Great Barrier Reef Hit by Worst Coral Die-Off on Record, Scientists Say


Photo

A field of staghorn coral this month killed by bleaching on Bourke Reef, a part of the 430-mile northern section of the Great Barrier Reef. CreditGreg Torda/ARC Center of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies

SYDNEY, Australia — Scientists surveying the Great Barrier Reef said Tuesday that it had suffered the worst coral die-off ever recorded after being bathed this year in warm waters that bleached and then weakened the coral.

About two-thirds of the shallow-water coral on the reef’s previously pristine, 430-mile northern stretch is dead, the scientists said. Only a cyclone that reduced water temperatures by up to three degrees Celsius in the south saved the lower reaches of the 1,400-mile reef from damage, they added.

On some atolls in the north, all the coral has died, said Prof. Terry Hughes, the director of the ARC Center of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University in Townsville, in the eastern state of Queensland. Professor Hughes and a team of scientists drew their findings from about 900 dive surveys along the length of the reef in October and November.

“The good news is that in the south, only about 1 percent of the reef’s coral has died, and the mortality rate in the middle is about 6 percent,” Professor Hughes said. Vibrant color has returned to that coral, and the reef there is in good condition, he added.

“But in the north, mortality rates are very high, and in some places where coral has survived but it has weakened, the per capita predation rate has gone through the roof,” he said. Masses of Drupella snails could be seen swarming around and eating the remaining healthy coral, he said.

The bleaching was the third such event known to strike the reef, which extends along almost the entire eastern coast of Queensland and is listed as a natural World Heritage Site by the United Nations.

Steven Miles, Queensland’s environment minister, called the bleaching a tragedy. “In the north we have a very high coral death rate,” Mr. Miles said at a news conference in Brisbane, the state capital. “The tragedy of this is that the northern sections were the sections least impacted by human impacts, and to see those sections, two-thirds of the northern section, dead is catastrophic.”

However, he said, the reef “is a very big system, and the mortality rate varies substantially.”

Mr. Miles and the federal environment minister, Josh Frydenberg, who also oversees energy policy in Australia, said Friday that 45 million Australian dollars, about $33.6 million, would be provided to improve water quality and reduce sediment runoff.

That announcement precedes a government report, due to be submitted to the United Nations by Thursday, on the health of the reef and the government’s management of threats to it.

In May 2015 the United Nations stopped short of putting the reef on an “in danger” list, but it warned that climate change, water pollution and the effects of coastal development were all detrimental.

“The government has a staunch commitment to conserving this amazing natural asset,” Mr. Frydenberg said in a written statement on Friday.

Photo

Healthy coral, left, in the Capricorn Group of Islands, a part of the southern Great Barrier Reef. Dead table corals, right, killed by bleaching on Zenith Reef, a part of the north. CreditARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies

Some scientists and environmental advocates have criticized the government’s efforts to protect the reef, saying they have fallen far short. They have also pointed to a seeming contradiction in the wishes of the Queensland government to protect the reef even as it pushes ahead with plans to develop the Carmichael coal mine, the country’s biggest, which lies less than 200 miles inland in the Galilee Basin.

“Spending $45 million to improve water quality on the reef is like putting a Band-Aid on a person who has cancer,” said William Steffen, a climate scientist at the Australian National University College of Medicine, Biology and Environment.

As custodian of the reef, the government has an obligation to manage one of the world’s greatest natural wonders, Dr. Steffen said. “It is nonsense to think we can open up a new coal mine and think we are going to save coral reefs.”

This month, Australia ratified the Paris climate agreement to limit pollution to stop the Earth’s warming by more than 1.5 to 2 degrees Celsius above preindustrial levels, or 2.7 to 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit.

Environmentalists have unsuccessfully tried to block the development of the enormous mine. Other countries have pledged to reduce the use of fossil fuels, which contribute to global warming. Burning coal is a major cause of greenhouse gas emissions.

Coral in the north was “cooked” as water temperatures rose about two degrees, Professor Hughes of James Cook University said. “That coral did not bleach and die slowly.”

Coral in slightly cooler waters bleached more slowly, expelling the tiny algae that give it its color. If the water then cooled quickly enough, the algae returned to recolonize the coral, which recovered.

Cyclone Winston, which passed over Fiji in late February before dissipating as it hit the coast of Queensland, brought a change in water temperatures that helped preserve the coral at the south end of the reef.

Mr. Frydenberg said Friday that about 22 percent of the entire reef’s coral had died after the bleaching event. But he added that coral cover had increased around 19 percent in the years leading up to it, a figure that Professor Hughes disputes.

“The Great Barrier Reef is very resilient and quite strong,” Mr. Frydenberg said in an email on Tuesday. “The Australian and Queensland governments have a Reef 2050 plan, which will see $2 billion invested over the next decade in order to improve the health of the reef.”

Greg Torda, a coral researcher at James Cook University, said the biodiversity of the reef had been severely compromised in some regions because flat, or tabletop, and branching corals had died. These corals provide structure for small fish to hide from predators. “Bigger boulder corals, some hundreds of years old, provide light and shade for fish in reef habitats,” Dr. Torda said. “Reefs are structurally very complex, and all shapes on the reef provide important diversity.”

Reefs that are damaged tend to flatten out, losing habitat and then species diversity over decades. “We will have a reef in 30 years’ time, but the species along the reef are already shifting,” Professor Hughes said. “And we are already seeing less diversity.”

Continue reading the main story

 

Change Your Stress Response


http://www.yogajournal.com/article/ayurveda/tame-stress/

Change Your Stress Response

Meet Mark: When something stressful happens, he feels energized. His heart races, his senses heighten—he even feels as though his thoughts speed up. Mark prides himself on his ability to face problems head-on, but he admits that it’s becoming difficult to turn this intensity off. Lately he’s been feeling more on edge than on top of his game. He’s developed headaches and insomnia, and he’s beginning to wonder if they’re related to stress. He’d like to feel better, but he can’t imagine himself changing his full-throttle approach to life. Without stress, how would he ever get anything done?

Mark’s wife, Sue, doesn’t feel energized by stress—it exhausts her. She feels so depleted by stress that she’s begun to cut back on the things that generate the most stress, such as planning big family gatherings. To maintain her composure, she tries to walk away when conflicts arise. She’s even considering leaving her challenging job to find something less intense. Sue proudly sees in herself the ability to “just let things go,” which she’s been cultivating through her yoga practice.

But even though she’s simplified her life, she’s been feeling depressed. She has a nagging feeling that her attempts to be stress free are getting in the way of fully living her life.

Mark and Sue are characters based on real people, and are designed to represent two real responses to stress—one or both of which may seem familiar to you. As Mark and Sue are discovering, stress is inescapable, but it is also paradoxical: While excess stress can take a toll on you, the very things that cause it are often the same things that make life rewarding and full. Take a moment to think about the pressures in your life: family, work, having too much to do. Now imagine a life without those things. Sound ideal? Not likely. Most people don’t want an empty life; they want to possess the skills to handle a busy and, yes, even complicated life.

The good news is that you can develop ways to navigate through stress so that it isn’t troubling and traumatic at every turn. When a stressor arises, you don’t have to go to extremes the way Mark and Sue do. You can learn to respond with just the right blend of inner fire and inner calm. I call this the “challenge response,” and you can develop it through your yoga practice. In fact, studies suggest that yoga may condition the nervous system to bring you into balance whether you need more calm, like Mark, or more fire, like Sue. Add to that yoga’s ability to change your mental perception of stress, and you can transform your entire experience of the dreaded “s” word. Imagine feeling capable of handling whatever life throws at you, without having to panic, overreact, or plan your exit strategy.

Stress Lessons

To begin changing the way you react to stress, you’ll need to understand how it typically affects the body. If your mind interprets a stressful event as an emergency threat, it triggers an immediate response in the autonomic nervous system. Your stress response kicks in and activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Your body is flooded with hormones like cortisol and norepinephrine, which heighten the senses, increase heart rate and blood pressure, and focus the brain’s activity. The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), which is responsible for physical relaxation and emotional calm, becomes overwhelmed by this sympathetic response. With the sympathetic nervous system in charge and the parasympathetic overwhelmed, you are primed to respond with energy and focus, but also with anger, anxiety, and aggression.

Humans developed this primal reaction, known as fight-or-flight, so they could effectively fight off or flee from life-threatening danger. This important survival mechanism is useful when you need to slam on the brakes to prevent a car accident or run away from an attacker. But it’s overkill for most of the conflicts and challenges we face day to day.

While it’s easy to view life’s hassles as a threat to your expectations, sense of control, or ideals, it’s better for your health to temper that perception and instead see each stressor as a challenge you can handle. Even if an emergency exists entirely in your imagination, or if the threat is only to your feelings, it can still trigger the fight-or-flight stress cycle. Over time chronic stress takes a toll on the body and brain, leading to all kinds of health problems, including insomnia, depression, chronic pain, and cardiovascular disease.

Challenge Your Fight-or-Flight Response

The alternative to a knock-down, drag-out, fight-or-flight stress response is the challenge response. The challenge response allows you to meet a stressful moment with exactly what is needed: first, the ability to see a situation clearly, and second, the skills to respond without becoming overwhelmed. If Mark could do this, he wouldn’t suffer from stress-related headaches or insomnia. And if Sue could do this, she wouldn’t feel the need to hide when things get hairy.

When stress strikes and you engage the challenge response, your nervous system will respond differently. To understand how, imagine that the autonomic nervous system is like a faucet. The knob that controls the hot water represents the sympathetic nervous system, and the cold knob represents the parasympathetic. When you go into fight-or-flight mode, it’s as though you crank up the scalding-hot water and turn the cold water down to a mere trickle. If you develop the challenge response, the hot water continues to run as it normally would, and you turn down the cold water just a little bit. In other words, you have just enough heat to face the stressor, but you haven’t completely removed the cooling influence. Once the challenge is successfully met, the parasympathetic nervous system reasserts itself (that is, the cold water increases), bringing you back to your everyday state of balance.

Bradley Appelhans, PhD, an assistant professor at the University of Arizona College of Medicine who studies how the body responds to stress, underscores the importance of the parasympathetic nervous system in guiding the challenge response. “When we aren’t stressed, the PNS acts as a brake on our physiological arousal. In times of challenge, we rely on our PNS to quickly remove the brake, so that we can achieve the state of increased emotional and physiological arousal needed to deal with stress. But we also rely on the PNS to keep that arousal under control, and not let the fight-or-flight response manifest in full force.”

In other words, if you generally handle stress well, your parasympathetic nervous system, not your sympathetic, is in charge of increasing arousal and readying you to face your stressor. That may sound like a trivial detail, but the consequences for the mind and body are significant. It’s like the difference between a dog walker extending the leash of her dog to allow for more freedom and the dog breaking free from the leash and running amok. When the PNS pulls back, allowing for just enough SNS engagement to sufficiently cope with the challenge, you have the ability to act without an exaggerated, unhealthy fight-or-flight response. The mind focuses, but it also stays open enough to see alternative solutions and opportunities.

The Heart of the Challenge

There is a method for measuring how well one’s autonomic nervous system responds to everyday, nonemergency stress. It’s called heart-rate variability, and it reveals whether the SNS or the PNS is in charge of how a person responds to stress.

Scientists have long known that with every inhalation, the nervous system shifts a bit toward sympathetic activation, and the heart beats faster. With every exhalation, it shifts toward parasympathetic -activation, and the heart beats more slowly. People whose heart rate differs widely between inhalation and exhalation are said to have high heart-rate -variability—which is a good thing. It means that the nervous system has the flexibility to go from an engaged or aroused state to a relaxed state quickly, and that the SNS does not have unhealthy control over the body. High heart-rate variability—both at rest and in the face of stress—is considered an indicator of a person’s physical and emotional resilience. Low heart-rate variability is associated with an increased risk of stress-related disorders such as cardiovascular disease and depression.

Mark is a classic example of someone who has low heart-rate variability. He is stuck in a state of chronic sympathetic activation in his everyday life, which reduces the flexibility of his heart rate. When he experiences stress, his SNS goes even further into overdrive, in part because it is unbalanced and unchecked by the PNS. For someone like Mark, building the challenge response will mean retraining his mind and body to let the parasympathetic system be in charge while he’s at rest, and eventually when he responds to stress, too.

Sue is able to relax—but only if she disengages from life’s stressors. She needs to develop the ability to get fired up enough to meet a challenge without feeling completely overwhelmed by it.

A growing body of research on heart-rate variability and yoga provides evidence that the practice can help people like Mark and Sue in their quest for healthier stress responses. One of the first studies was conducted at Newcastle University in England and published in 1997 in the European Journal of Clinical Investigation. Researchers found that six weeks of practicing hatha yoga increased the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system (the calming side) without decreasing the influence of the sympathetic (the arousing side). Researchers took 26 healthy but sedentary adults and randomly split them into two groups. One group was given an aerobic exercise program, the other a yoga regimen that included two 90-minute sessions per week with breathing, poses, and relaxation. In the week following the six-week intervention, the yoga participants were reported to have higher heart-rate variability (and a lower resting heart rate, another indicator of well-being) after the study than before. The aerobics group showed no significant changes.

A second study, done by researchers at the University of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany and published in 2007 in the journal Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, suggests that even a single session of yoga practice can encourage the nervous system to find flexibility and balance. Researchers hooked up 11 healthy yoga practitioners to instruments that recorded their heart-rate variability over 24 hours. During that time, participants did 60 minutes of active Iyengar Yoga poses and 30 minutes of restorative poses. Heart-rate variability increased during the yoga session, and—as in the previous study—this change was driven by the increased influence of the parasympathetic nervous system, not by changes to the sympathetic system.

In other words, after yoga practice, participants weren’t just more relaxed; they were in a state of autonomic balance and flexibility driven by the parasympathetic—which is exactly the type of balance and flexibility that predicts greater resilience to stress. This study provides promising evidence that a yoga practice can prepare you to meet life’s challenges, not just recover from them.

Tapping into Calm

How do we explain why participants in the aerobics group didn’t derive the same benefit as the participants who learned yoga? Better yet, how do we explain the results from the study that was based on a single session of Iyengar Yoga?

Kerstin Khattab, MD, an Iyengar Yoga teacher and one of the researchers in the Schleswig-Holstein study, believes that the key is yoga’s dual demands on body and mind. “Some of the poses in our study, such as Dhanurasana (Bow Pose) or
Sirsasana (Headstand), are likely to cause a strong sympathetic nervous system reaction. But as you learn to hold these poses with a calm mind, focusing on the breath, the poses become a training in how to remain calm in stressful situations.”

In other words, the physical challenge of a pose becomes the equivalent of a stressor. If you do aerobics, which has no direct breathing or mindfulness component, the physical challenge can trigger a full-fledged stress response in the body. But when physical demands are met with mindfulness and steady breathing, as they are in yoga, the nervous system responds differently: It maintains activation while keeping an underlying sense of calm. It remains skillfully engaged but without going into full-fledged fight-or-flight mode.

The great sage and codifier of yoga, Patanjali, must have been aware of the power of asana when he wrote sutra 2:46, Sthira sukham asanam: Postures should embody steadiness and ease. If you can find both elements in the midst of a stressful arm balance, you’re not just training your mind. You’re enabling your autonomic nervous system to imprint that response and therefore allow you to return to it during everyday stress.

At first, you will need to very consciously tap into this response during your yoga practice by focusing on your breathing and thoughts. But with enough conscious practice, the rehearsed challenge response can become an ingrained automatic response—on and off the mat.

Yoga also trains the nervous system to return to balance quickly after a challenge response. By alternating strenuous poses with gentler ones, yoga conditions you to move easily between states of challenge and rest. Letting go of all effort in Savasana (Corpse Pose), for example, seals in this flexibility, because the pose teaches the nervous system to let go once the challenges of your practice have been met.

Leave your Comfort Zone

Just showing up to any yoga class is not enough. If your stress style tends toward fight-or-flight, and you huff and puff your way through Power Yoga classes and leave before Savasana, you probably won’t transform your stress response. Practicing that way just makes yoga another arena where you engage in your usual stress-response style. For people who move through life in full emergency mode, the starting place to learn balance is typically Savasana. This pose teaches you how to put the usually suppressed parasympathetic nervous system in charge and give the hypercharged sympathetic nervous system a rest.

When one of my students, Monica Hanson, first came to yoga, she was a self-described type-A executive in her early 30s. The idea of relaxation was terrifying, and she could not imagine how relaxing could possibly help her handle real-world stress. “I was afraid that if I let go of the tension, I would fall apart,” she says. “Tension was the glue that held me together.”

Her first experience in Savasana was anything but relaxing. Her emergency response fought to stay in control. “I was sweating and shaking. My heart was racing. I wanted to run away,” she says. But underneath the anxiety was a sense of being fully alive and yet calm—something that Hanson had never felt before. This taste of how her mind and body could hold such opposites was the beginning of her stress transformation.

After seven years of consistent yoga practice, Hanson says tension is no longer what holds her together in stressful situations. Instead, she can feel the calm beneath the storm even if she still she gets the urge to fight or run. “Yoga has taught me a whole new way of being. In stressful situations, I have literally heard my teacher’s voice in my head say, “Be present. Breathe into the tension. And I do.”

Stay in your Experience

For someone like Sue, who easily finds bliss in relaxation but avoids stress, developing the ability to stay present in the midst of difficult situations—but without trying to fight against or escape from them—is key. Rather than trying to hide from challenges, Sue has to learn to believe she can handle them. As Amy Weintraub, founder of LifeForce Yoga Healing Institute and the author of Yoga for Depression, puts it, “Sometimes it’s important to not simply remove ourselves from the stressful situation, but to feel it in our bodies. Acknowledge stress. Meet it. We can stay present without being controlled by it.”

For one of my students, Julie Good, a 38-year-old physician and mother of two young girls, the great teacher was Eka Pada Rajakapotasana (One-Legged King Pigeon Pose). When she first started yoga, it was her least favorite pose. “My strategy was to grit my teeth and tolerate it, tense my whole body, and try to hold myself up off the floor.” Although her resistance was an attempt to avoid the intense sensation in her hip, the effect was quite different. “It was agonizing.”

One day, when Good explained why she hated Pigeon Pose, I encouraged her to stop fighting it. Good says, “I had been trying to protect myself by resisting. I thought, ‘If I let go, it’s going to get worse.’ But I let go, and it got better. When I wasn’t resisting, I learned to breathe into the discomfort.” By staying with the pose, she learned that she could choose to stay in a difficult situation and the discomfort would dissipate.

Find Your Fire

To feel empowered to deal with stress head-on, Sue also needs backup from her nervous system. She needs more participation from the sympathetic nervous system; she needs the energy and drive that the arousing side provides. A new pilot study published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine shows that yoga may help facilitate this type of response.

Researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles found that a regular yoga practice decreased the dominance of the parasympathetic system for some people. But there was an important difference in this study: The 17 adult participants were all clinically depressed. The participants practiced Iyengar Yoga three times a week for eight weeks. At the end of the study, 11 participants were in remission from depression. The 6 others did not fully recover.

When researchers compared the participants’ heart-rate variability before and after the eight-week intervention, those who had recovered showed a small increase in sympathetic activation and a decrease in parasympathetic influence. Researchers believe it’s possible that yoga practice helped the participants shift from a withdrawal from life to active engagement. This shift was reflected in—and may have been caused by—the change in the nervous system’s balance.

The point of all of these studies? According to David Shapiro, a professor of psychology at UCLA, “Yoga helps balance the two systems as needed by each individual.” That means that if you go through life in emergency mode, yoga will actually awaken your relaxation system. But if you have a tendency to become paralyzed in the face of challenges, yoga can work to shift your body and mind toward active engagement.

Study Yourself

Keep in mind that no matter how well you condition your nervous system, you also need to change the way you perceive stress. You can start this process by practicing svadhyaya, or self-observation. “There is a connection between how you experience a forward bend and how you react to the world,” says Elissa Cobb, a Phoenix Rising Yoga practitioner and the author of The Forgotten Body. Take Paschimottanasana (Seated Forward Bend), a pose that can produce strong sensations in even the most flexible practitioners.

One common response is to ignore sensations and force yourself forward, fighting against your tight hamstrings. Another is to come out of the pose to avoid the challenge entirely. Both strategies are variations on the same theme: fight-or-flight. In all likelihood, they create tense muscles and rapid or held breathing—not to mention a total lack of joy.

Paying attention to how your body and mind react to the “stress” of Paschimottanasana or any pose offers clues about how you typically react to stress in your life. By training yourself to actively observe while staying calm in poses, you’ll be able to do the same thing when difficult sensations, thoughts, or emotions arise in the face of stress. Instead of going into your habitual reaction mode, you’ll notice what’s happening while staying present enough to choose an appropriate response.

When it comes to transforming your own response to stress, it’s tempting to search for that one pose or breathing exercise that will work its magic. But there isn’t one magic pose. The process is a gradual exploration rather than an easy solution. “If you’re practicing yoga every day, you’re preparing for what life brings. You don’t have to have a strategy for what yoga technique you’ll use in a difficult situation.” According to Weintraub, when challenges arrive, they will begin to flow through you but not overwhelm you. “When life hits, it doesn’t explode or roll over us. We’re not so caught up in the stress of it, but we’re present for it.”

This is the real story of how yoga can help you manage stress. It doesn’t just provide ways to burn through stress or escape from it. It doesn’t only offer stress-reduction techniques for anxious moments. It goes deeper, transforming how the mind and body intuitively respond to stress. Just as the body can learn a new standing posture that eventually becomes ingrained, so the mind can learn new thought patterns, and the nervous system can learn new ways of reacting to stress. The result: When you roll up your mat and walk out the door, you can more skillfully take on whatever life brings.


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氣候難民,「沒有了馴鹿,等於一無所有」


#北極 是對 #氣候變遷 最敏感的地方】
最近,根據北極氣象站的紀錄,科學家發現,北極的11月氣溫竟比往年高出20多度,現在是冬季,北極應該被冰層覆蓋,而氣溫在0度以下,但北俄羅斯、加拿大北部等地,今年都出現超過0度,甚至7度的"高溫"。

居住在西伯利亞北部的涅涅茨原住民族,早就察覺大地封凍的時間一年比一年更晚,涅涅茨放牧人賴以為生的馴鹿,穿著依舊厚重的冬衣,一隻隻倒下。

http://www.greenpeace.org/taiwan/zh/news/stories/climate_energy/climate/2016/climate-justice-Nenet-Anthrax/

氣候難民,「沒有了馴鹿,等於一無所有」

專題報導 – 2016-10-18

全球暖化、氣候變遷,導致惡劣氣候頻頻發生。北極和其他脆弱敏感地區首當其衝,當地居民不得不放棄世代生活的土地,被迫大舉遷移,「氣候難民」因此而生。位在北極圈的涅涅茨遊牧民族正是當下的氣候受害者。

位在北極圈的涅涅茨遊牧民族正是當下的氣候受害者

「你餵了馴鹿,然後離開,突然間卻看見牠倒下、死了。一天之內,屍體就腫脹得像顆快爆炸的球。我們認為是這個氣溫害的,因為牠們還穿著一身厚重的冬衣。我的一個鄰居也損失了50頭馴鹿。」

Alexey Nenyanga是涅涅茨(Nenets)原住民族的一位放牧人,生活在俄羅斯西伯利亞北部的亞馬爾半島(Yamal Peninsula)。這個夏天,因為突然爆發炭疽病疫情,讓他折損了絕大部分的馴鹿。

馴鹿是涅涅茨(Nenets)原住民族的唯一命脈

馴鹿是涅涅茨(Nenets)原住民族的唯一命脈

亞馬爾半島上的涅涅茨原住民族生活在北極圈、西伯利亞北海岸,幾個世紀來,以放牧馴鹿維生,馴鹿是他們食物、衣物、經濟來源,涅涅茨人仰賴馴鹿供給的一切,馴鹿可稱是這個民族一切的文化基礎。夏季來臨,他們將牲畜趕到半島上的苔原吃草,族人則在湖泊溪水裡捕魚;冬季氣溫再度降至零度以下,冰封大地,結凍的溪流湖泊和沼澤,讓這群遊牧民族得以帶著馴鹿,再往南遷移到西伯利亞較溫暖的草原地區。

北極是地球上對於氣候變遷最為敏感的地區。

但是這裡的一切早有了變化。北極是地球上對於氣候變遷最為敏感的地區。當全球均溫上升到0.8度時,在西伯利亞一些地方則上升了5~6度。當然了,涅涅茨原住民族也早已察覺到大地封凍的時間是一年來得比一年更晚,有些地方甚至已不會結凍。馴鹿放牧人得等更久的時間,大地才會再度結凍,他們才能展開遷徙。

這個位處世界邊陲的地方,越來越溫暖的西伯利亞已對原住民族數千年來的生活方式造成威脅。除了淡水湖泊和溪流逐漸乾涸,含有水體的永凍土層也開始融化,接著崩潰坍塌如此一來,無魚可捕的涅涅茨族人也失去最後一項食物來源。

但是,暖化下,意想不到的敵人才要現身。

高溫釋放出炭疽病菌

高溫釋放出炭疽病菌

「人們遭到撤離,狗兒只能讓牠們長眠,帳篷和雪橇以及其他物品得往火堆裡送,燒個精光,任何東西都不能留下。平息這場災難後,他們為我們搭了新的帳篷,我們也希望能有些補償。此刻是獲得了政府的幫助,但是長遠來看,我不知道未來該怎麼走。」

爆發這場悲慘災情後,氣候學家們很快找出原因,判斷是這異常炎熱的夏天導致炭疽病情爆發。過去將近一個世紀以來,這個危險的細菌一直被冰凍封存在永凍土層,如今因為氣溫升高,永凍土層融化,原先處於休眠的炭疽桿菌則因解凍後恣意蔓延,影響當地生物。亞馬爾­涅涅茨自治區政府以往對氣候變遷這個論點存懷疑態度,這次卻出乎意料很快地同意了這項分析。因為這個論點除了是個容易解釋爆發這場疫情的原因之外,也分散了另個可能是造成這場疫情的焦點:2007年,當地政府沒有說明原委便倉促取消為馴鹿施打年度炭疽病疫苗。

氣候變遷和缺乏當地政府施打疫苗的措施,代價就是疫情爆發後,一名12歲男童不幸死亡、近400人必須撤離家園、超過100人送醫治療。但是有超過2,000頭馴鹿的下場卻是死路一條。

「在我們的世界,一個牧人的生活裡如果沒有了馴鹿,他等於一無所有。」

兩年前,亞馬爾半島的遊牧民族因氣候變遷已付過極大代價,這次再度因為極端天氣,損失大量馴鹿。2014年一場大雪後,緊接而來是炎熱的氣溫,然後又突然急速降溫。苔原瞬間覆滿冰雪,馴鹿得奮力踩踏牠們的蹄子,才能挖開結上一層冰的苔原,找到微乎其微的食物。2014年據統計有58,000頭馴鹿因此活活餓死。

這位馴鹿牧牧人也在兩年前苔原結冰,失去了300頭馴鹿。接下來兩年,他將僅剩的100頭動物遷徙到亞羅托湖(Yarroto lake),正是這次爆發炭疽病的疫區中心。悲劇在今年再度向他襲來,此時的他只剩下一頭馴鹿,別無其他的了。

發生在北極的事,不會只停留在北極

氣候變遷帶來的影響,在亞馬爾半島和苔原上的游牧民族們感受最痛苦深刻。生長在永凍土層上的苔原,是馴鹿的主要食物來源,這些原住民也承襲數百年來祖先傳承下來的生活方式。如今他們發現這裡很快將不適合生活,更別說要去適應這片仰賴了數百年、如今卻急速改變的棲息地。

氣候變遷帶來的影響,在亞馬爾半島和苔原上的游牧民族們感受最痛苦深刻

這顆星球的頂端陷入極大危險,如果情況再惡化下去,受威脅的將不僅僅是馴鹿群和涅涅茨原住民。因為發生在北極的事,不會只停留在北極。您我需要阻止全球氣溫升高。也許阻止因氣候變遷導致涅涅茨原住民族失去傳統生活方式為時已晚,但是,如果您我現在不採取行動,氣候難民恐將不再是這些極地等脆弱地區的專有名詞。

守護北極 全球行動

Contemporary stylish apartment for a young couple of architects in Palermo


http://www.caandesign.com/contemporary-stylish-apartment-young-couple-architects-palermo/

Contemporary stylish apartment for a young couple of architects in Palermo

Architects: Studio DiDeA
Location: Palermo, Italy
Year: 2016
Area: 1.109 ft²/ 103 m²
Photo courtesy: Studio DiDeA
Description:

“A157 is Nicola Andò and Emanuela di Gaetano’s apartment, a young couple of architects partners at studio DiDeA.

contemporary-stylish-apartment-young-couple-architects-palermo-01

The house is 103 square meters and it employs interior elements that are able to serve several functions. The architects decided to give more space to the day zone, to share with friends and family.

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Right after the entrance there’s an open plan living, kitchen and dining area.

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The main feature of the kitchen is the black volume designed to host hob and work area; on the wall a storage cabinet designed with the function of optimizing the spaces and creating storage.

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There are many concealed storage cabinets that create space-saving solution inside this apartment and keep the space looking as minimal as possible.

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The living and dining room are flooded with light thanks to the big windows that open on a little balcony. The spaces are essential with few furniture pieces as the lamps Toio by Flos and Tolomeo by Artemide, and the chairs around the table by Vitra.

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The home automation system was studied to help the owners enjoying their home at its best.

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Different types of flooring define different zones : natural wood flooring is used for the living dining room and for the bedrooms creating a strong contrast with the resin used in the kitchen, laundry, bathrooms and closet room.

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The small bedrooms are sparingly furnished, the bathroom doors are concealed in the walls. The master bedroom has a new built-in wardrobe.

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The bathrooms are more than essential- with concrete plaster walls and floor with wooden designed -to- fit elements and red bathroom fittings (sink and radiators).”

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Thank you for reading this article!

 

Stoke the Digestive Fire: A Detoxifying Sequence


http://www.yogajournal.com/slideshow/stoke-digestive-fire-detoxifying-sequence/#1

Stoke the Digestive Fire: A Detoxifying Sequence

With plenty of hip and abdominal work, this sequence by Larissa Hall Carlson, E-RYT, a yoga teacher and dean of the Kripalu School of Ayurveda in Stockbridge, Massachusetts, is meant to stoke the digestive fire. While practicing, keep the breath deep and rhythmic to stimulate circulation. If you want to lengthen your practice, 
Carlson recommends beginning with 
3 to 6 rounds of your favorite variation 
of Sun Salutations.

Return to the 4-Day Ayurvedic Fall Cleanse

  • Reclining Hero Pose, variation

    Reclining Hero Pose, variation

    Supta Virasana

    Place a folded blanket at the top of a bolster. 
Sit between your heels with the bolster behind your tailbone. Lie back on the bolster, resting your head on the blanket. Hold for 1–3 minutes, doing a gentle 3-part breath to promote circulation: Inhale into the lower lungs, then rib cage, then upper chest. Exhale with ease.

    See also Restorative Detox Practice

  • Dolphin Pose

    Dolphin Pose

    This mild inversion helps drain toxins and excess mucus from the lungs and sinuses. Come to all 
fours and then onto your forearms. Interlace your fingers, curl your toes under, lift your knees and hips, and straighten your legs. Hang your head, 
and lift your tailbone to lengthen the spine. Hold 
for 10–20 breaths, pausing at the end of each 
exhalation to mildly increase internal heat.

    See also 4 Steps To Master Dolphin Pose

  • Child’s Pose, variation

    Child’s Pose, variation

    Balasana

    This gentle forward bend with compression 
in the belly helps stimulate digestive fire and releases abdominal constriction. Come to hands and knees. Begin to press back into Balasana, pausing partway to place fists against your belly. Then fold over your thighs. Relax your belly, and fill your body with 10–20 breaths.

    See also Why You Need a Restorative Yoga Practice This Winter

  • Garland Pose

    Garland Pose

    Malasana

    Working with a downward flow of energy (apana vayu), this pose allows the release of toxins and waste and helps relieve constipation. Stand up and then step your feet shoulder-width apart, with toes pointing out. Bend your knees and sink into a squat. Balance between the heels and balls of your feet. Press your palms together at heart level; press elbows against your inner knees. Hold for 10–20 deep, diaphragmatic breaths to loosen the abdomen and relax the low back.

    See also A Better Way to Sit: Garland Pose

  • Cow Face Pose, variation

    Cow Face Pose, variation

    Gomukhasana

    This variation works the hips (the seat of vata dosha), and a twist wrings out digestive organs to help eliminate toxins. Sit down, and stack your right knee atop your left, keeping your sit bones rooted and between your feet. Bring your right hand behind you and place your left arm against your right thigh. Gently twist to the right. Hold for 10–20 breath cycles. Change the cross of your legs; repeat on the other side. Hold for 10–20 breaths.

    See also Kathryn Budig’s Twist + Detox Video

  • Revolved Head-of-the-Knee Pose

    Revolved Head-of-the-Knee Pose

    Parivrtta Janu Sirsasana

    The deeper stretching in this pose gets into the side torso, which opens up the chest and lungs 
to support the release of mucus and congestion. Bend your right knee and place the sole of your right foot on your inner left thigh. Sidebend to the left, reaching your right arm along your right ear. If you can, hold your left foot with both hands. Do both sides, holding for 10–20 breaths on each side.

    See also Challenge Pose: Twist into Revolved Head-to-Knee Pose

  • Half Wind-Relieving Pose

    Half Wind-Relieving Pose

    Ardha Pavanamuktasana

    Loosen up back tension and massage 
the digestive organs (especially the ascending and descending colon) to 
help move out waste (including gas 
and bloating—excess vata). Lie on your back. Extend your legs flat onto the floor. Bring your right leg toward your chest and interlace your fingers behind your right thigh. Relax and lengthen through both heels. Hold for 10–20 breath cycles. Repeat on the other side.

    See also 8 Poses for Better Digestion

  • 
Revolved Abdomen Pose

    
Revolved Abdomen Pose

    Jathara Parivartanasana

    Jathara refers to the stomach, and this pose is all about stoking digestion and wringing out waste. Draw your knees into your chest. Extend arms to 
a T position. Lower legs down to the left. Gaze at the ceiling. Take 10–20 breaths, pausing at the end of each exhalation. Bring knees to center. Repeat pose on the other side.

    See also Ask the Expert: Do Twists Really Wring Out Toxins?

  • Supported Shoulderstand, variation

    Supported Shoulderstand, variation

    Salamba Sarvangasana

    Lie on your back. Lift your hips, and place a block at its medium height under your sacrum. Lift your legs to 90 degrees, and evenly press up through your feet, allowing tension to drain out of the legs. Hold for 10–20 breaths.

    See also How to Prep for (and Master) Shoulderstand Pose

  • Fish Pose, supported variation

    Fish Pose, supported variation

    Matsyasana

    With all the props, this pose grounds and soothes, and also offers gentle heart and chest opening for deep breathing and circulation to help remove toxins. Sit up, and place a bolster under your knees. Lie back 
over a blanket roll placed below your shoulder blades. Drape a folded blanket on your thighs and an eye pillow over your eyes. Hold for 10–20 breaths, 
or longer.

    See also 7 Restorative Poses to Stay Grounded

  • Corpse Pose, 
supported variation

    Corpse Pose, 
supported variation

    Savasana

    Rest is key to proper digestion, 
and here it is. Place a bolster behind you, with a folded blanket on the top end. Lie back with your head on the 
blanket. Rest a second blanket over your thighs (to settle vata). Cover your eyes. Let your elbows and hands rest on the floor. Breathe gently. Hold for 5–20 minutes.

    See also Your Most Restful Savasana Yet

    Larissa Hall Carlson, E-RYT, is the dean of the Kripalu School of Ayurveda. Model Alia Sebben is the founder of Amana Yoga Boulder studio in Colorado.

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Ayurveda 101: 6 Ways to Prevent Colds and Flu


http://www.yogajournal.com/health/ayurveda-101-6-ways-to-prevent-colds-and-flu/

Ayurveda 101: 6 Ways to Prevent Colds and Flu

The key to true mind-body balance? Understanding your body’s natural needs—how to eat, cook, cleanse, and heal—through each season. In our upcoming online course Ayurveda 101, Larissa Carlson, former dean of Kripalu’s School of Ayurveda, and John Douillard, founder of LifeSpa.com and best-selling author, demystify yoga’s elemental sister science. Sign up now—winter session begins Dec. 5th!

Cold and flu season is here, but in addition to eating a balancing, seasonal diet, there are many Ayurvedic practices that can help you stay healthy throughout the winter months, says John Douillard, founder of LifeSpa.com and the co-leader of Yoga Journal’s upcoming online course, Ayurveda 101. The best part? Several of these quick and easy techniques can be done in the shower, so they don’t make a big mess. Here are his 6 best tips for avoiding bugs and feeling your best this winter.

1. Make a turmeric paste.

Turmeric, which is harvested in the fall for the winter, is an immune-boosting spice. Just take equal parts organic turmeric powder and raw honey and mix it into a paste. At the first hint of a cold, take 1 tsp of the paste every two hours until you’re feeling better. To make the formula more potent, mix 16 parts turmeric to 1 part black pepper and make a paste with equal parts ghee and honey, and you’ve got a pretty amazing cold remedy.

2. Take Ashwagandha.

Ashwagandha is an adaptogenic herb that has many studies showing its immune-boosting properties. Adaptogens help people cope with stress, and since holiday stress can be immune-compromising, [taking Ashwagandha] is a good strategy for staving off colds and flu. Take 500 mg of the whole organic root three times a day after meals when under stress or to prevent winter colds and flu, Douillard recommends. (Editor’s note: consult your doctor before taking any supplements.)

3. Give yourself an Ayurvedic self-massage every day.

The skin has millions of sensory neurons on it, so the nervous system is exposed. You can calm and de-stress the nervous system by using your skin as therapeutic access to the nervous system. Self-massage with immunity-boosting oils like sesame oil dampens and calms the nervous system on your skin and allows you to handle stress better, which directly relates to immunity. Plus, the oil helps prevent eczema and rashes, and it’s great for skin health and radiance. Learn how to do abhyanga.

4. Start a neti + nasya routine.

Using a neti pot with a saline or saltwater solution cleans out the sinuses, but the saltwater can leave the skin on the dry side. When the skin gets dry, it reacts by producing mucus, which is a breeding ground for bad bacteria. Doing nasya can help. Nasya is a nasal-lubricating technique that involves sniffing herbalized oils in the nose to moisturize the sinuses and thus prevent dryness and any reactive mucus production. Two to four drops sniffed into each nostril 2–3 times a day during the winter works wonders. I recommend doing both—neti should always be followed by nasya—but if you’re going to do one or the other, nasya is the better choice. Learn how to do nasya.

5. Put oil in your ear.

Putting a few drops of warm oil in your ear at night—sesame oil, mustard seed oil, or ear oil—lubricates the upper Eustachian tube and the cervical lymph nodes in the neck. Your lymphatic system carries your immune system. If the cervical lymph nodes get dry, you get swollen glands, which means the immune system is stuck in traffic. You want to keep the nodes lubricated so the glands are more effective at getting rid of any bad bacteria that might accumulate.

6. Start oil pulling or swishing.

Your mouth is your first line of defense against a cold. Oil pulling or swishing with herbalized oils takes away bad bacteria and boosts good immune-boosting bacteria in your mouth. Learn more about oil pulling.

Eager to learn more? Register now for Ayurveda 101 with Kripalu’s Larissa Hall Carlson and John Douillard.

CYBER MONDAY SALE: Save up to 50% on online education from your favorite teachers. Click here for discounts.


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Early Warnings Signs Your Body’s Magnesium Levels Are Dangerously Low And What To Do!


http://runhealthylifestyle.com/2016/10/19/early-warnings-signs-bodys-magnesium-levels-dangerously-low/?utm_campaign=FanPage&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com

Early Warnings Signs Your Body’s Magnesium Levels Are Dangerously Low And What To Do!

Magnesium deficiency is a common problem for many people. The body usually contains about 1-2 ounces of magnesium in the bones, teeth, heart, brain and even in the blood. Every cell of the body requires this mineral in order to work properly – magnesium is responsible for more than 300 metabolic processes! As you can see, it’s a mineral vital for your health, but according to the USDA, nearly half the population is suffering from magnesium deficiency.

The fast modern lifestyle forces the body to use the supplies of nutrients to deal with stress, Thus, we simply use this mineral more than we have it or consume it through foods. The recommended daily dose of magnesium is 500-1000 mg.

Early Warnings Signs Your Body’s Magnesium Levels Are Dangerously Low And What To Do!

The common warning signs of magnesium deficiency are the following: heart disease, irritability, facial twitches, insomnia, osteoporosis, blood clots, unstable blood sugar levels, chronic fatigue, migraines, leg cramps, anxiety, and depression.

You should also know that the proper magnesium intake improves the oxygen level in the brain and that is why it can help people who suffer from Alzheimer’s. It is also linked with Parkinson’s tremors as some studies have shown that people with this disease have lower level of magnesium in the brain. Magnesium deficiency is also linked with some chronic diseases like metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

Magnesium for Your Body and Mind

If you want to increase the daily magnesium intake, you need to consume foods rich in magnesium like whole grains, fish, leafy green vegetables (spinach and kale), legumes, dark chocolate, nuts, avocados and different kinds of seeds like: flax, millet, sunflower, chia and pumpkin. You should also get some quality magnesium supplements, which contains magnesium cofactors: Glycinate, Taurinate, Orotate and Malate, because they are more easily absorbed than other forms.

Here’s what they can do for you.

  • Magnesium Glycinate for Mind

– Treats depression, numbness, and crying;
– Treats long-term deficiencies;
– Treats hysteria, insomnia, anxiety, irritability, concentration;
– Enhances mental clarity and relaxes the mind;
– Reduces laxative effects and avoids diarrhea;

  • Magnesium Malate is crucial for muscle health

– It alleviates muscle fatigue;
– Improves digestion;
– Provides energy;
– Treats fibromyalgia;

  • Magnesium Taurinate for the heart

– Supports proper heart function;
– Prevents migraines;
– Subdues heart palpitations and arrhythmia;

  • Magnesium Orotate for the body

– Improves performance in athletes;
– Boosts DNA formation and repairs the heart;

Your magnesium supplement should also contain vitamin B6, which determines how much magnesium will be absorbed into the cells.

The best magnesium supplement

Mag-Key is the best magnesium supplement you can buy. It has all of the cofactors plus vitamin B6. The combination of all these ingredients has a broad focus on your body, mind, muscles and heart. It is a complete magnesium supplement that is also safe for diabetics.

 

【日本想想】動畫《ユーリ!!! on ICE》正夯 腐女、花滑迷攜手燃燒小宇宙|想想論壇


29日凌晨,當我打開twitter時,被「勇利」的生日祝福訊息所淹沒,點開趨勢排行,關鍵字包含「勝生勇利生誕祭2016」的twitter高達7萬5千多則,高居首位。那麼話說回來,勇利是誰?
【日本想想】動畫《ユーリ!!! on ICE》正夯 腐女、花滑迷攜手燃燒小宇宙|想想論壇
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/5879

【日本想想】動畫《ユーリ!!! on ICE》正夯 腐女、花滑迷攜手燃燒小宇宙

人氣指數: 104
友善列印版本

29日凌晨,當我打開twitter時,被「勇利」的生日祝福訊息所淹沒,點開趨勢排行,關鍵字包含「勝生勇利生誕祭2016」的twitter高達7萬5千多則,高居首位。那麼話說回來,勇利是誰?他並不存在於現實中,他是動畫《ユーリ!!! on ICE》(Yuri!!! on ICE)的主角。

(主題曲由從台灣紅回日本的歌手兼演員藤岡靛作詞、作曲、演唱)

《ユーリ!!! on ICE》是朝日電視台從今年10月5日開始播放的秋季原創動畫,內容描述日本花式滑冰選手、23歲的勝生勇利,雖然擁有才華與實力,卻抗壓性低,在正式上場時總拿不出好成績,他在國際滑冰總會花式滑冰大獎賽中慘遭滑鐵盧,意志消沈的他辭退了教練,回到老家九州,思索引退的可能性。

有一天,勇利在同樣喜歡花滑的青梅竹馬面前,模仿了世界選手權五連霸、被稱為「俄羅斯王者」的選手維克托的經典曲目,練習影片卻被傳上網路,網路無弗屆,就這樣傳飄洋過海被維克托看見,深受觸動,現役的維克托決定停賽一年,跑到日本擔任勇利的教練,並且誇下海口要讓勇利奪得下一屆大獎賽冠軍。於是勇利滑冰生涯的最後長征,就此展開。

《ユーリ!!! on ICE》播出時間為星期三深夜2點,加上原創動畫不像改編動畫,沒有原作的粉絲群來當收視觀眾的基本盤,種種不利條件下,卻依舊引起話題,人氣超旺,不僅動畫角色的慶生訊息可以破7萬,每週星期四上午也一定會在twitter上掀起一陣討論熱潮(顯見熬夜看動畫的人真不少),佔趨勢排行高位,動畫雜誌《PASH!》12月號用《ユーリ!!! on ICE》當封面,不到一個禮拜就售罄。那麼,到底這部動畫的魅力何在呢?

將近29日凌晨1時,twitter為勝生勇利慶生的祝福文已超過70000則

首先,最引起話題性的,其實是角色間的互動,讓腐女們的內心激動不已。勇利從小就非常憧憬大自己6歲,便在國際冰場上光芒萬丈的維克托,而維克托憑著影片裡勇利的身影,便放下現役選手身份,要將勇利這塊璞玉拓亮,彼此的信任與情誼,看在腐女眼裡全都是愛情,對表演樂曲的詮釋,全成了擦邊球的告白,搭配花滑選手優美的身體曲線,成為一齣優雅、華麗且不失熱血與激情的浪漫篇章。

但即使拋開腐女視角,《ユーリ!!! on ICE》依舊是一部精彩迷人的故事,劇情的主旨,其實是在探討「自信」。勇利具備著一定的實力,卻總在國際賽場上失常,他溫和敦厚好相處,但作為一名比賽選手,他確實少了點唯我獨尊的氣勢,但隨著維克托的提點與支持,一點一滴地成長,透過一次又一次的演繹,減少摔倒的次數、更加了解自己,並且坦然地接受與感謝周遭人的應援,學會去「相信自己」,王道般的成長故事。

取自運動題材,且以現實為背景,花式滑冰的賽制,亦沒有馬虎。在劇中,勇利因為前一年輸得一蹋糊塗,得先從地方大賽開始比起,接下來要在分站賽中取勝,才能前進大獎賽,過關斬將的過程都未省略,觀眾彷彿就像跟著勇利一同征戰,伴隨著主題曲「Yuri on ice」,勇利雖詮釋著同一首表演曲子,卻因為心境的轉變與純熟,在動作與表情上都展現出細膩精微的轉變,這些全都能在動畫中看見,就連比賽的實況轉播也很正統。而最為人津津樂道的,還在於劇中所有選手的舞蹈動作、音樂到服裝,都是委託專業人員設計,就算搬到現實,也完全沒有問題。

動畫人物的服裝設計原稿,從布料到亮片,都有實品做參考。(圖片來源為 http://www.chacott-jp.com/j/topics/detail3801

動作由曾幫淺田真央、高橋大輔、安藤美姫編舞的前花滑選手宮本賢二所設計,而裡面所有選手的表演曲目,則由音樂家梅林太郎、松司馬拓譜曲,服裝當然也不是亂畫,有專門製作花滑選手比賽服經驗的服裝設計公司Chacott擔綱,布料是否足夠彈性到適合動作延展、配色的協調、選手的個性,都有考量到現實面,角色們身材比例也是參考現役選手的體型。而劇中,各國選手透過Instagram來了解對方現況,也很符合實情。

花式滑冰對日本來說,像是冬季的盛宴,羽生結弦、淺田真央這些家喻戶曉的花滑明星不只是「日本之光」更是「國民兒子/女兒」般的存在,帶來的不只有美,還包含了看著一起成長的記憶與情感,以及說不完的感動故事,對握有重要花滑賽事轉播權的朝日電視台而言,簡直就是一部完美的宣傳手法——勾起花滑迷對動畫的興趣(如何詮釋呈現)、激起動畫迷對花滑賽事的關心(企圖深入了解),結果就是大家都滿意的三贏局面。

至少看完動畫,我終於懂後外點冰跳和後內點冰跳是怎麼回事,以及羽生結弦完成後外四周跳,是多麼厲害的一項挑戰。現實生活中on ICE的不是勇利,但那些on ICE的選手們,以及他們沒說出口的苦心與掙扎,藉由虛構出來的勇利作出詮釋,這份感動,很實在。

 

Dance is for everybody.


Dance is for everybody. 

I believe that the dance came from the people and that it should always be delivered back to the people. 

– Alvin Ailey

20161201-d-006-photography-taylor-ferne-morris-photography-with-alice-topp-the-australian-ballet

Only until tomorrow to vote for you favorite picture for the contest !! :)


**Plus que demain pour voter pour votre photo favorite pour le concours !! 🙂

**Only until tomorrow to vote for you favorite picture for the contest !! 🙂 

20161201-d-007-photography-damian-tierney-photographer-with-glendene-rout

The B House by Eran Binderman & Rama Dotan


http://www.caandesign.com/b-house-eran-binderman-rama-dotan/

The B House by Eran Binderman & Rama Dotan

Architects: Eran Binderman, Rama Dota
Location: Israel
Year: 2015
Photo courtesy: Oded Smadar
Description:

Every venture is a voyage. This adventure really began on a trek into the obscure…

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On our initially meeting the customers shared their get-away experience abroad (far east), and asked us, on the off chance that we could some way or another etch this into the climate they would get in their home. Notwithstanding that, the accentuation on “the home” (folks and four youngsters) with the importance of protection for everybody in the house, was a rehashing idea of the discussion.

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The following visit nearby, understood the capability of the area. The primary road on one side and the person on foot park on the other, proposed the area of the capacities. A calm person on foot pathway in the middle of, was unmistakably going to serve as the principle passageway.

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The procedure of finding the diverse capacities on the part while keeping focused barely recognizable difference between security versus openness, formal versus opportunity, was the fundamental test of the configuration. The beginning stage of the procedure was the reference to the whole parcel as one single element; as such – The part is the house-open or shut.

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The development between the diverse spaces makes their limits and the involvement in them. The patio nursery appreciates the same treatment of configuration as the insides accordingly making an equalization of significance in the middle of inside and outside.

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The front Street veneer is repressed and unassuming contrasted with the back which is presented to the whole stop and is assimilated into the forested areas. The component that associates the different parts of the house (Public back wing, front wing – kids, the upper level of the folks and storm cellar) is nature and light. The Use in configuration of these components changes starting with one place then onto the next.

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In the passage the water and vegetation makes a desert spring and draws the guest into it. In the inside porch, the scene and sifted light are utilized as a sculptural component utilized for disengagement and delay. In the front of the house, nature is utilized to obscure topographic levels and for making security, while at the back greenery enclosure profundity and a feeling of flexibility with no end.

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Because of the moderately wide scope of materials, we put incredible accentuation on congruity with redundant generation and changing measurements of fixings to make a meaning of the diverse sorts of spaces. This thought was likewise utilized as a part of various sorts of stone and wood, which together shape an agreeable palette of hues and atmosphere.

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Much thought has gone into the determination of an extensive variety of materials, not normally normal for our work. For instance, the rooftop made of slate, stone pool in a tropical green, brushed sandstone veneers, consolidated with vertical metal strips, and diverse sizes of stone ground surface contrasting as indicated by the spaces. We likewise utilized distinctive sorts of metals, for example, metal, darkened iron, tin and dull aluminum.

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Regardless of its size and custom, the house delivers a grasping warmth to its inhabitants and guests. The procedure of the”unknown” finished in awesome achievement, reacting to the definite needs of the clients.

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Thank you for reading this article!

 

Back to Basics: Upward-Facing Dog Breakdown


http://www.yogajournal.com/slideshow/back-basics-upward-facing-dog-breakdown/#0

Back to Basics: Upward-Facing Dog Breakdown

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Even if you could sail through Surya Namaskar in your sleep, we invite you to join us in revisiting the keystones of asana. Unlearn what you know, break your bad habits, and see if you can’t makeover your entire flow by re-focusing on a few foundational poses. Try an advanced approach to basic asana with SmartFLOW teacher trainer Tiffany Russo. Get #backtobasics with us all month on Facebook and Instagram.

Backbends—love them or leave them? Many people feel strongly one way or the other. Maybe that’s why Urdhva Mukha Svanasana is a pose that many yogis tend to breeze right through in a vinyasaclass—often with very little instruction or attention. The less mindful we are of what is happening in the moment, though, the more room we make for opportunities to injure ourselves. In Urdhva Mukha Svanasana, the most vulnerable body parts are the low back and the wrists. But by practicing this posture with more awareness and attention to your approach, you can actually find more space, length, and integrity in the body. That lends itself to increasing the longevity of your practice—and the enjoyment you get out of every single vinyasa.

When it comes to backbends, however, often less really is more and better. Listen to your body. If moving into a bigger backbend, like Upward-Facing Dog, is too much too soon, then warm up the shoulders and upper back in Baby Cobra first. In Baby Cobra, you can work most of these same actions to prepare yourself for a safer Up Dog. Feel ready for a bigger backbend? Let’s break it down.

5 Steps to Your Most Mindful Urdhva Mukha Svanasana

  • 1. Aim to extend more than backbend.

    1. Aim to extend more than backbend.

    Go for length in the lower back, lumbar spine, and a bend in the upper back, thoracic spine, by engaging your abs, as you move into the backbend. This helps create space in the part of the low back that has the most mobility and helps prevent any feeling of compression or pain there.

    See also Back to Basics: Advance Your Standing Forward Bend

  • 2. Remember your roots.

    2. Remember your roots.

    Often when we move into Urdhva Mukha Svanasana, we exaggerate the opening across the chest by externally rotating the upper arm bones, which leads to a lifting of the inner hands. Instead, anchor down into the first finger knuckle, keeping the forearms rooted like stable pillars to lift the chest out of. Push the floor away to lift the spine up through the crown of the head. At the same time, isometrically pull your hands towards your feet.

    See also Do This, Not That: Upward-Facing Dog (Urdhva Mukha Svanasana)

  • 3. Fine-tune the backbend.

    3. Fine-tune the backbend.

    Create a wide backbend (think cobra hood), by driving the bottom tips of the shoulder blades in toward the chest. Rather than squeezing the inner border of the shoulder blades together, which only opens up the collar bones, press the bottom-most tips of the shoulder blades in toward the front of the chest as you lengthen the back ribs up toward the base of the skull. This action creates a balanced opening of both the front and back body as you extend the thoracic spine with space and ease.

    See also Watch + Learn: Upward-Facing Dog Pose

  • 4. Don’t forget about your legs.

    4. Don’t forget about your legs.

    The strong use of your legs drives a healthy backbend. The more you reach the chest through the gateway of the arms, the more the legs will lift and the more you need to reach them back against the pull forward. Ground the tops of your feet strongly into the floor and roll your inner thighs upward, as you firm your outer ankles in and lift your frontal hip points up toward your navel. Lifting the uppermost part of the thighs, deep in the hip socket, creates space for the sacrum to slide away from the lumbar spine to prevent potential low-back compression.

    See also Foot Position in Upward-Facing Dog

  • 5. Do an alignment self-check.

    5. Do an alignment self-check.

    Once you’re in the pose, check your own alignment. Where are your shoulders lining up? When we move from Chaturanga to Urdhva Mukha Svanasana and straighten the arms, the shoulders should stack directly above the wrists. If your shoulders move more forward in the transition and line up above your fingertips, emphasize the reach back through your legs to realign them.

    See also Chaturanga Dandasana: Master the Vinyasa Transition Pose

  • ABOUT TIFFANY RUSSO

    ABOUT TIFFANY RUSSO

    Tiffany Russo is an L.A.-based SmartFLOW yoga teacher and trainer, who has
    assisted Annie Carpenter with teacher trainings since 2010. You can find her teaching schedule at tiffanyrussoyoga.com.

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Spot Brillar 2016 (60”)


Loft Apartment in Chisinau by Grosu Art Studio


http://www.caandesign.com/loft-apartment-in-chisinau-by-grosu-art-studio/

Loft Apartment in Chisinau by Grosu Art Studio

Location: Chisinau, Moldova
Year: 2011
Area: 210 sqm
Photo courtesy: Grosu Art Studio
Description:

Loft in Chişinău If there is one concept in contemporary design that never seems to go out of date, it has to be the white box loft, “the new black” in interior decorations, mainly thanks to the freedom it leaves for building a unique, original image, one where each element projected unto generous white surfaces can become artistic instead of merely functional or decorative. Situated on the topmost level of a new apartment building, with a view unto one of Chişinău’s lakes, the loft decorated by the team at Grosuartstudio covers a surface of 210sqm and is structured around a central open space (living room, dining room and kitchen).

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This space initially served as an attic; the architects kept the metal beams in the roof in plain sight, as well as most of the pipe installation, which lends an industrial air to the apartment. The central space destined for the day area and delineated by a U-shaped furniture enclosing, with the kitchen to one side, partially separated from the dining room for breakfast, faces a glass wall that offers an ample view unto the lake. The interior decoration was intended as a point of contrast: the white walls, ceilings, metal structure and furniture are counterbalanced by the warm olive wood color of the floor and the black accents (the pillows on the living room sofa, the seats on the bar chairs in the kitchen, the wall supporting the kitchen counter).

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The vibrantly colored paintings (portraits done in brash colors) and the decorative objects, carefully chosen and exhibited on the white shelves in the living room create the feel of an art gallery. Seen as such, the architectural concept establishes clear correspondences: white for the background, color for the accents. Starting from this simple scheme, for the most part, the structure of the furniture pieces (the dining room table and chairs, the sofa, the kitchen furniture), even the carpets and the audio system speakers become the backdrop for what is perceived as the noisier elements: the floor, the paintings, a few decorative objects, an armchair.

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The lighting system contributes a great deal to the overall image; the unidirectional spotlights with a hi-tech look, hanging down from the base of the triangular beams of the roof – the Samurai floor lamp next to the sofa in the living room and the Ameba hanging over the dining room table, both by Vibia – all of these elements complete the artistic display of the interior. The height of the sloping ceiling, starting at 4.5m, modifies the proportions of the space; in order to establish a harmonious full-hollow ratio for the interior, the architects chose a door height of 2.7m (excepting the entrance door). In the three bedrooms, the texture of the olive wood and the white of the walls, the ceiling and the furniture are a faithful reiteration of the scheme in the day area. Here, however, the main element in the composition is the bed, formally and chromatically contrasting the rest of the room.

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The round bed, placed near a generous window, with two likewise round night-stands, or the irregularly shaped, organic headboard reminiscent of the shape of the dining room lamp, fully clad in blue textile material, all of these elements are complemented by simple, minimalist furniture pieces in rectangular shapes. The bathrooms are carefully studied geometrical compositions in which black ceramic tiles with 3D patterns (Porcelanosa) are combined with the white of the other sanitary elements (Flaminia) and the marble floor in ratios that are entirely different from the rest of the spaces. The glossy black finishes completely alters the atmosphere in the bathrooms, lending them a subtle touch of glamour.

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Thank you for reading this article!

 

世界級人才爭奪戰─日本怎麼做,台灣又能參考些什麼|想想論壇


日本法務省在今年6月擬定的成長戰略中,明示「將創設全世界最快速的日本版高度外國人才綠卡」。預計在年底前與在野黨協商並達成共識,具體調整相關的法制與規則。甚至符合此資格的外國人,可望從明年開始,一年內就獲得永住資格。本文簡介相關辦法和沿革,並以筆者親自申辦的經驗,提供台灣的先進參考。
世界級人才爭奪戰─日本怎麼做,台灣又能參考些什麼|想想論壇
http://www.thinkingtaiwan.com/content/5878

世界級人才爭奪戰─日本怎麼做,台灣又能參考些什麼

人氣指數: 377
友善列印版本

日本法務省在今年6月擬定的成長戰略中,明示「將創設全世界最快速的日本版高度外國人才綠卡」。預計在年底前與在野黨協商並達成共識,具體調整相關的法制與規則。甚至符合此資格的外國人,可望從明年開始,一年內就獲得永住資格。本文簡介相關辦法和沿革,並以筆者親自申辦的經驗,提供台灣的先進參考。

來源:日本法務省入國管理局網頁

其實早在2012年5月,日本政府就導入了「高度外國人才點數制優遇制度」,透過點數計算,符合資格的外籍工作者將可以獲得「高度專門職」的工作簽證(日文:在留資格)。高度專門職有三種活動分類:「高度學術研究活動」、「高度專門・技術活動」、「高度經營・管理活動」。在這種特殊簽證頒布以前,如果要取得日本的永住資格,必須在日本待滿10年。但對於「高度專門職」簽證的持有者,依照現有辦法,五年內即可申請永住資格,甚至今年更下修到三年就可以取得,大幅縮短取得永住資格所需的時間。

其他此資格的相關優遇措施如下:

1.     複合在留活動:一般外國人只能從事單種經許可之工作,但對於「高度專門職」資格而言,可以從事複合的工作。比如在大學從事研究活動,同時也經營企業運營等。

2.     一次給予五年的簽證,這是日本法定永住以外最長的在留期間,當然期滿也可再行更新。相較於其他簽證,常常一次只給三年、甚至一年,變成年年都要跑入國管理局更新簽證,不但不方便,甚至可能被拒絕更新,造成職涯、生活上的問題。

3.     配偶即使沒有滿足一般簽證(如教育、技術、人文知識・國際業務等)的條件,也可以申請工作簽證。

4.     本人或配偶有小孩或懷孕的情況,給予雙親(自身、配偶雙親、養父母)簽證。

5.     家計收入達千萬日圓以上者,可以攜帶自己的家事使用人(外傭)。

6.     入國、在留手續將優先受理。

來源:日本法務省入國管理局網頁

筆者最初申請的是「人文知識・國際業務」資格,但近期因日本政府大力推廣,加以身邊外籍同事也紛紛換了「高度專門職」資格,所以筆者也嘗試申請變更自己在留資格。變更的程序很簡便,申請人只需要填妥兩份文件。一份是資格變更申請表,包括填妥自己的基本資料、希望變更的資格和學經歷等,然後由所屬機關(一般而言即公司)填寫公司的資本金、營收、公司業務、申請人職務內容、報酬等相關資訊。

另外一份是「高度專門職」專用的點數評分表,申請人必須自己填寫試算,滿足70點以上即符合資格。以筆者申請的「高度專門・技術活動」為例,包括:

1.     學歷(博士30點、碩士20點、學士10點,MBA另加五點)

2.     職務相關經歷(10年以上20點、七年以上15點、五年以上10點、三年以上五點)

3.     年收(400萬日圓以上10點、500萬日圓以上15點,以此類推,每100萬日圓加五點,一直到1000萬或以上日圓為40點;惟30歲以上年收門檻為500萬、35歲以上門檻600萬、40歲以上門檻800萬,未達門檻者此項不計點)

4.     年齡(30歲以下15點,34歲以下10點,39歲以下五點)

5.     研究實績(專利、外國政府之補助金等)

6.     資格(國家資格或IT試驗資格等)

7.     特別加算(如擁有日本學歷、日本語能力試驗一級以上、接受創新創出支援措施之公司等) (註一)

資格審核量化成點數制,好處是很方便計算。任何申請人都可以在申請前下載表格並自我試算,避免白跑一趟。當然提出時必須檢附相關證明文件,如年收,並不是過去的收入,而是未來的預期收入。為此筆者也特別請公司開立證明,試算包含月薪和獎金的年收入預估值。

筆者在東京品川的入國管理局提出申請表的同時,當場臨櫃人員就確認了文件。之後填寫一張明信片,當入國管理局準備完成後,即寄送明信片到申請人家。憑明信片、申請憑條、護照、在留卡等,外加4,000日元的手續費,即可領回更新的在留卡。同時在留期間也會更新,如筆者最新的在留期限將至2021年。整個流程以筆者經驗而言,不到一周就可以完成。

根據日本官方統計,截至今年6月底,非短期滯在(如非觀光)的外國人口有230萬餘,其中持有「高度專門職」資格的,卻僅僅2,688人。高度專門職資格持有最多的國家是中國,有1,756人;其次是美國和印度,分別都是144人。台灣人在日本的非短期滯在有五萬餘人,保有此資格的卻只有71人。雖然現階段數量仍不算多,但畢竟此類型簽證的門檻高,而且在日本政府陸續端出利多的同時,也可望吸引更多高度專門人才前來日本工作、居住。

當然在留資格只是其中一項政策,日本政府早就持續進行相關的整備,包括針對外國人投資創業的行政手續簡便化、外國人的家事代行(外籍幫傭)解禁、2020年以內要整備100所可以對應外國人的醫院、減免外國人的遺產稅等,各種各樣的政策利多持續出台。

對於單一民族的島國日本,突然要伸開雙臂歡迎外國人來定居,對日本人是很大一步的挑戰;但是日本政府為了贏得這場國際人才爭奪戰,吸引更多的專門人才到日本工作、居住,勇敢邁出這一步,就是希望能進一步提振日本的經濟、保持日本在各種先端技術(IT、再生醫療等)的領先地位。

同樣身為島國的台灣,在引進外籍人才的爭奪戰中,是不是可以參考日本的做法,提供外籍專業人才更便捷的簽證申請手續與簽證種類,並且整備相關的環境。如政府推行的南向政策,是不是也可以借用東南亞各國專業人才的力量,打造台灣下一波的經濟成長,或許這也是台灣可以思考的方向。

註一:相關規定和試算表,可參考http://www.immi-moj.go.jp/newimmiact_3/(link is external)

 

Yoga for Inner Peace: A Stress-Relieving Sequence + Daily Practice Challenge


http://www.yogajournal.com/slideshow/yoga-for-inner-peace-stress-relief-daily-practice-challenge/

Yoga for Inner Peace: A Stress-Relieving Sequence + Daily Practice Challenge

Enrollment extended! Register now for Colleen Saidman Yee’s Yoga for Inner Peace online course and save $25 using the code INNERPEACE25. Plus, you’ll automatically be entered to win a class pass to attend Colleen’s in-person event at YJ LIVE! Colorado Saturday, September 24th. Hurry! Course enrollment ends September 5th.

In Yoga Journal’s upcoming online course, Yoga for Inner Peace, Colleen Saidman Yee—acclaimed yoga teacher, fashion model, and the wife of yogi Rodney Yee—offers 3 yogic practices a week for 12 weeks to transform your body, mind, and heart. Here, she demonstrates 8 poses that help relieve stress, plus a daily practice challenge in honor of National Yoga Month.

Last week I crumbled in the shower after I dropped the razor and broke off the handle. I could barely breathe as I sat down in the shower with my head in my hands. I didn’t even have enough energy to cry. What the heck? I had endured a lot in my life and a broken razor was taking me down? It had been a stressful week of deadlines that weren’t met, disappointing people that I felt were counting on me, family bad news, a broken phone, and I felt like I couldn’t even spare a couple of hours off for date night with my husband. I was running as fast as I could but was coming up short on every realm. My fuse was spent and the trigger just happened to be the razor. Can any of you relate?

Stress demands all of our energy. When our batteries are so depleted, we can’t deal, and anything can push us over the edge. It’s like being stuck in semi-panic mode, where there is very little exhale, and the neck, head, and shoulders are likely to be tense. Yoga gives us tools to cope. When inner peace is nowhere to be found, it’s time to tune into the body. One technique is to notice where stress or panic lands in the body, and take our mind and breath there. Eventually, we want to get into a forward bend, which increase the exhalation, leading to the relaxation response. Forward bends are also restorative and move the needle of our battery back to the black. The following forward bend sequence can help address the symptoms of stress.

Daily Practice Challenge for National Yoga Month

In honor of National Yoga Month, we’re offering 7 variations of this sequence to emphasize the importance of a daily practice—and show how easy it is to vary your routine with simple tweaks. Plus, a daily yoga practice is one of the best ways to beat stress! Join Colleen for Week 1 of our Daily Practice Challenge.

8 Yoga Poses for Stress Relief

YOU WILL NEED 2 blocks

  • 1. Easy Pose (Sukhasana) with Forward Bend

    1. Easy Pose (Sukhasana) with Forward Bend

    Adding a forward bend increases the exhale, leading to the relaxation response.

    Sit in Easy Pose, shins crossed with your right shin in front. Come into a slight forward bend. Stay for 5 breaths, then put the other shin in front. Put your hands on the floor, then straighten both legs into a Standing Forward Bend.

  • 2. Standing Forward Bend (Uttanasana) with Shoulder Opener

    2. Standing Forward Bend (Uttanasana) with Shoulder Opener

    Not only do forward bends increase the exhalation, helping to relieve stress, they also turn us inward. Plus, with the arms behind the back, we release shoulder tension. This pose also helps to release the hamstrings, which can get bound up when you’re stuck in fight-or-flight mode.

    When in Standing Forward Bend, use your front thigh muscles to actively pull your kneecaps up toward your hips. With your fingers interlaced and your arms behind your back, lift your arms any amount away from your back. Hold for 5 breaths, then change the interlace by putting the other index finger on top and stay for another 5 breaths. Take your hands to your hips, and your thumbs to the top of your behind. Drop the flesh of your buttocks to the floor to propel you up to stand. Take a giant step out to the right.

  • 3. Wide-Legged Standing Forward Bend (Prasarita Padottanasana)

    3. Wide-Legged Standing Forward Bend (Prasarita Padottanasana)

    This pose has the benefits of a forward bend with the comfort of the head touching a prop, which also releases some of the pressure in the head.

    Turn your feet parallel to each other and place your hands on your hips. Inhale, lift your chest, and with an exhale, bend forward from your hip joints to come into a forward bend. Place your hands on the floor, shoulder-distance apart, fingers in line with your toes. Release your head toward the floor. If your head doesn’t reach the floor, you can place it on a block. Hold the pose for 10 breaths. Inhale, come to a flat back, take your hands to your hips, and drop the flesh of your buttocks to come to stand. Heel-toe your feet together and step to the front of your mat to transition into Child’s Pose. Take your knees to the floor, sit on your heels, and fold forward with your head on the floor.

  • 4. Rabbit Pose (Sasangasana)

    4. Rabbit Pose (Sasangasana)

    I find this to be one of the best poses when I’m stressed, exhausted, and bordering on panic. It is safe. It almost feels like what the body wants to do. You get the relaxation of the exhale and comfort of being curled up in a ball. When you add the hands interlaced behind your back and lifting and lowering your hips, you also get a shoulder release and the nurturing quality of rocking.

    From Child’s Pose, interlace your fingers behind your back, lift your hips, and roll to the crown of your head. Keep pressing the tops of your feet down, so that you can control the amount of weight on your head. Take your hands any amount away from your back. Lower down, change the interlace, lift your hips, and roll to the crown of head again. Lift and lower 3 times on each side, changing the interlace each time. Create a rhythm with the breath and movement.

  • 5. Thunderbolt Pose (Vajrasana) with Eagle (Garudasana) arms

    5. Thunderbolt Pose (Vajrasana) with Eagle (Garudasana) arms

    This is an easy way to sit, and we add a shoulder release with Eagle arms. This pose also creates a broad back, which is the opposite of what happens when we are stuck in stress mode. Usually, we push and squeeze the back to propel us forward.

    Kneel and sit back on your heels. For Eagle arms, bend your elbows and bring the right elbow into the left, with the backs of your hands facing each other. Then pass your right hand in front of your left and bring the palms together, thumbs pointing toward the tips of your nose (grab your wrist if you can’t press your palms together). Hold for 5 breaths, then reverse your arms and hold for 5 breaths.

  • 6. Side stretch

    6. Side stretch

    This stretch will release the neck, head, and shoulders.

    Take one hand to floor, walk it away from the body, and drop your head to your ear, with your other arm over your head. Repeat on the other side.

  • 7. Plow Pose (Halasana)

    7. Plow Pose (Halasana)

    Plow releases the neck, head, shoulders, and hamstrings. It also increases the exhale and turns one inward.

    Lie down with your head on the mat. Swing your legs back and over your head and rest your toes on the floor. Stay for 10 breaths. Slowly roll out of Plow, keeping your head back so it doesn’t whiplash forward when the legs and torso touch down.

  • 8. Corpse Pose (Savasana) with blocks on head

    8. Corpse Pose (Savasana) with blocks on head

    This variation of Savasana uses blocks on the head: one to steady, and one that is resting on the forehead to calm the mind.

    Lie down on your back with your legs straight, heels slightly apart. Wiggle around until you’re comfortable, then take your arms alongside your torso with your palms facing up. If you’ve never done this before, you must try the blocks on your head to understand the depth of solace and relaxation that they bring. The gentle touch of the block that scrubs the skin of your forehead toward the nose calms the nervous system in the same way that a touch from someone you love can make you melt. It also reduces the pressure in the head that builds up when we are stressed. Place one block on the ground about 3 inches above the crown of your head (the block should be at its highest height). Place the second block on the one that is above your head and angle it down to rest on your forehead. Stay in the pose for 5–10 minutes.

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The Luxury Casa Hannah by Bo Design


http://www.caandesign.com/the-luxury-casa-hannah-by-bo-design/

The Luxury Casa Hannah by Bo Design

Location: Seminyak, Bali, Indonesia
Photo courtesy: Bo Design
Description:

Casa Hannah is ideally situated right at the heart of Seminyak, the trendiest district in Bali. Located 30/45 minutes away from the airport, this ultra-modern, incredibly bright villa is also just a few minutes from the beach and the sea.

Casa-Hannah-01

As soon as you cross the threshold, you will be enchanted by this place, on the “island of the gods”. A private, cool oasis, divided lengthwise by an immaculate white architectural design.

Casa-Hannah-02

An immense, elegant infinity pool an all-encompassing atmosphere: On one side, a beautiful dining room, and on the other side, a huge living room, featuring a bar, couches, armchairs and an office/television: comfort and minimalist elegance abound in every detail.and, opposite, an immense equipped kitchen with all modern conveniences (including cold room and more) for your culinary pleasure.

Casa-Hannah-03

Beyond the pool, is a sculptured staircase leading you to the various bedrooms upstairs a master bedroom, with a large bathroom (with bath and shower) 100 m2 (1,076 sq ft) and terrace. On the other side, two bedrooms, decorated with different themes, featuring shower and bathroom and a large terrace (sundeck), all built with the highest-quality materials. A private, separate guest bungalow with a master bedroom and bathroom with a bathtub and a second bedroom, perhaps for a child, with a large separate shower.

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The entire staff is at your disposal, to ensure that you have an unforgettable experience. If, in addition to going to trendy shops and restaurants, you would like to exercise and work out, Casa Hannah is an exclusive member of the Canggu Club, offering you a full range of services. Tennis courts (indoor and outdoor), squash courts and gym. Air-conditioned, featuring a whole range of gym equipment,together with a variety of classes (Pilates – yoga – salsa – tango and more), plus activities for the kids including child-minding service and small pool a restaurant and pool facing the rice paddy so quiet and peaceful.

Casa-Hannah-05Casa-Hannah-06Casa-Hannah-07Casa-Hannah-08Casa-Hannah-09Casa-Hannah-10Casa-Hannah-11Casa-Hannah-12Casa-Hannah-13Casa-Hannah-14Casa-Hannah-15Casa-Hannah-16Casa-Hannah-17Casa-Hannah-18Casa-Hannah-19Casa-Hannah-20Casa-Hannah-21

Thank you for reading this article!

 

#YJ40: 10 Poses That Stand the Test of Time


http://www.yogajournal.com/slideshow/10-yoga-poses-do-every-day/

#YJ40: 10 Poses That Stand the Test of Time

As YJ turned 40, we asked Kathryn Budig to give it to us straight: 10 poses we should all be practicing on the regular—regardless of level and whichever shiny, new goal pose we’ve had tunnel vision on.

Home practice is hard. It’s only human to go through phases where you get distracted by the shiny, next, new challenge pose in your practice—or on the opposite end of the spectrum simply get stuck on your favorite feel-good sequence. And while you definitely don’t want to lose sight of goals or the sweet sensations that keep you coming back to your mat, it’s a good idea to take a critical eye to your practice now and then and look for the areas where you could strive for greater balance.

That’s what yoga is all about after all, and practitioners of every level can benefit from going back to basics regularly to reexamine the actions and alignment of foundational standing poses, backbends, forward bends, and inversions. So in honor of YJ’s 40th anniversary, I’ve compiled a list of poses that really stand the test of time—that is, 10 asanas every single yogi should be practicing on the regular. Here’s my top 10 list along with focus tips for beginner, intermediate, and advanced practitioners.

READ MORE 10 Things Beginners Must Know About Yoga

Top 10 Poses to Practice Every Day

  • 1. Garland Pose

    1. Garland Pose

    Malasana

    This beautiful squat is one of my all-time favorite poses. Malasana releases the lower back, opens the hips, and turns the practitioner into a cute little nugget. Explore variations and tips on how to make this pose easier or how to go deeper.

    Beginner

    It’s common for beginners to struggle with dropping their heels to the ground. Make sure to spin your heels in and toes out, as well as to widen your stance. If it irritates your knees to drop into a full squat, sit on one or more blocks.

    Intermediate

    Step up the hip-opening element of this pose by incorporating your arms. Lean forward to wiggle your upper arms to the inside of your legs. Draw your palms together in front of your heart and push your heart into your thumbs. This will naturally encourage external rotation and give you that extra ahhhh moment.

    Advanced

    Full Malasana is traditionally performed with the feet together, knees wide, and the torso in a forward fold with either the arms extending or wrapped behind the heels. You typically see this pose done with feet wider than the hips (which is still my personal favorite to release my back and hips after a long day).

    READ MORE How Yogis Do Squat: Malasana

  • 2. Four-Limbed Staff Pose

    2. Four-Limbed Staff Pose

    Chaturanga Dandasana

    Chaturanga is one of the most common postures in Vinyasa yoga—but also one of the most abused. Students tend to rush this pose, cheating its alignment, which with repetition can lead to injury. Check out my pointers below to revisit this foundational posture and begin treating it as its own pose instead of a transition.

    Beginner

    Many people don’t have the strength and/or body awareness to perform this posture with good alignment. I recommend most students learn this pose with their knees down. Focus on drawing the lower belly up to prevent dumping in the lower back. Keep your elbows in tight to your ribcage and stacked above your wrists.

    Intermediate

    Have the eye of the tiger! Gaze forward the entire time to prevent rounding in the upper back (we always want to look down here, look forward!) Draw the shoulder heads back and focus on extending your heart as you lower so the elbows stay over the wrists instead of falling behind the heels of your hands.

    Advanced

    Use full breath! People love to fly through this pose. Take a full inhale in Plank and a full exhale to come into Chaturanga. Don’t transition out of it until your exhale is complete. This takes control, awareness, and prevents you from making silly mistakes and moving too quickly.

    READ MORE The Step-by-Step Yogapedia Guide to Chaturanga Dandasana

  • 3. Extended Triangle Pose

    3. Extended Triangle Pose

    Utthita Trikonasana

    Trikonasana. Such a classic standing pose! We live in a world where standing poses are often ignored, but this one is part of my regular practice come rain or shine. It is a glorious way to release your lower back, strengthen your core, and expand your body (and mind).

    Beginner

    Students tend to collapse their lower body trying to get their hand or palm to the ground. Skip that step and place your palm either on a block outside of your shin or on your shin below your knee. This enables you to even out through both sides of your ribcage creating even length in the trunk of your body.

    Intermediate

    It’s so easy to get sassy in this pose! Most people stick out their butts (pitch in their lower backs) and puff their ribs. Focus on corseting your ribcage in (wrapping the bones towards your midline) and keeping your lower belly engaged and lifted to create space in your lower back.

    Advanced

    The final step is taking both of these tips and looking down. You want to line your torso up with your front leg (most students lean toward the inside). Can you keep both sides of your waist even, ribs in, belly engaged and lower back long as you lean back? Of course, you can! Practice, practice, practice.

    READ MORE Master an Essential Pose: Extended Triangle

  • 4. Crescent Pose, aka High Lunge

    4. Crescent Pose, aka High Lunge

    I can’t imagine a yoga practice without this perfect standing pose. Crescent Lunge my go-to for opening my hips and psoas, encouraging space in my chest, and feeling powerful on my feet.

    Beginner

    You’ll see newer students struggling for balance in this pose. Easy fix. Look down. Odds are your feet are too narrow. Make sure your front and back foot are hip-width apart. This will widen the stance and allow you to balance.

    Intermediate

    There’s a tendency to lean forward in this pose which is often caused by pitching in your lower back or tightness in the psoas connected to your back leg. Bend your back knee as much as you need to for mobility in your pelvis. Draw the front crest of your pelvis up to neutral (like a bowl full of kombucha that you don’t want to spill) and gently draw your back leg toward straight. It may not fully straighten, but this is a stronger posture.

    Advanced

    Try adding the element of a backbend/dropback in your upper body. Follow the rules you’ve read so far and then reach your arms overhead interlacing all the fingers except for your thumb and index. Keep the base of the neck relaxed as you lift your heart up and curl your upper chest. Draw an imaginary line along the ceiling going up and back. Keep the base of your building strong, aka don’t pitch your pelvis.

    READ MORE High Lunge, Crescent Variation

  • 5. Revolved Chair Pose

    5. Revolved Chair Pose

    Parivrtta Utkatasana

    I know Chair isn’t the most popular pose in the world, but this is why it’s on the list. It’s a great foundational pose to teach us how to twist safely. If you can learn the mechanics of a twist here, you’ll be safer in more advanced postures.

    Beginner

    Look at your knees! You want to keep your lower back even, and the best clue comes from your knees. You want them to stay even, so if you have one popping out, draw it back in! This will neutralize your lower back and keep you safe.

    Intermediate

    Draw your palms into Anjali Mudra and press them into each other. Press so much that your torso revolves and your heart lifts up to meet your thumbs. That’s a juicy twist!

    Advanced

    Reach your bottom hand down to the outside of your foot and extend the top arm back up. Combine the work of keeping your knees/hips level and using your outer arm to push into your leg to get the beautiful turn in your chest.

    READ MORE 5 Steps to Master Revolved Chair Pose

  • 6. Tripod Headstand

    6. Tripod Headstand

    Sirsasana II

    Inversions are a magical group of postures that reverses our perspective and give us a strong dose of empowerment. Tripod Headstand is one of the easier inversions to balance because of the large foundation. It’s also fantastic to understand if you want to move into advanced transitions such as lowering into arm balances.

    Beginner

    Place the crown of your head on the ground with your hands shoulder-width apart and elbows stacking over the heels of your hands. Curl your toes under and straighten your legs to enter a Dolphin Pose. Focus on keeping the elbows in (engage your adductors) and draw your shoulders up away from the ground to prevent collapsing into your neck. Try walking your feet in without loosing these actions.

    Intermediate

    Keep the same actions as above, but as you gain flexibility, walk your feet in enough so you can place one knee at a time onto the back of your arms (aim closer to the armpits if possible). Again, keep the elbows in and shoulders up to prevent collapsing your arms from the weight of your legs.

    Advanced

    From the knee position draw them up off of your arms and into your chest like a cannon ball. Continue to draw the legs up until they straighten out keeping the legs hugging into the midline the entire time. You can also enter this posture from Dolphin walking your feet in, keeping the legs straight, and entering from a press.

    READ MORE Kathryn Budig Challenge Pose: Sirsasana II (Tripod Headstand)

  • 7. Supported Bridge Pose

    7. Supported Bridge Pose

    Salamba Setu Bandha Sarvangasana

    This is my happy place. Funny enough, traditional Bridge Pose makes me crazy. Add a block under the lower back and voilà—I could stay there for hours with a smile on my face. This is a great modification for Shouderstand and a relaxing way to release the front body and release the spine.

    Beginner

    Start with a block on the low–medium level underneath your lower back.

    Intermediate

    Place the block the tall and narrow way underneath your lower back (you might need to press up onto tippy toes to fit the block in). Interlace your fingers in front of the block and hug your shoulders in.

    Advanced

    Following the steps above, if you can get a firm grip with your hands and keep the arms hugging in, extend one leg at a time to into a modified Shoulderstand.

    READ MORE A Beginner-Friendly Inversion: Shouldstand

  • 8. Camel Pose

    8. Camel Pose

    Ustrasana

    Camel is a love-hate pose for many people. The key is to trigger all of the proper alignment in the body to keep the lower back supported and the neck happy. The beauty lies in the fact that there are so many variations. So here we go!

    Beginner

    Stand on your shins with your knees and feet hip-width apart. Wrap your hands around your hips encouraging your tailbone to drop down while your lower belly lifts up to neutralize your pelvis. Keep your hands on your hips and lift your heart up powerfully as you roll your shoulder heads back. Hold here with hands on the hips for about 8 breaths.

    Intermediate

    Begin the same way as above but curl your toes under. Neutralize your pelvis then draw your hands to your ribcage encouraging them to lift and expand. Roll the shoulders back and keep the arms neutral as you drop your hands down to grab your heels. Keep hips stacking over the knees and the chest lifting.

    Advanced

    Keep all the previous actions but this time with the feet flat. After you adjust your ribs, keep the powerful lift of your chest and let your head fall back. Grab your heels and soften your face and throat.

    SEE ALSO Counteract Tech Hunch: Camel Pose

  • 9. Head-to-Knee Forward Bend

    9. Head-to-Knee Forward Bend

    Janu Sirsasana

    This one may seem random, but I have affection for it going all the way back to my Ashtangadays. This fabulous forward fold releases the calf and hamstring of the straight leg with the added benefit of opening the hip of the bent-knee leg. It also teaches the student to notice the effects of small nuances, such as squaring the chest with the straight-leg knee.

    Beginner

    Sit up on a blanket or block. Place a strap over the ball of your straight-leg foot. Hold onto each side of the strap and focus on sitting tall without rounding your spine. Gently pull back on the strap so you feel it pull into your foot encouraging it to stay flexed.

    Intermediate

    To start, inhale and extend your spine long. As you exhale, pivot your belly button to face your straight-leg knee. Keep the twist and length as you grab either edge of your straight-leg foot.

    Advanced

    Follow the steps above, but as your flexibility increases, clasp your outer wrist with your inner hand thumb and middle finger around the ball of your foot. Inhale as you clasp, and keeping your gaze forward, exhale and bend your elbows wide to draw you deeper into the fold.

    READ MORE 4 Steps to Master Head-to-Knee Pose

  • 10. Legs-Up-The-Wall Pose

    10. Legs-Up-The-Wall Pose

    Viparita Karani

    This is such a glorious pose and great for all levels of students! Leg-Up-the-Wall is the best way to relax after a long day or practice on your feet. It drains the legs and is also a fantastic posture if you struggle with insomnia.

    Beginner

    Place a folded blanket or bolster lengthwise along the wall. Sit on it sideways with one hip touching the wall. As you lie down, swivel around and sweep your legs up the wall, keeping your lower back elevated.

    Intermediate

    Lose the blanket or bolster, and just practice Legs-Up-the-Wall with your hips flush against the baseboard.

    Advanced

    Make a lasso out of a strap and tighten it around the balls of both of your feet. Bring your legs up the wall and wrap the strap around your shins twice. Take the tail end of the strap and thread it through the loop around your feet and two loops around your shins to tighten everything together. Let your legs fully relax.

    READ MORE 10 Poses Younger Than Yoga Journal

  • About Kathryn Budig

    About Kathryn Budig

    Kathryn Budig is the yoga teacher behind AIM TRUE, a regular writer for Yoga Journal, and a presenter at Yoga Journal LIVE! Catch up with her @ kathrynbudig.com and on:

    Twitter: @kathrynbudig
    Instagram: @kathrynbudig
    Facebook: @kathrynbudigyoga

  • Love Yoga Journal? Get rich asana content — master classes, in-depth anatomy instruction, pose and alignment cues, and interviews with all of your favorite teachers — right here in our brand new YJ Library. Study up and enrich your practice with timeless yoga articles.

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【豆豆不簡單】一「豆」一世界 窺見原鄉豆文化


http://e-info.org.tw/node/201523?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=ee0cb45f7d-%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B120161122&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-ee0cb45f7d-84956681

【豆豆不簡單】一「豆」一世界 窺見原鄉豆文化

 建立於 2016/11/30

作者:林志忠

魯凱族自稱為「Ngudradrekai(山上的人)」,他們將樹豆及其它豆類維持多樣性種植,間作在小米田間,成為千年以來的慣例。對於花生,他們稱之為「maka-pyrang」(意即「來自平地」),則採取小規模、專一化種植,顯然是受到外來文化影響。無論是傳統,或者融合外來豆類的種植應用,廣泛發生在台灣各民族部落之間,逐漸形成部落的物質文化。

來自平地的花生,也為部落帶來新的種植方式。圖片來源:Simon D。CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

豆類語言

語言是了解一個民族物質文化的重要工具,豆類的民族語彙,更是探索古老豆種源起以及利用的密碼之一。儘管相對於小米系統,豆類語言顯得零散,但各民族發展顯示的多樣性,仍值得關注。台灣豆科植物,包括食用豆類及原生豆類,達448種以上。經原住民族命名的豆科母語,目前,泰雅族有38種植物語彙,布農族32種,賽夏族15種,阿美族41種,排灣族37種,魯凱族32種,及達悟族26種。

除了對豆類進行命名之外,原住民也將豆類及非食用豆科植物之名,應用於其它用途。以賽夏族為例,於該族群之新竹北群中,原名為「tautauwazai」的家族,於清朝及日治時期被迫改以漢文書寫,於是便以字首tau音譯為「豆」,而成為豆姓家族,而「tautau」指的是「落花生。而賽夏族朱姓家族,其家姓原為「titjun」,乃是源自豆科植物雞母珠「tibtibun」轉譯而來。賽夏族人命名,多從自然界事物取材,其中以豆為姓,則是目前百家姓中獨一無二的姓氏。

雞母珠。圖片來源:king.f。CC BY-NC 2.0

此外,對於土地的命名,原住民族多從特殊地形、地理、物產、及傳說歷史等多項特徵,進行傳統領域的命名。以豆為部落土地進行命名者眾多,其中較廣為人知的,當以花蓮馬太鞍部落「vataan」,阿美族語意指樹豆「vataan」盛產之地。屏東牡丹鄉牡丹村,「sinuvautjan」,排灣族語意指葛藤。 而五峰鄉公所所在地,泰雅族稱為「tatoba」,顧名思義,很多魚藤生長的地方。苗栗今日之龍騰斷橋一帶,舊稱「魚藤坪」,肇始於早期當地傳說中,鯉魚精為害,故先民種植大量魚藤毒殺之。

豆類傳說

儘管上述各族的豆類語彙呈現豐富多樣性,但台灣豆類傳說並不多見。其中,當以排灣族Vutsul系統[1]中對於豆類的故事,最具神話特色。據說,一對kauzauzangiljan家的兄妹來到世間,看到padain(瑪家鄉境內)的saljavan神所造的天地如此美好,因此,兄妹就將小米及紅藜做成花環戴在頭上;將puk(樹豆)放在鼻孔裡;kavatiyang(小綠豆仁)放在耳朵;kuva(黃帝豆仁)放在哥哥腋下;viljugu放在肛門裡;qarizang(長豆仁)放在妹妹兩腿之間。這個傳說,除了突顯豆類與人體的關係之外,也說明了樹豆與小米等作物,來自古老神授之說。[2]

另外,賽德克族人稱樹豆為「susungut」,這是他們對傳說中小黑人的稱呼。據說,因為小黑人常爬到樹豆之上,故名。另有一說,是因其體型矮小如樹豆之意。無論為何者,小黑人與樹豆,融合成為泰雅族豆故事。

相傳18世紀,在阿里山特富野部落,鄒族亦有一個與鵲豆(鄒語:fo’na)相關的悲慘故事。這些年,無意間遭到誤解,發展成為阿里山「生命豆祭」觀光活動。但事實上,鄒族部落長者並不認同「生命豆祭」即meefo’na故事之說法。[3]

豆類好吃:樹豆

迭經不同時期的移民及引種,原住民鄉栽培食用豆類約21種,經常可見的種類如鵲豆、豇豆、米豆、刀豆、萊豆、菜豆及樹豆等。除了食用豆類外,原鄉對於台灣原生豆科植物的食用,目前僅見於賽德克族群,利用假菜豆(Pueraria phaseoloides)及台灣山黑扁豆(Dumasia villosa  ssp. bicolor )食用嫩果莢的報導。

風災後的樹豆。圖片來源:林志宗

從田野資料來看,樹豆應該是台灣最古老的民族食用豆選項。由於栽培時間長久,各族已衍生出屬於自己的獨立語彙,甚至栽培品系。樹豆語彙包括賽夏族語「senget」、泰雅族語「sunguc」、布農族語「halinan」、鄒族語「ecngi」、卑南族語「wuma’e」、魯凱族語「karidrange」、排灣族語「puk」、拉阿魯哇「’arisangʉ」、卡那卡那富語「aricang」,及阿美族語「vataan」等,顯示樹豆在台灣山地旱作農業及生活必須的重要作物。這個起源於非洲的樹豆,於史前時期,傳抵印度後,成為西印度地區的重要豆類食物。

之後,隨著原住民族先民輾轉遷移,與小米等古老作物,從亞洲大陸被攜帶來到台灣,成為原鄉豆類史祖之一。由於耐旱、採收期長、多年生及高營養價值等特性,久之遂成為原住民口耳相傳的威爾鋼食材。其意,強調過去糧食營養不足條件下,樹豆對於蛋白質的補充。由於過去台灣原鄉居民所需蛋白質,倚賴狩獵及漁撈所獲,因此樹豆之料理方式,也多與獸肉、排骨及生熬煮食用,成為薯芋及小米齊驅的豆類飲食。

豆類好用:魚藤

除了食用豆之外,對於原生豆科植物的應用,包括毒魚、藥用及纖維功能,其中又以毒魚最為廣泛。原住民族利用植物毒素,進行集體捕魚或個人捕魚,包括了木荷、揚波、巴豆黃杞、灰背葉紫珠及豆科中的六種植物進行毒魚捕撈。豆科中的毒魚植物包括老荊藤C. reticulata)、蘭嶼魚藤D. oblonga)、疏花魚藤(D. laxiflora)、三葉魚藤(D. trifolia)、小葉魚藤M. pulchra var. microphylla)、台灣魚藤(M. pachycarpa)及山豆根(Euchresta formosana)七種。

這類毒魚植物因含有魚藤酮(rotenone)、魚藤素(deguelin)、及苦參鹼(matrine)等多種活性成份,作用於中樞神經時,能抑制呼吸,成為毒魚的關鍵因素。但是,恆春排灣族對疏花魚藤,卻有吸食莖部汁液,又名水藤之說法;另外,台東魯凱族對於老荊藤之莖部汁液,也有解渴一說,這兩例,是較為奇特的現象。有關植物毒魚方法,各族各有名稱,魯凱族稱之為warhapulhu,排灣族語lepuli,及阿美族語misadim等,是一種具有部落規範的生業活動。七種毒魚豆科植物,除蘭嶼魚藤屬狹隘分佈種類,僅限於達悟族使用。其它廣泛分佈型之魚藤類植物,各民族多有其稱謂及利用方式:排灣語lapul、魯凱語rhapulhu、泰雅語tuba及賽夏語tatoba’等。

鑑於魚藤有效的殺蟲效果,日據時期,日人大力提倡魚藤事業,應用於病蟲害防治。到了1943年時,栽種面積達1880公頃,是台灣魚藤事業全盛時期。除了進行本土魚藤試種外,日人先後從印尼、沖繩及新加坡等地,引進7個魚藤品種,進行改良,發展出直性及蔓性等近83個魚藤品系。當年栽培魚藤之經濟效益,較栽培甘蔗及水稻利益優厚,成為台灣原鄉豆科植物,從傳統文化層面轉向農業利用的一大創新產業。

原住民傳統食用豆類及原生豆科植物利用,長期以來,在增產前題下,往往淪為被改良對象,失去諸多豆種及利用知識。未來應加強民族語彙解譯,及田間保種技能,免於絕滅之危。


【註】

  1. 排灣族區分為Raval與Vutsul兩個系統。
    ※參考資料:臺灣原住民數位博物館
  2. 目前,對於神話中kavatiyang、kuva、viljugu、qarizang的四種傳說豆類,田間報導人雖指出為何,但依照但依據這些豆類引入台灣的時間,與排灣族創世傳說顯然仍有差距,未來仍有再確認之必要。
    ※參考資料:臺灣原住民族知識與文化數位典藏 
  3. 節錄中正e報報導:阿里山鄉達邦村前任村長莊新生表示最初的生命豆祭並不是鄒族人們以前一同創辦的祭典,而是早期特富野社梁家頭目創造的儀式,因為族內規定勇士出門打獵時內心要完全禁絕女色,梁家頭目就想出了一個利用女性測試勇士們是否真能心無女色的方法,那就是生命豆祭,也是當時全鄒族女性最痛恨的儀式。最後,因為嚴重羞辱到一位女性,女性憤而自殺,生命豆祭廢除。
    ※參考資料:中正e報

※ 本文與 行政院農業委員會 林務局  合作刊登

 

公投過關 加州即起禁一次性塑膠購物袋


http://e-info.org.tw/node/201495?utm_source=%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B1&utm_campaign=ee0cb45f7d-%E7%92%B0%E5%A2%83%E8%B3%87%E8%A8%8A%E9%9B%BB%E5%AD%90%E5%A0%B120161122&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_f99f939cdc-ee0cb45f7d-84956681

公投過關 加州即起禁一次性塑膠購物袋

 建立於 2016/11/30

本報2016年11月30日綜合外電報導,姜唯編譯;蔡麗伶審校

除了舉世矚目的美國大選,11月8日還有另一件大事。當天,加州選民以52%比48%表態支持第67號公投提案,即一次性塑膠購物袋禁令。

該法律本來應該自2015年1月1日開始生效,但是受到Hilex Poly和台塑集團(Formosa Plastics)等塑膠袋製造業者反對,被迫延後執行,以「是否維持該法律?」放入11月大選公投做最後決議。

新法即刻生效。量販店、超商、藥妝店、超市和酒類零售店將不得再免費提供一次性購物塑膠袋給顧客。消費者若忘記自備塑膠袋,必須花10美分(約新台幣3元)購買回收紙袋或可再利用的購物袋。

到加州賣場消費,今起必須自備購物袋。圖片僅供示意。圖片來源:Phil Hollenback(CC BY-NC 2.0)

塑膠製造業者出招拖延 如今黔驢技窮

塑膠袋業界盡其所能保護其產品,甚至要求威斯康辛和印第安那等州議員通過禁止相關禁令的法律。另一方面,禁令確定延後執行後,台塑集團等製造業者便不再進行任何宣傳遊說,顯示這只是拖延戰術,目的是爭取時間銷售更多塑膠袋。

環團和零售業者為提倡禁用一次性塑膠袋募資了160萬美元,塑膠袋產業界則花了610萬美元反制。禁用一次性塑膠袋倡議活動提醒大眾,塑膠袋最終會進入河川、湖泊、海洋和其他水域,破壞生態。

塑膠袋產業聯盟的B計畫是第65號提案,提案內容是將購物袋收入捐給環境基金,期望能對支持禁令的零售業者造成傷害,但是此提案最後因55%反對而沒有過關。

法案通過前,部分加州超市仍免費提供購物塑膠袋。圖片來源:Day Donaldson(CC BY 2.0)

150城鎮大選前就禁用 其餘一律遵照新法

根據第67號提案的內容,零售業者必須將購物袋的銷售所得用於實施禁令的相關費用。

一次性塑膠購物袋禁令將改變大部分沙加緬度地區居民的生活。只有少數城鎮在大選之前就已經禁用塑膠袋。

全加州約150個城鎮,包括舊金山、洛杉磯、聖西等,也在大選前就禁用塑膠袋。新的州法令允許2015年1月1日前就採行禁令的各市政府保有各自的管理條例,其餘一律遵照新法。

參考資料

 

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