禁入校園午餐的倡議修法之前,孩子們的午餐食材裡更大量使用了基改黃豆加工製品……基因改造食品確確實實地、在大多數人不知不覺的情況下滲透進台灣人民的生活中。

這些基改黃豆、玉米、油菜哪裡來?以目前栽培面積來說,美國、巴西、阿根廷高踞前三名,全球栽種出口的主要地點在美洲,占總種植面積的八成七左右。

美國是全球基改龍頭大國,從1994年第一支通過USDA商業種植許可的基改番茄莎弗一號;1996年起基改玉米、黃豆、油菜、棉花等四大主要基改作物接連進入市場,推廣基改作物不遺餘力,至今二十年間,全球種植的基改農作物已佔全部可耕地面積的十分之一、成長了一百倍。若以人類文明史上版圖擴展最迅速的科技來形容,似乎毫不為過,也在某種層面上充分體現了戰後歐美國家的新自由主義路線,以美國、美商跨國公司為主導的知識經濟和全球化農業與食品布局,拓展基改作物和基改食品的行銷通路到世界各地。

曾經,科學家、投資人、媒體、政府決策者到金融界,對基改生物科技的光明前景充滿期待,認為基改可為傳統漫長的動植物育種培植的過程提供嶄新迅速的捷徑,提升農產品質,製造更多、更好、更便宜的食品來源,解決農業與人體健康的問題如全球糧荒,至今,農企巨擘孟山都(Monsanto)公司的官網宣傳上,還把「餵養世界(Feed the World)」當成標語;不僅如此,基改似乎也充滿了前所未有的跨國商機。

這號稱二十世紀以來最富爭議性的科技發展,又大舉進入農業系統與全球人類飲食生活,究竟該怎麼理解看待?

2012年有至少三部討論基改議題的紀錄片問世,其中一部是由美國人傑佛瑞史密斯(Jeffrey Smith)創立的「責任科技機構(The Institute For Responsible Technology)」所發行影片《基改食品的秘密》,原文名Genetic Roulette: The Gamble of our Lives,中文可直譯為「基因賭盤─我們生命的博弈」,非常清楚的點出片中陳述的宗旨—由農化公司主導研發、美國政府大力支持基改作物,致使大量風險未知的基改產品進入人類飲食生活,眼下幫孟山都等企業賺得荷包滿滿,卻等同把消費者的安全放上賭場輪盤,賭一把看看到底對人畜和環境會不會有什麼負面影響和傷害。

俄羅斯輪盤一轉,畫面裡出現關於過敏、腸胃道疾病和不孕症的探討;二轉,呈現基改作物與農藥濫用、印度BT棉花對生態環境與牲畜健康的影響、基改飼料營養不良、牲畜死亡率和流產率大增之農牧現況;再轉,陳述嬰兒配方奶粉中基改成份、自閉症患者陡增、牛隻生長激素(rBGH)等課題;骰子一顆顆滾動,螢幕上由各科醫師、獸醫師、學者、家有過敏兒的母親、政治人物、農產畜牧業者、民間環境保護和食物知情權運動倡議者的訪談一一出場,揭開美國基改作物與食品二十年來興起榮景賭盤的背後一樁樁學術迫害、政商利益勾連、聯邦和州政府基改標示法規攻防的黑幕。

《基改食品的秘密》一片的立場非常清楚:基改產業牽連著跨國公司和政界、學界甚至國際間的龐大利益,而基改食品則攸關個人,美加等地絕大部份人民幾乎日日接觸基改食品,而二十年來的基改食品安全風險被惡意欺瞞或無心低估,在這場押上民眾、動物和環境健康的博弈中,觀眾得正視問題、把自己的飲食知情選擇權奪回來,才有逆轉賭局翻盤的可能。

我們並不是科學家的實驗品!圖片來源:基改食品的秘密劇照─天馬行空

【基改Q&A】

基改議題牽連甚廣相當複雜,這裡舉幾個常見的概念與問題加以釐清。

Q1:基因改造(GMO)到底是什麼?人類農業發展史上早就進行的品種改良也是基改改造嗎?

A:根據我國《食品安全衛生管理法》對「基因改造」之定義是:

指使用基因工程或分子生物技術,將遺傳物質轉移或轉殖入活細胞或生物體,產生基因重組現象,使表現具外源基因特性或使自身特定基因無法表現之相關技術。但不包括傳統育種、同科物種之細胞及原生質體融合、雜交、誘變、體外受精、體細胞變異及染色體倍增等技術。

國際食品法典委員會和歐盟等定義中也特別指出,自然增殖、自然重組或自然交配所產生的遺傳物質基因改變,並非基改。

換句話說,傳統育種和基改技術不同。例如台灣許多好吃的水果來自於專家和農友藉由育種方式進行的品種改良,讓水果甜份增加、個頭變大或色澤討喜等等品種特性的變化,並不是藉由基改生物科技所造成的。

Q2:聽說美國進口麵粉都是基改小麥製成的,真的嗎?

A:社群網站不時傳出一則消息,強調市面上的麵粉來源多為美國基因改造小麥,麵條、麵包、包子和糕餅等都「被基改了啦」!孟山都等實驗室裡,確實早已製造出基因改造小麥,但台灣市面上的麵粉來源多為基因改造小麥?這則流言相當驚悚,到底是真是假?

事實是,目前基改小麥尚未有任何商業化的種植與流通情況。

十多年前,澳洲、哥倫比亞、紐西蘭及美國確曾於2004年核准一基改小麥品項可供人食用與作為食品加工原料,美國並核准其飼料用途。但最後遭到撤回核准,孟山都也自行停止在美國的申請程序。

但2013年與2014年美國確曾發生基改小麥污染事件。其一是奧勒岡州遭人舉發出現基改小麥。發現小麥異常的農業諮詢師將樣品送檢測,驗出其中抗嘉磷塞的轉殖基因,經確認是孟山都基改小麥MON-718ØØ品系。

孟山都堅持當年基因改造小麥種子早銷毀殆盡,奧勒岡小麥汙染應視為獨立意外事件。但仍然引起進口美國小麥的歐洲和日、韓等國高度警戒,甚至立即停止進口。經檢驗後並未發現有任何進一步污染證據,方重啟開放。

2014年於蒙大拿州州立大學裡的試驗田再次出現基因改造小麥蹤跡。此地曾是孟山都用來進行抗除草劑的基因改造小麥田的試驗所在地,該起事件並未實際影響美國小麥的外銷。

這兩起基改小麥污染事件的發生原因,目前仍未確定。

Q3:基改作物可從外觀口感來判斷出來,例如:非基改黃豆製成的豆漿較為濃厚香醇、有黑色肚臍的就是基因改造黃豆、基改黃豆不會發芽,所以能發芽的就是非基改黃豆…真的嗎?

A:以上答案都是否定的。對大多數消費者來說,黃豆玉米的基改農產品或加工製品,皆難以用外觀和口感來判斷,例如影響豆漿口感濃醇的因素,可能包括黃豆和水的比例或另行添加了其他成分。

而流傳甚久的「黑肚臍」一說,指的是大豆種臍部分顏色較深,可能泛黑或呈褐色,對照黃白或青白的種皮,看起來就像是黃豆肚子上的黑色肚臍。沒有黑肚臍的則是種臍顏色淺,看起來不明顯。

確實有許多美加進口的基改黃豆有黑肚臍的外觀,但不少台灣本土種的黃豆也是深色種臍,台灣目前尚未核准任何基因改造作物的商業化種植,也就是說台灣本土作物就是非基因改造品項,以這個例子來說,黑肚臍是無法用來當作分辨基因改造黃豆的準則。一般人難以藉由觀察種臍的顏色外觀來區別是否為基因改造作物,僅能經由儀器及實驗室檢驗得知。

那麼,買黃豆回家泡水試試,不會發芽的就是基改黃豆嗎?答案也是否定的。一般來說,雖然基改黃豆發芽率較低,部分豆子仍然可以發芽。如果仍然心有疑惑,不妨利用自家廚房、陽台孵孵各種品項的基改和非基改黃豆,看看結果是否印證這個答案。

※ 本文轉載自 環境共和國

參考資料

 

31 – 05 《 Tony Bennett – Rags To Riches 》


《 Tony Bennett – Rags To Riches 》

I know I’d go from rags to riches
If you would only say you care
And though my pocket may be empty
I’d be a millionaire
My clothes may still be torn and tattered
But in my heart I’d be a king
Your love is all that ever mattered
It’s everything
So open your arms and you’ll open the door
To every treasure that I’m hopin’ for
Hold me and kiss me and tell me you’re mine ever more
Must I forever be a beggar
Whose golden dreams will not come true
Or will I go from rags to riches
My fate is up to you
Songwriters
JERRY (US ROSS, RICHARD ADLER
Published by
Lyrics © THE SONGWRITERS GUILD OF AMERICA

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

《第三餐盤》土壤的健康 廚師知道


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202183?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=db5ef3f4ee-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-db5ef3f4ee-84956681

《第三餐盤》土壤的健康 廚師知道

《第三餐盤》推薦序
建立於 2017/01/01
作者:許正一(臺大土壤學教授)

對普羅大眾來說,由一個紐約知名餐廳裡的專業廚師,從他訪談農民、採買食材與烹調的過程中,深刻體會到唯有健康的土壤,才能生產出美味又營養的食物,這種實踐者的說服力,比起我在土壤學課堂上口沫橫飛近二十年要高出許多,這是我閱讀這本書之後的感想,願與讀者一起分享並把這本書推薦給大家,因為,土壤是有生命的自然體,它是維繫地球上任何健康生命的關鍵。

從歷史的角度來看,古今中外許多著名戰爭的起源,都是為了爭奪肥沃的土地而引起的,只是史官們當時並不懂得土壤學,無法從中解釋原因,而現在我們知道了,當土壤肥力差或因為不當使用而生產力下降,無法餵飽民眾的肚子而鬧饑荒時,便會引起戰亂,這是人類從土壤學當中要學會的歷史教訓。

民以食為天,食物的生產需要由農業的經營來獲得,土壤是農業的基石,而農業的經營就是集生產、生態與生活為一體的概念,所以生產營養的農作物,可以兼顧生態平衡,使得環境品質得以維護。傳統的大面積單一作物生產模式,大量投入化學肥料與農藥、全面式的大型機械翻耕表土等操作方式,雖然能夠快速量產而且利潤豐厚,但是作者指出這種食材所料理出來的食物,總是不夠鮮嫩、清脆與滋味豐富,長期食用後甚至可能與人類慢性的健康退化問題有關。

土壤學的觀點來看,化學農法容易破壞土壤生態多樣性,壓縮了土壤孔隙和破壞土壤的團粒構造,降低了土壤對空氣與水的調節能力,衍生空氣污染與水污染問題,進而造成全球氣候變遷。不健康的土壤無法長出體質好的作物來抵禦病蟲害,隨之而來的化學治標方法包括更多化學肥料與農藥的投入,不僅傷了土地,傷了兼具廚師身份的作者,更傷了消費者的健康。

土壤被視為是不可以回復的自然資源,忝為一個土壤科學工作者,要告訴讀者們,土壤甚至是一切生命的起源,最簡單的有機體是在土壤顆粒表面進行合成,最後聚合成生命的個體。讀者們可能不知道,臺灣雖然面積不大,卻擁有各種不同類別的土壤,種類之多,可說是世界之冠。健康的土壤,在物理、化學及生物性質上,都能夠反應出生產品質好、產量高的作物,生物數量與種類多,也能夠維繫良好的環境品質,這是在土壤品質研究領域中常常被提到的。雖然在專業上有很多量測土壤健康程度的項目,也就是土壤品質指標,例如酸鹼值、有機質含量、微量元素的濃度等等,而在這本書中,作者將自己與很多他所接觸的農民,在田間親身的感官直覺中,把土壤品質的觀念都呈現出來了。

作者引用了英國科學家暨有機農業之父艾伯特霍華的回復律則(Law of return),闡述養分回歸土壤的重要性,而這養分的回歸概念,並不是簡單的使用化學肥料來補充土壤養分而已,因為那只是將快速溶解的化工產品─鹽類傾入土壤來滿足作物產量的需求而已,對健康的土壤毫無幫助。正確的回歸養分,是讓土壤保持高的有機質含量,例如作者提到的廄肥或堆肥等,使土壤的緩衝能力提高,也就是作者所說用成功企業來形容的土壤肥沃三要素,這正是以維持土壤品質為觀念的農業生產模式,因為肥沃的土壤要有足夠的養分庫存,高的緩衝能力讓土壤在供給植物吸收時,能適時調節不足或過剩的養分,最終目標能生產高品質的作物,而這是有機農法比化學農法更容易做到的事。

違反大自然法則,就不能生產健康的作物和魚肉,再技藝高超的廚師,也不會滿意餐桌上的作品。遵循大自然法則的農業生產方式,讓土壤得以被人類永續利用,保有健康,而禮記中所載「有土斯有財,有財斯有用」正是發揮土壤品質觀念的體現。地球上即使最快速形成土壤的地方,一百年產生的厚度,絕對不會超過一公分,但人類不當的農業操作所流失土壤的速度,一公分厚只消一年時間,所以我們應該正視這個問題,這攸關著人類的生存危機。如同作者引述霍華的觀念,把土壤的健康視為一種宇宙的弦理論般,將土壤品質、地球永續經營、人類健康與經濟發展同時考慮,這是土壤科學工作者的願望,真的,土壤不再是你(妳)所認為的只是泥土而已。


《第三餐盤》書封。圖片來源:商周出版。

第三餐盤

作者:丹.巴柏
譯者:郭寶蓮
出版社:商周出版
出版日期:2016-11-12
ISBN/ISSN:9789864771295

 

首度以廚師身分深入農業體系的紀實之旅,
揭開 優質農技×環境永續×美味食物 間密不可分的關係。
提出比「從產地到餐桌」更具啟蒙性的飲食之道!

 

31 – 04 《 Billie Holiday – Yesterdays 》


《 Billie Holiday – Yesterdays 》

Yesterdays, yesterdays
Days I knew as happy sweet
Sequestered days
Olden days, golden days
Days of mad romance and love
Then gay youth was mine, truth was mine
Joyous free in flame and life
Then sooth was mine
Sad am I, glad am I
For today I’m dreamin’ of yesterdays
Yesterdays, yesterdays
Days I knew as happy sweet
Sequestered days
Olden days, golden days
Days of mad romance and love
For then gay youth was mine, truth was mine
Joyous free in flame and life
Then sooth was mine
Sad am I, glad am I
For today I’m dreamin’ of yesterdays
Songwriters
JEROME KERN, OTTO HARBACH
Published by
Lyrics © Universal Music Publishing Group

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

《第三餐盤》創作一道偉大的料理 從照料土地開始


http://e-info.org.tw/node/202305?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=db5ef3f4ee-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-db5ef3f4ee-84956681

《第三餐盤》創作一道偉大的料理 從照料土地開始

 建立於 2017/01/08

作者:丹.巴柏(Dan Barber,美國廚師)

最好的料理,不管是法國料理、義大利、印度或中華料理等,都建立在這樣的觀念上。多數時候,小農提供的作物很有限,代表這些穀物或蔬菜會成為菜色的主角,佐以些許肉類,而且這些肉類多半是不受歡迎的部位,比如豬脖子或牛腱。然而,經典料理正於焉而生,比如法國料理中的傳統菜牛肉蔬菜鍋(pot au feu),義大利料理中的玉米泥,以及西班牙料理中的海鮮飯,這些都是把土地所提供的食材善加利用(亦即,使之更美味)的例證。

法國傳統菜:牛肉蔬菜鍋(pot au feu)。圖片來源:ibu

美式料理中,譬如起司鍋之類的熱融鍋(melting pot)就不是衍生自這樣的哲學。儘管物產豐饒,或者正如許多歷史學家所言,正是因為物產豐饒,所以我們美國人從沒被迫去學習更具啟蒙性的飲食之道。殖民式的農業是建立在搾取的概念上,也就是去征服大自然,而不是跟自然和諧共生。這種剝削式的關係之所以能存在,是因為我們能取得具高度生產力的大量土地。

有本飲食雜誌要求一群廚師、文編和美編想像三十五年後我們所吃的東西。該雜誌要求我們只用一盤食物來描述,並且要讓那盤食物清楚呈現出未來的飲食之道。

結果大家的回答反映出一種反烏托邦的悲觀看法。多數受訪者預測未來會惡化到人類被迫攝取食物鏈更下層的東西,吃蟲子、海草,甚至藥丸。但我勾勒出來的圖像比他們樂觀得多。我把一盤食物拆解成三盤,用這種三聯盤的方式來追溯美國飲食近來(與未來)的變化。

第一盤是一塊七盎司的穀飼牛排,佐以小份量的蔬菜(我挑選的是清蒸的迷你紅蘿蔔),也就是過去半世紀美國人所預期的晚餐菜色。這種組合一點都不明智,也不具開胃效果,幸好,這樣的餐點內容過時了。

第二盤代表的是我們目前以「從農場到餐桌」為主的飲食概念。牛排來自草飼牛,紅蘿蔔是世代流傳下來的當地品種,而且是有機土壤裡種出來的。由於這一盤餐點反映的是過去幾十年美式飲食的所有發展過程,所以它最明顯的特色就是乍看之下和第一盤幾乎沒什麼不同。

最後第三盤也是依循著牛排晚餐的方式來設計,只不過比例有所改變。原本提供大量蛋白質的牛排份量被紅蘿蔔取代,搭配次級切割牛肉所熬煮出來的醬汁。

重點不在於將來只吃醬汁裡的肉屑,或者大份量的蔬菜是未來的飲食主流。我這種設計的目的是要說明未來的料理將會出現典範轉移的現象,也就是對於烹飪和飲食方式,我們會有一種全新的觀點,這種觀點迥異於美國人根深蒂固的食物期望。我所期待的新料理,不僅能讓消費者更重視食材來源,而且,就跟所有偉大的料理一樣,能反映出土地的生命力。

這些偉大的料理是幾千年共同演化出來的,與深層的文化傳統息息相關,所以,現在,我們要怎麼開始建立一種新料理呢?換句話說,要怎麼讓第三盤從想像中的料理變成具體可食的食物?

這個問題並不是本書的寫作動機,而是在我寫作的過程中逐漸成形的。這本書是以農人和八排硬質玉米泥的經驗作為開場白,因為這樣的經驗挑戰了我身為廚師的既定成見,並反覆地教導我,食物是否真正美味,其實是由整個農業體系所決定。

為了了解什麼樣的烹調最能支持這樣的理念,我必須先找出更基本的東西,也就是─第三盤的農業,是什麼樣的農業?當地農業?有機農業?生機互動農法?(譯註:Biodynamic,探討影響生物成長的自然力量及法則,認為土壤、種子和作物都必須與自然界合作,植物才能發揮生命力,因此它的特殊處在於結合古老的農藝及天文科學,並採取靈性觀點,配合宇宙運行原理來務農)我發現,第三盤的農業是超越這些標籤的,它需要一個更廣大的東西來解釋。有機農業先驅伊芙.巴爾佛女爵說,最好的農業是無法化約為一組規則,這樣的看法,真是先見之明,畢竟她所屬的時代,有機農業甚至還沒被一組規則所定義,而且農法也還沒被拿來作為行銷工具。她相信,農業是否能生產出我們真正想吃的食物,是由「農夫的態度」所決定。

令人沮喪的是,這個觀點聽起來似乎太過模糊,然而,當我聽到某位農民談起好農業的最終目標,我才徹底明白巴爾佛女爵的觀點。這位農人說,「我們需要的是培育自然。」他這句話,真知灼見四個字都不足以形容。他清楚表達出一種態度,一種世界觀,而且,說不定代表書中的所有農人說出了他們的心聲。

培育自然就是去鼓勵更多的自然運作。要做到這點並不容易。更多自然代表更少控制,更少控制就得靠某種信念,而這就需要一種世界觀。你認為自然世界需要被修正改善?或者你認為自然只能被觀察和詮釋?你認為人類是某種複雜脆弱到難以置信的大系統的一部分,或者你認為我們人類可以主宰萬物?本書裡提到的農人都是觀察者,他們聆聽自然,不去控制自然。

如果好食物的未來是掌握在那些培育自然,遵從自然法則的農夫手中,我們就應該更清楚這個概念的意思。大體來說,我們傾向以農業的表象層面來評估其永續性,以可測量的東西(比如殺蟲劑和肥料的使用,動物養殖場中的不人道狀況)來評估,並推廣另外的作法(比如買有機農產品,選擇草飼牛)。這些都是容易量化,是你看得到的東西。

而本書中的農人所看的不是表象,而是更深一層。他們不會想著去種植某一種東西,因為,如果在你的世界觀中,萬物都是相連相關,你怎麼會想著只種植一種東西呢?他們做的是培育自然,也就是讓整個農業系統和諧共處,所以,他們會生產很多東西,其中當然包括美味的食物,但還有一些我們無法看見或輕易估量的東西。這一課,我學了很多次,不管是在濕地或牧草地上,最後我終於明白,不管在地面上或地底下,有各式各樣,密密麻麻的生物生存在其中。這道理我以前在書本上讀過,但不曾真正了解過。這套觀念徹底翻轉了農業,不僅透過一個農場影響另一個,也在牧場之間擴散開來。每個有機群體都非常巨大、複雜,而且對整個生態體系的健康具有關鍵性的影響。

──摘自《第三餐盤:人類退場,讓大自然接手!繼「從產地到餐桌」後,下一波飲食新潮流》


《第三餐盤》書封。圖片來源:商周出版。

第三餐盤

作者:丹.巴柏
譯者:郭寶蓮
出版社:商周出版
出版日期:2016-11-12
ISBN/ISSN:9789864771295

 

首度以廚師身分深入農業體系的紀實之旅,
揭開 優質農技×環境永續×美味食物 間密不可分的關係。
提出比「從產地到餐桌」更具啟蒙性的飲食之道!

 

 

31 – 03 《 James Crawford – Iko Iko / Jackomo 》


《 James Crawford – Iko Iko / Jackomo 》

Iko, iko
Iko iko an de
Jock-a-mo fee no ah na nay
Jock-a-mo fee na ne

My spyboy met your spyboy
Sittin’ by the fire
My spyboy told your spyboy:
“I’m gonna set your flag on fire”

Talkin’ ’bout
Hey now, Hey now
Iko iko an de
Jock-a-mo fee no ah na nay
Jock-a-mo fee na ne

Look at my queen all dressed in red
Iko iko an de
I bet you five dollars she’ll kill you dead
Jock-a-mo fee na ne

Talkin’ ’bout
Hey now, Hey now
Iko iko an de
Jock-a-mo fee no ah na nay
Jock-a-mo fee na ne

Talkin’ ’bout
Hey now, Hey now
Iko iko an de
Jock-a-mo fee no ah na nay
Jock-a-mo fee na ne

Iko, iko
Iko iko an de
I’m having my fun on the Mardi Gras day
Jock-a-mo fee na ne

Talkin’ ’bout
Hey now, Hey now
Iko iko an de
Jock-a-mo fee no ah na nay
Jock-a-mo fee na ne

解放母雞救好蛋 動團催生友善動物雞蛋


http://e-info.org.tw/node/98693?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=42fb2f8bd0-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_01_27&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-42fb2f8bd0-84956681

解放母雞救好蛋 動團催生友善動物雞蛋

 建立於 2014/04/18

本報2014年4月18日台北訊,特約記者廖靜蕙報導

市售雞蛋種類百百種,為了吸引消費者青睞,往往只標示營養價值,卻甚少告訴消費者母雞飼養方式。這幾年透過動保團體資訊揭露,發現原來這些供應台灣社會日常營養來源的雞蛋,來自「一生活動範圍不超過A4紙大」的母雞,所謂「籠飼」母雞慘澹的形象得以浮上檯面。

今年初,農委會雖已完成「雞蛋友善生產系統定義及指南」,但具體政策及期程不明,前天(16日)台灣動物社會研究會召開記者會,要求政府制訂「動物福利雞蛋」生產政策、輔導農民轉型計畫,減少產蛋母雞遭受的不當對待與壓迫,「動物過得好不好,絕對影響畜產品質與健康!」

有目標卻缺乏具體策略

今年初,農委會公告「雞蛋友善生產系統定義及指南」,擬定豐富化籠飼、平飼及放牧等3種友善生產系統之定義及內涵;並且承諾後續將鼓勵養雞業者參用友善生產系統,以及推動驗證系統;並請消費者多支持發展友善飼養模式農戶所生產的蛋品,共同提升動物福利。

放牧飼養的蛋雞。

不過具體的期程及配套措施,例如輔導轉型計畫,並不明朗。台灣動物社會研究會主任陳玉敏即指出,農委會推動農村再生,鼓勵青年回鄉發展永續農業及在地經濟,應同步改變家禽生產相關政策及思維,除應禁止農民新設格子籠設施、停止政策支持或補助格子籠養系統外,更可提供低利或創業貸款,支持小農轉型投入動物福利雞蛋生產。

此外,農委會更應明確訂定友善蛋雞飼養逐年提高的比例。透過技術輔導、廢籠補貼、農民貸款等具體措施,鼓勵現有蛋農轉型加入「動物福利雞蛋」的生產行列。

歐盟花12年廢除格子籠

一項政策的推動並不容易,陳玉敏表示,歐盟於2000年制定廢除格子籠政策後,便開始積極研擬各項配套措施、輔導農民轉型,雖然期間也遭遇農民反彈、蛋價波動,但所有會員國仍體認,動物福利對動物健康和食品安全具決定性影響,因此在政府部門、產業團體及消費者的支持下,終於在2012年達成廢除格子籠的目標。

澳洲、紐西蘭、美國與加拿大等國政府部門及產業團體,也都陸續開始立法或檢討如何逐步廢除格子籠。

格子籠飼養蛋雞佔95%以上

台灣每年約3千多萬隻被終身囚禁在「格子籠」中,被剝奪一切天性與自然行為的產蛋母雞。

動社指出,目前全台屬於放牧、平飼、豐富籠等3種友善系統的蛋農僅有18家,只占全國蛋雞場1,716家的1%。若以台灣每年生產66億顆雞蛋產量計算,只有約1億6千萬顆是來自放牧、平飼與豐富籠的母雞所生產,占總蛋量不到3%。

農委會則表示,我國目前採傳統籠飼生產之雞蛋占95%以上。

新設蛋農不鼓勵格子籠養殖

農委會畜牧處副處長朱慶誠接受陳情表示,支持蛋農轉型加入友善生產系統,不支持、不補助新設格子籠飼養系統。。

農委會已成立技術團隊提供擬轉型雞農技術諮詢及服務,而「雞蛋友善生產系統定義及指南」須透過養雞戶申請驗證的過程實地檢視調整,以確認符合國內飼養環境的適地性。此外,已協調臺灣農業標準學會進行雞蛋友善生產系統的驗證,目前已有7家已導入友善飼養之業者表達申請驗證的意願。

農委會將循序漸進推廣雞蛋友善飼養模式,農委會指出,我國年產雞蛋約68億枚,產值超過190億元,生產政策的調整或轉型須審慎,以避免加重民生消費負擔,及造成整體產業鏈的衝擊。

要鼓勵雞農願意改採友善生產雞蛋,市場上勢必呈現真實成本,動社除了呼籲,避免蛋價受制於少數蛋商的操控,也請消費者支持「動物福利雞蛋」,推動友善動物、健康的產品。

什麼是豐富化籠飼、平飼及放牧?(摘自:雞蛋友善生產系統定義及指南)豐富化籠飼的雞隻,可於籠內自由活動,且提供得以滿足其行為所需的設施,如巢箱、磨爪、可誘發雞隻扒地及覓食等自然行為等,平均每隻雞所分配面積應超過750平方公分。

平飼則指雞隻可於室內或戶外之床面或地面上自由活動,平均每隻雞所分配之室內面積應超過800平方公分。

另放牧的定義為雞隻可於室內及戶外之地面自由活動,平均每隻雞所分配之室內面積應超過800平方公分。其餘尚包含雞籠高度、棲架長度、棲架間隔及巢箱密度等條件,期於生產過程兼顧動物福利及實務需求。

格子籠蛋雞養殖(摘自:台灣動物社會研究會網站)

格子籠蛋雞飼養系統,將產蛋母雞囚禁於窄小的籠中,雞連張開翅膀的空間都沒有。蛋雞無法正常休息、運動,許多自然行為如梳理羽毛、洗砂浴、築巢等都無法展現。由於籠內空間窄小,雞隻沒有閃躲空間,為避免牠們打鬥互啄導致傷亡損失,母雞的前喙從小就被剪除。而當產蛋率下降,人們更常採用強迫斷食的方法,不讓雞進食以加速代謝,讓母雞可以快速換羽,以延長產蛋周期。

密集籠養大幅提高蛋雞啄毛、啄肛、脫肛、骨頭斷裂、熱緊迫或窒息等機會與頻率。蛋雞缺乏運動也會造成脂肪肝及骨骼強度不良,雞容易生病、癱瘓、骨折或死亡。生產者為了預防雞群因緊迫而生病、產蛋率下降,往往必須投藥或在飼料中添加各類抗生素。

作者

廖靜蕙

環境記者/自由撰稿人。從事社工10餘年,認知到畢竟是人的社會,再弱勢的人都可以為自己發言,決定轉投生態保育,為無法以人類語言發聲的生命與土地寫報導。現居台北市,與貓先生、龜小姐,微曦中閱讀,斗室中寫作。個人粉專「小麻通訊」。

 

31 – 02 《 The Spaniels – Goodnight Sweetheart Goodnight 》


《 The Spaniels – Goodnight Sweetheart Goodnight 》

[Chorus]
Good night sweetheart, well it’s time to go
Good night sweetheart, well it’s time to go
I hate to leave you but I really must say
Oh good night sweetheart, good night

[Chorus]

I hate to leave you I really must say
Oh good night sweetheart, good night
Well it’s three o’clock in the morning
Baby I just can’t give right
Well I hate to leave you baby
Don’t mean maybe
Because I loved you so

[Chorus]

I hate to leave you but I really must say
Oh good night sweetheart, good night
Mother oh and your father
Don’t like it if I stay here to long
One kissing darling
And I’ll bee going
You know I hate to go

[Chorus]

I hate to leave you but I really must say
Oh good night sweetheart, good night
Songwriters
CALVIN CARTER, JAMES HUDSON
Published by
Lyrics © BMG RIGHTS MANAGEMENT US, LLC

Song Discussions is protected by U.S. Patent 9401941. Other patents pending.

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